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2002 Brazilian general election

2002 Brazilian general election

← 1998 6 October 2002 (first round)

27 October 2002 (second round)
2006 →
Presidential election
  Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva.jpg Serra02032007-2.jpg
Candidate Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva José Serra
Party PT PSDB
Alliance Lula President Great Alliance
Home state São Paulo [a] São Paulo
Running mate José Alencar Rita Camata
States carried 25 + DF 1
Popular vote 52,793,364 33,370,739
Percentage 61.27% 38.73%

2002 Brazilian presidential election map (Round 2).svg
Presidential election results map after the second round of voting: Red denotes states won by Lula, and Blue denotes those won by Serra.

President before election

Fernando Henrique Cardoso

PSDB

Elected President

Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva

PT

The 2002 Brazilian presidential election was held in 2002 with two rounds of balloting in conjunction with elections to the National Congress and state governorships. The election was held in the midst of an economic crisis that began in the second term of President Fernando Henrique Cardoso of the centre-right Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB). Due to constitution term limits, Cardoso was ineligible to run for a third consecutive term.

Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva of the Workers' Party (PT), a former labor leader and federal deputy for São Paulo, ran for president for a fourth time. Lula had previous lost 1989, 1994, and 1998 presidential elections, being defeated by Cardoso in the latter two. Lula somewhat moderated his political approach in the 2002 presidential campaign, writing a document now known as the Letter to the Brazilian People to ease fears that he would transition Brazil into a full-fledged socialist economy.[1] Staying true to this turn to the center, Lula chose José Alencar, a millionaire textile businessman and Senator from Minas Gerais associated with the centre-right Liberal Party (PL), as his running mate.[2]

Following a tense intra-party battle toverwho would run to succeed Cardoso on the PSDB ticket, former Minister of Health José Serra was ultimately chosen to lead the party in 2002.[3] Rita Camata, a federal deputy for Espírito Santo and member of the centrist Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), was chosen as his running mate. In the beginning of the election cycle, Governor of Maranhão Roseana Sarney (PFL) looked to be the most viable centre-right candidate.[4] However, a corruption scandal forced Sarney out of the race, allowing the PSDB to remain the paramount centre-right force in the 2002 cycle.[5]

The election took place in the aftermath of an economic crisis that hit Brazil during Cardoso's second term.[6] Lula's pivot to the centre worked, picking up the support of key centrist and centre-right politicians such as former President José Sarney in the process.[7] In the first round, Lula would lead Serra by a wide margin, only failing to prevent a runoff because of votes that went to other left-wing candidates. In the second round, Lula would defeat Serra by a landslide, winning every state except for Alagoas.[8] In 2003, Lula took office as President of Brazil, becoming the first leftist elected to the office following the fall of the military dictatorship.

Background [ edit ]

During the second term of the Fernando Henrique Cardoso administration, a serious economic crisis began in Brazil as an impact of the 1997 Asian financial crisis.[9] Commencing shortly after the 1998 elections, when Cardoso was re-elected, as a currency crisis, it resulted in a decrease in growth and employment rates and a rise in public debt.

In an environment of distrust and uncertainty for investment, many investors feared the measures that were going to be taken if a left-wing candidate won the election. As a matter of fact, when Workers' Party candidate Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (Lula) would rise in the polls, the so-called "Brazil risk" index, which measures the confidence of investors in the country, would also rise.

The media called this the "Lula risk", indicating that if Lula was to win the election, the economy would fail. Lula was then forced to sign a text that became known as Carta aos Brasileiros (Letter to the Brazilian people), promising that if he won the election, he would not change the economic policy of Brazil. Many in the left-wing saw this as a shift to the center from Lula and his Workers' Party, which openly defended a transition to socialist economy in the 1989 presidential election.

Brazilian Social Democratic Party (PSDB) presidential candidate selection [ edit ]

PresidentFernando Henrique Cardoso of the PSDB, who was first elected in 1994 and subsequently re-elected in 1998, was ineligible to run for a third consecutive term in 2002.

With incumbent President Fernando Henrique Cardoso ineligible to run for a third consecutive term due to term limits, the dominant centre-right PSDB was forced to find a new candidate for the 2002 election. Given that Cardoso was elected with the help of a broad centre-right coalition, there existed fear among PSDB officials that another candidate would be unable to maintain his coalition.[10]

José Serra, the former Minister of Health, served as the PSDB's presidential candidate in 2002.

José Serra, who had served as Minister of Health under Cardoso, was eventually chosen as the party's nominee. Outgoing President Cardoso was initially favorable to the prospect of Governor of Ceará Tasso Jereissati serving as the PSDB's presidential nominee in 2002.[11] According to a report by The Economist, Jereissati enjoyed broader support among the PSDB's coalition partners than Serra, whose performance on the campaign trail was considered lackluster.[12] Additionally, some PSDB insiders and political scientists feared that Serra would perform poorly in the northeast, and believed that Jereissati would do better in the region owing to being from Ceará.[13]

In addition to Serra and Jereissati, who were the subject of most speculation, other potential PSDB candidates were speculated on, including members of the Cardoso administration. Economist and education official Paulo Renato Souza, who served as Cardoso's Minister of Education, was occasionally mentioned as a potential PSDB candidate, though he declined to run.[14] Pedro Malan, an economist who served as Minister of Finance under Cardoso, was also the subject of some 2002 speculation, though he similarly chose not to contest the election for the PSDB.[15]

Both Governor of São Paulo Geraldo Alckmin[16] and President of the Chamber of Deputies Aécio Neves[17] were also the subject of some media speculation, though neither entered the race; Alckmin would later represent the PSDB in the 2006 and 2018 presidential elections, while Neves would be the party's presidential candidate in 2014.

Workers' Party (PT) presidential candidate selection [ edit ]

2002 Workers' Party (PT) presidential candidate preliminary election
PT (Brazil) logo.svg
March 17, 2002
  Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva.jpg Eduardo Suplicy (16656286514) (cropped2).jpg
Candidate Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva Eduardo Suplicy
Home state São Paulo São Paulo
Popular vote 136,492 [18] 25,199[19]
Percentage 84.4% 15.6%

Previous Workers' Party (PT) presidential nominee

Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva

Workers' Party (PT) presidential nominee

Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva

Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, known as Lula, was a fixture of the Brazilian Left going into the 2002 election. Well-known for his role in the 1980 steelworkers' strike, the former labor leader and federal deputy for São Paulo served as the PT's presidential candidate in 1989, 1994, and 1998.

Former Governor of the Federal DistrictCristovam Buarque, considered a possible centrist challenger to Lula for the PT nomination.

Nevertheless, Lula faced some opposition within his own party, who felt that he shouldn't lead the party after losing the past three presidential elections. Senator Eduardo Suplicy of São Paulo contested the nomination for as the candidacy of the PT.[20][21][22] Suplicy was well-known for being an early supporter of a universal basic income,[23][24] and party leadership encouraged his participation in the party's preliminary election to mobilize and unite the party's base.[25] Suplicy would lose to Lula with just over 15% of the preliminary vote.[26] During the campaign, Suplicy accused party leadership of favoring Lula, publicly demanding that pro-Lula party president José Dirceu be impartial in the election.[27]

Former Governor of the Federal District Cristovam Buarque was named as a possible centrist challenger to Lula in the PT preliminary election.[28][29] Buarque, who had supported Democratic Labour Party (PDT) candidate Leonel Brizola rather than Lula in the 1989 presidential election,[30] was known for his independence from party leadership. A member of the party's moderate wing, he was an early supporter of PT moving to the political centre, advocating for privatization of some state industries.[31] Buarque ended up not running for President, and would join Lula's administration as Minister of Education in 2003[32] before leaving the party altogether.

On the other hand, some members of the party's left-wing who felt Lula that was too moderate urged Mayor of Belém Edmilson Rodrigues to contest the party' nomination.[33][34] Edmilson did not end up running for the party's nomination, and would later leave the party to join the left-wing Socialism and Liberty Party (PSOL).[35]

Presidential candidates [ edit ]

Candidates in runoff [ edit ]

# Party/coalition Presidential candidate Political office(s) Vice-Presidential candidate
13
"Lula President"

PT, PL, PCdoB, PMN, PCB[b]
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva.jpg
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Federal Deputy from São Paulo 1987–91; PT National President 1980—88, 1990—94
Jose alencar 23 out 2007.jpg
José Alencar (PL)
45
"Great Alliance"

PSDB, PMDB[c]
Serra02032007-2.jpg
José Serra (PSDB) Minister of Health 1998–2002; Ministry of Planning 1995–96; Federal Deputy from São Paulo 1987–95
Deputada Rita Camata.jpg
Rita Camata (PMDB)

Candidates failing to make runoff [ edit ]

# Party/coalition Presidential candidate Political office(s) Vice-Presidential candidate
16
United Socialist Workers' Party (PSTU)
Camaçari - BA. Zé Maria, candidato à presidência pelo PSTU. (4790595816).jpg
José Maria de Almeida (PSTU) PSTU National President since 1993
Dayse Oliveira, PSTU-RJ.jpg
Dayse Oliveira (PSTU)
23
"Labour Front"

PPS, PTB, PDT
Cirogomes2006.jpg
Ciro Gomes (PPS) Minister of Finances 1994–95; Governor of Ceará 1991–94; Mayor of Fortaleza 1989–90; State Deputy of Ceará 1983–89
Paulinho d'Força.jpg
Paulo Pereira da Silva (PDT)
29
Workers' Cause Party (PCO)
Rui Costa Pimenta PCO ABr (cropped).jpg
Rui Costa Pimenta (PCO) PCO National President since 1995 Pedro Paulo Pinheiro (PCO)
40
"Brazil Hope Front"

PSB, PGT, PTC
Deputado Anthony Garotinho entrevistado em 2011 (cropped).jpg
Anthony Garotinho (PSB) Governor of Rio de Janeiro 1999–2002; Secretary of Agriculture and Interior of Rio de Janeiro 1992–93; Mayor of Campos dos Goytacazes 1989–92, 1997–98 José Antônio Figueiredo (PSB)

Results [ edit ]

President [ edit ]

Candidate Party Running mate Party First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva PT José Alencar PL 39,454,692 46.44 52,793,364 61.27
José Serra PSDB Rita Camata PMDB 19,705,061 23.19 33,370,739 38.72
Anthony Garotinho PSB José Antônio Figueiredo PSB 15,179,879 17.87
Ciro Gomes PPS Paulo Pereira da Silva PDT 10,170,666 11.97
José Maria de Almeida PSTU Dayse Oliveira PSTU 402,232 0.47
Rui Costa Pimenta PCO Pedro Paulo de Abreu PCO 38,619 0.04
Invalid/blank votes 9,849,827 5,499,898
Total 94,804,126 100 91,664,259 100
Registered voters/turnout 115,254,113 82.26 115,254,113 79.53
Source: Regional Electoral Court of Pernambuco[36][37]
Popular vote (first round)
Lula
46.44%
Serra
23.19%
Garotinho
17.87%
Gomes
11.97%
Others
0.52%
Popular vote (second round)
Lula
61.27%
Serra
38.72%

Congress [ edit ]

Legislative election


513 seats in the Chamber of Deputies

54 seats in the Senate

Party Leader % Seats ±
Chamber of Deputies
PT José Genoíno 18.4 91 +33
PSDB José Aníbal 14.3 71 -28
PFL Jorge Bornhausen 13.4 84 -21
PMDB 13.4 74 -9
PPB 7.8 49 -11
PSB Anthony Garotinho 5.3 22 +3
PDT 5.1 21 -4
PTB Roberto Jefferson 4.6 26 -5
PL Valdemar Costa Neto 4.3 26 +14
PPS 3.1 15 +12
PCdoB 2.2 12 +5
PRONA Enéas Carneiro 2.1 6 +5
PV 1.4 5 +5
PSC 0.6 1 -2
PST 0.6 3 +2
PSD 0.5 4 +1
PSL Luciano Bivar 0.5 1 New
PMN 0.3 1 -1
DC 0.2 1 New
Federal Senate
PT José Genoíno 14 +7
PSDB José Aníbal 11 -5
PFL Jorge Bornhausen 19 -1
PMDB 19 -7
PPB 1 -2
PSB 4 +1
PDT 5 +1
PTB Roberto Jefferson 3 +2
PL Valdemar Costa Neto 3 +3
PPS 1 0
PSD 1 New
This lists parties that won seats. See the complete results below.
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e • d Summary of the 6 October 2002 National Congress of Brazilelection results
Parties Chamber of Deputies Federal Senate
Votes % Seats % Total seats elected in 2002
Workers' Party (Partido dos Trabalhadores) 16,093,987 18.4 91 . 14 10
Brazilian Social Democracy Party (Partido da Social-Democracia Brasileira) 12,534,774 14.3 71 . 11 8
Liberal Front Party (Partido da Frente Liberal) 11,706,231 13.4 84 . 19 14
Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (Partido do Movimento Democrático Brasileiro) 11,692,011 13.4 74 . 19 9
Progressive Party (Partido Progresista) 6,840,041 7.8 49 . 1 -
Brazilian Socialist Party (Partido Socialista Brasileiro) 4,616,860 5.3 22 . 4 3
Democratic Labour Party (Partido Democrático Trabalhista) 4,482,528 5.1 21 . 5 4
Brazilian Labour Party (Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro) 4,052,107 4.6 26 . 3 2
Liberal Party (Partido Liberal) 3,780,259 4.3 26 . 3 2
Socialist People's Party (Partido Popular Socialista) 2,682,339 3.1 15 . 1 1
Communist Party of Brazil (Partido Comunista do Brasil) 1,967,833 2.2 12 . - -
Party of the Reconstruction of the National Order (Partido da Reedificação da Ordem Nacional) 1,804,655 2.1 6 . - -
Green Party (Partido Verde) 1,182,364 1.4 5 . - -
Social Christian Party (Partido Social Cristão) 504,611 0.6 1 . - -
Social Labour Party (Partido Social Trabalhista) 504,044 0.6 3 . - -
Social Democratic Party (Partido Social Democrático) 452,386 0.5 4 . 1 1
Social Liberal Party (Partido Social Liberal) 408,512 0.5 1 . - -
Brazilian Labour Renewal Party (Partido Renovador Trabalhista Brasileiro) 304,092 0.3 - . - -
Humanist Party of Solidarity (Partido Humanista de Solidaridade) 294,920 0.3 - . - -
Party of National Mobilization (Partido da Mobilização Nacional) 282,875 0.3 1 . - -
Progressive Republican Party (Partido Republicano Progresista) 251,970 0.2 - . - -
General Party of the Workers (Partido Geral dos Trabalhadores) 194,686 0.2 - . - -
Christian Social Democratic Party (Partido Social Democrata Cristão) 192,545 0.2 1 . - -
Labour Party of Brazil (Partido Trabalhista do Brasil ) 168,639 0.2 - . - -
United Socialist Workers' Party (Partido Socialista dos Trabalhadores) 159,251 0.2 - . - -
Party of the Nation's Retirees (Partido dos Aposentados da Naçao) 126,663 0.1 - . - -
National Labor Party (Partido Trabalhista Nacional) 118,471 0.1 - . - -
Christian Labour Party (Partido Trabalhista Cristão) 74,955 0.1 - . - -
Brazilian Communist Party (Partido Comunista Brasileiro) 45,963 0.1 - . - -
Party of the Working Class's Cause (Partido da Causa Operária) 29,351 0.1 - . - -
Total (turnout 82.3 %) 87,549,923 100 513 81 54
Source: Banco de Dados Eleitorais do Brasil

Notes [ edit ]

  1. ^ Born in Pernambuco, electoral based in São Paulo
  2. ^ Unofficially supporting parties: PV and PMDB in some states. In the second round: PPS, PDT, PTB, PSB, PGT, PSC, PTC and PHS.
  3. ^ Supporting parties in the second round: PFL, PPB, PSL, PTN, PSDC, PRTB, PSD, PRP, PAN and PTdoB.

References [ edit ]

  1. ^ "Folha Online - Brasil - Leia íntegra da carta de Lula para acalmar o mercado financeiro - 24/06/2002". www1.folha.uol.com.br. Retrieved 2020-12-04.
  2. ^ "José Alencar obituary". the Guardian. 2011-04-01. Retrieved 2020-12-04.
  3. ^ "Eleições 2002: uma olhar sobre os presidenciáveis - Política". Estadão (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-12-04.
  4. ^ "Folha de S.Paulo - Eleições - 2002: Lula e Roseana têm empate técnico em 1º". www1.folha.uol.com.br. Retrieved 2020-12-04.
  5. ^ "Sarney candidacy in jeopardy". UPI. Retrieved 2020-12-04.
  6. ^ "Correio Braziliense". Archived from the original on 2002-10-17. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
  7. ^ "Brazil's former President Sarney declares support for Lula". MercoPress. Retrieved 2020-12-04.
  8. ^ "Serra visita o único estado no qual venceu Lula em 2002". Blog do Ricardo Mota (in Portuguese). 2010-04-16. Retrieved 2020-12-04.
  9. ^ "Correio Braziliense". Archived from the original on 2002-10-17. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
  10. ^ "Eleições 2002: uma olhar sobre os presidenciáveis - Política". Estadão (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-12-04.
  11. ^ "FHC diz que Tasso é o mais viável para 2002 no momento - Política". Estadão (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-12-04.
  12. ^ "Que sera, Serra". The Economist. 2002-08-15. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-12-04.
  13. ^ "Com economia ruim, Malan seria opção do PSDB em 2002, diz analista - Política". Estadão (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-12-05.
  14. ^ "Paulo Renato nega candidatura à Presidência da República - Diário do Grande ABC - Notícias e informações do Grande ABC: política". Jornal Diário do Grande ABC (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-12-04.
  15. ^ "Com economia ruim, Malan seria opção do PSDB em 2002, diz analista - Política". Estadão (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-12-05.
  16. ^ "Eleições 2002: uma olhar sobre os presidenciáveis - Política". Estadão (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-12-04.
  17. ^ "Aécio diz que não será candidato em 2002 - Política". Estadão (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-12-04.
  18. ^ "Suplicy announces result of PT previews with Lula victory".
  19. ^ "Suplicy announces result of PT previews with Lula victory".
  20. ^ "Folha de S.Paulo - Rumo a 2002: Sou candidato a presidente, diz Suplicy - 09/11/2000". www1.folha.uol.com.br. Retrieved 2020-12-03.
  21. ^ "Suplicy treina para prévias do PT – Correio do Brasil" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-12-04.
  22. ^ Amaral, Oswaldo E. Do; Power, Timothy J. (February 2016). "The PT at 35: Revisiting Scholarly Interpretations of the Brazilian Workers' Party". Journal of Latin American Studies. 48 (1): 147–171. doi:10.1017/S0022216X15001200. ISSN 0022-216X.
  23. ^ "PLS 266/2001 - Senado Federal". www25.senado.leg.br. Retrieved 2020-12-03.
  24. ^ Matthews, Dylan (2019-10-30). "More than 50,000 people are set to get a basic income in a Brazilian city". Vox. Retrieved 2020-12-03.
  25. ^ "Folha de S.Paulo - Rumo a 2002: PT aposta em prévias para reforçar candidatura Lula - 07/01/2001". www1.folha.uol.com.br. Retrieved 2020-12-03.
  26. ^ "UOL Últimas Notícias - Lula vence prévia com folga e campanha do PT deve ganha fôlego 20/03/2002 - 18h10". noticias.uol.com.br. Retrieved 2020-12-03.
  27. ^ "PT pode incluir mais um em prévia para 2002 - Política". Estadão (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-12-04.
  28. ^ "Folha de S.Paulo - Rumo a 2002: PT aposta em prévias para reforçar candidatura Lula - 07/01/2001". www1.folha.uol.com.br. Retrieved 2020-12-03.
  29. ^ "Who's afraid of Lula?". The Economist. 2002-05-16. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-12-03.
  30. ^ "Cristovam Buarque declara que votou em Brizola em 89". Carta Maior (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-12-03.
  31. ^ "POLITICS-BRAZIL: Workers Party Wrestles with Ideology". Inter Press Service. 1999-11-23. Retrieved 2020-12-03.
  32. ^ "Folha Online - Brasil - Leia íntegra do discurso de Cristovam Buarque, ministro da Educação - 03/01/2003". www1.folha.uol.com.br. Retrieved 2020-12-03.
  33. ^ "PT pode incluir mais um em prévia para 2002 - Política". Estadão (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-12-04.
  34. ^ Londrina, Folha de. "Lula faz pressão para fugir das prévias do PT". Folha de Londrina (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-12-04.
  35. ^ "Edmilson Rodrigues vence Eguchi e Psol comandará Belém". Poder360 (in Portuguese). 2020-11-29. Retrieved 2020-12-04.
  36. ^ "Eleições 2002 - 1° turno - Resultado da Votação para Presidente do Brasil". Tribunal Regional Eleitoral de Pernambuco (in Portuguese). 6 October 2002. Retrieved 14 November 2020.
  37. ^ "Eleições 2002 - 2° turno - Resultado da Votação para Presidente do Brasil". Tribunal Regional Eleitoral de Pernambuco. 27 October 2002. Retrieved 14 November 2020.
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