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عبد الله بوكرم
|38th President of Ecuador|
August 10, 1996 – February 6, 1997
|Vice President||Rosalía Arteaga (1996-1997)|
|Preceded by||Sixto Durán Ballén|
|Succeeded by||Rosalía Arteaga|
|Mayor of Guayaquil|
August 10, 1984 – September 1985
|Preceded by||Bolívar Cali Bajaña|
|Succeeded by||Jorge Norero González|
Abdalá Jaime Bucaram Ortiz
February 20, 1952
Ecuadorian Roldosist Party
Fuerza Ecuador (2017— )
María Rosa Pulley Vergara (m. 1977)
|Alma mater||University of Guayaquil|
Abdalá Jaime Bucaram Ortiz (/ / (listen) ahb-də-LAH buu-kə-RAHM; Arabic: عبد الله بوكرم; born February 20, 1952) is an Ecuadorian politician and lawyer who was President of Ecuador from August 10, 1996, to February 6, 1997. As President, Abdalá Bucaram was nicknamed "El Loco Que Ama" ("The Madman That Loves," a nickname he himself championed) and was removed from office after being declared mentally unfit to rule by the National Congress of Ecuador. February 12, 1997. Bucaram and his followers claim that all cases against him have been dismissed. After having lived in Panama under political asylum, he returned to Ecuador in 2017 when the charges against him expired.
Family political background [ edit ]
Born in Guayaquil, Bucaram was the son of Lebanese immigrants. He grew up playing football in the streets of Guayaquil and later went on to become a successful athlete and earn a degree in physical education. He was also a hurdler. He was the flag bearer for Ecuador at the 1972 Summer Olympics but did not compete in the Games due to injury. He was the police chief of Guayas and the president of Barcelona Sporting Club, a football team from his hometown. Besides being a gym teacher, he earned a degree in law and soon began his political career. He used to live in Kennedy Norte, a neighborhood next to the José Joaquín de Olmedo International Airport before he left to Panama after the deposition of his government.
Bucaram was the nephew of the politician Assad Bucaram, who was mayor of Guayaquil. His sister, Martha Bucaram, was married to former President Jaime Roldós Aguilera, both of whom were killed in a mysterious air crash.
Early political years [ edit ]
He was the Mayor of Guayaquil, and the founder and member of the Ecuadorian Roldosist Party (PRE). He then competed for the presidency of the Republic in 1988 and 1992 before succeeding in the 1996 run.
1996 presidential campaign [ edit ]
Time as president [ edit ]
Bucaram was President from August 10, 1996, to February 6, 1997. His cabinet was put together by Vice President Rosalia Arteaga. Within months Bucaram was accused of embezzling millions of dollars of public funds.
After he took office, Bucaram tried to reorganize the state, which included trying to regularize the privatization process initiated by Osvaldo Hurtado (1980, Popular Democracy Party), and supported by the next three presidents: León Febres Cordero (1984, PSC), Rodrigo Borja Cevallos (1988, Democratic Left) and Sixto Durán Ballén (1992, ex-PSC). Political opponents took advantage of Bucaram's perceived trust and loyalty in the selection of his cabinet. Many of Bucaram's ministers and senior officials were influenced by the people who were in control of the state since 1980, and made terrible mistakes. On top of that, the congress was still controlled by the PSC and the Popular Democracy Party, who both pushed Bucaram for "allowances" to approve laws and to consider Bucaram's laws and decrees. In return Bucaram needed to push his cabinet for weekly "collections" to keep the congress "happy." The officers had to "squeeze" users to reach their "quota". Government opponents knew where the problems were, and scandal after scandal arose as a result.
Impeachment [ edit ]
By 1996 the state had already been dismantled by several years of privatizations; there was no way to control corruption, also, there was no desire of Bucaram's officers to help in this matter. "The Tequila effect" severely affected the Ecuadorean economy; however, no economic measures were taken due to the scandals in which the former President Duran-Ballen family (Flores y Miel) and his Vice-President Dahik (embezzlement of public funds) were involved. In addition, Duran-Ballén's Cenepa War against Peru exhausted the already disassembled state.
During the Latin American economic crisis, Ecuador was not the exception; the private banks and financial institutions took advantage of the false "bonanza," and the bankers ended up acquiring much state property. Bankers felt the shortage and started to loan money to themselves to maintain their recently acquired properties. The cash flow started to decrease abruptly. The superintendency of banking, controlled by bankers, authorized the issuance of currency without support; this fired up a rapid currency devaluation.
Bucaram had no alternative but to take strong anti-popular economic measures. Bucaram was a populist, so he had no defined political tendency. He decided his economic plan to be very neo-liberal; it was designed by Argentinian economist Domingo Cavallo, and included stop subsidies, regulate banks and financial institutions, and a strong currency devaluation ("Un sólo toque" would replace the sucre).
Massive protests against the proposed economic plan left Bucaram alone. The indigenous and social movements who helped him to raise to the power now were against him. The indigenous Pachakutik Movement, left-wing Democratic People's Movement (MPD), PSC and Popular Democracy were the main parties organizing the protests.
This protest led to his dismissal from the Ecuadorian presidency. He was dismissed by the congress on grounds of alleged mental incapacity. Bucaram's assumed insanity was never officially diagnosed; it was more a political maneuver of the PSC and Popular Democracy who were in control of the legislative and judicial power, also, Pachakutik and MPD supported the decision in exchange of political representation. Congress passed the measure (44 votes in favor and 34 against) with a simple majority instead of the two thirds required by the Constitution, and appointed congressional leader Fabián Alarcón in his place, bypassing the sitting Vice President Rosalía Arteaga.
The constitutional court determined the congressional resolution to be anti-constitutional and rejected it. The congress ignored the constitutional court resolution and proceeded to confirm Fabian Alarcon as interim president. Finally, Congress, illegally, requested that the army assert Alarcón's power.
Life after the impeachment [ edit ]
Bucaram received political asylum in Panama City after several corruption charges were laid against him. He returned on Saturday, April 2, 2005, after the corruption charges were lifted the previous day. He stayed in Guayaquil for about two and a half weeks. The corruption charges against him were reinstated after Lucio Gutiérrez was forced to leave to avoid the charges.
References [ edit ]
- "Abdalá Bucaram". Encyclopedia Britannica.
- Loco vs Bobo
- Ecuador's Ex-President Bucaram Returns, Eyes New Political Post
- Sports Reference
- Abdalá Bucaram Ortiz (Spanish)
- Abdalá Bucaram: "Agradezco a mis tres presidentes"Archived June 12, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- Zamora, Paúl (2014-12-01). "Dalo Bucaram renunció a la Asamblea". El Comercio. Retrieved 2020-02-27.
[ edit ]
- Extended biography (in Spanish) by CIDOB Foundation
- Official Website of the Ecuadorian Government about the country President's History [permanent dead link]
- Dalo y Gaby Asambleistas, PRE la nueva Era
- Biography by CIDOB (in Spanish)
Bolívar Cali Bajaña
| Mayor of Guayaquil
Sixto Durán Ballén
|President of Ecuador
|Party political offices|
| Supreme Director of the Ecuadorian Roldosist Party
María Rosa Pulley
María Rosa Pulley
| Supreme Director of the Ecuadorian Roldosist Party