Abgarid dynasty

Country Edessa, Osroene
Founded 134 BC
Current head Extinct
Final ruler Abgar IX Severus (de facto)

Abgar X Frahad (only in name)
Dissolution 242

The Abgarid dynasty or Abgar dynasty was a dynasty of Nabataean Arab origin.[1][2] Members of the dynasty, the Abgarids, reigned between 134 and 242 over Edessa and Osroene in Upper Mesopotamia, "first a buffer state between Rome and the Parthians and later a vassal state of Rome".[1] Some members of the dynasty bore Iranian names, while others had Arab names.[3] J.B. Segal notes that the names ending in "-u" are "undoubtedly Nabatean".[3] The Abgarid dynasts spoke "a form of Aramaic".[3] Following the Battle of Carrhae (53 BC), members of the dynasty pursued a broadly pro-Parthian policy for about two centuries.[3] At the turn of the 2nd century AD, the Romans turned Osroene into a Roman client state.[3] During Caracalla's reign (r198–217), most likely in 214, Abgar IX Severus was deposed and Osroene was incorporated as a Roman province (colonia).[3] Thereafter, Abgarid dynasts only ruled "in name".[3] Abgar X Frahad, the last nominal Abgarid ruler, settled in Rome together with his wife.[3]

Kings of Edessa/Osroene [ edit ]

This is a list of kings of Edessa/Osroene, most of whom were members of the Abgarid dynasty. The list also mentions the non-dynastic rulers of Edessa/Osroene as well as the periods of interregnum. Segal notes: "the early names and dates should be regarded with caution".[3]

Kings of Edessa/Osroene
King Reign (BC) Consort(s) Comments
Aryu 132–127 BC -
Abdu, son of Maz'ur 127–120 BC -
Fradasht, son of Gebar'u 120–115 BC -
Bakru I, son of Fradasht 115–112 BC -
Bakru II, son of Bakru 112–94 BC - Ruled alone
Bakru II and Ma'nu I 94 BC - Ruled together
Bakru II and Abgar I Piqa 94–92 BC - Ruled together
Abgar I 92–68 BC - Ruled alone
Abgar II, son of Abgar I 68–53 BC -
Interregnum 53–52 BC -
Ma'nu II 52–34 BC -
Paqor 34–29 BC -
Abgar III 29–26 BC -
Abgar IV Sumaqa 26–23 BC -
Ma'nu III Saflul 23–4 BC -
Abgar V Ukkama, son of Ma'nu 4 BC–7 AD - 1st tenure
Ma'nu IV, son of Ma'nu 7–13 AD -
Abgar V Ukkama 13–50 AD - 2nd tenure
Ma'nu V, son of Abgar 50–57 AD -
Ma'nu VI, son of Abgar 57–71 AD -
Abgar IV, son of Ma'nu 71–91 AD -
Interregnum 91–109 AD -
Abgar VII, son of Ezad 109–116 AD -
Interregnum 116–118 AD -
Yalur (Yalud) and Parthamaspates 118–122 AD - Ruled together
Parthamaspates 122–123 AD - Ruled alone
Ma'nu VII, son of Ezad 123–139 AD -
Ma'nu VIII, son of Ma'nu 139–163 AD - First tenure
Wa'el, son of Sahru 163–165 AD - Installed by the Parthians
Ma'nu VIII, son of Ma'nu 165–177 AD - Second tenure
Abgar VIII the Great, son of Ma'nu 177–212 AD -
Abgar IX Severus, son of Abgar 212–214 AD - Deposed by the Romans; Osroene incorporated as a Roman province (colonia)[4][3]
Ma'nu IX, son of Ma'nu 214–240 AD - Ruled only in name
Abgar X Frahad, son of Ma'nu 240–242 AD - Ruled only in name

References [ edit ]

  1. ^ a b Ramelli 2018.
  2. ^ Sartre 2005, p. 500.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Segal 1982, pp. 210–213.
  4. ^ Sartre 2005, p. 508.

Sources [ edit ]

  • Ramelli, Ilaria L.E. (2018). "Abgarids". In Hunter, David G.; van Geest, Paul J.J.; Peerbolte, Bert Jan Lietaert (eds.). Brill Encyclopedia of Early Christianity Online. doi:10.1163/2589-7993_EECO_SIM_00000012.
  • Sartre, Maurice (2005). "The Arabs and the desert peoples". In Bowman, Alan K.; Garnsey, Peter; Cameron, Averil (eds.). The Cambridge Ancient History: Volume 12, The Crisis of Empire, AD 193-337. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521301992.
  • Segal, J.B. (1982). "ABGAR". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. I, Fasc. 2. pp. 210–213.
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