|Final ruler||Abgar IX Severus (de facto)
Abgar X Frahad (only in name)
The Abgarid dynasty or Abgar dynasty was a dynasty of Nabataean Arab origin. Members of the dynasty, the Abgarids, reigned between 134 and 242 over Edessa and Osroene in Upper Mesopotamia, "first a buffer state between Rome and the Parthians and later a vassal state of Rome". Some members of the dynasty bore Iranian names, while others had Arab names. J.B. Segal notes that the names ending in "-u" are "undoubtedly Nabatean". The Abgarid dynasts spoke "a form of Aramaic". Following the Battle of Carrhae (53 BC), members of the dynasty pursued a broadly pro-Parthian policy for about two centuries. At the turn of the 2nd century AD, the Romans turned Osroene into a Roman client state. During Caracalla's reign (r. 198–217), most likely in 214, Abgar IX Severus was deposed and Osroene was incorporated as a Roman province (colonia). Thereafter, Abgarid dynasts only ruled "in name". Abgar X Frahad, the last nominal Abgarid ruler, settled in Rome together with his wife.
Kings of Edessa/Osroene [ edit ]
This is a list of kings of Edessa/Osroene, most of whom were members of the Abgarid dynasty. The list also mentions the non-dynastic rulers of Edessa/Osroene as well as the periods of interregnum. Segal notes: "the early names and dates should be regarded with caution".
|Abdu, son of Maz'ur||127–120 BC||-|
|Fradasht, son of Gebar'u||120–115 BC||-|
|Bakru I, son of Fradasht||115–112 BC||-|
|Bakru II, son of Bakru||112–94 BC||-||Ruled alone|
|Bakru II and Ma'nu I||94 BC||-||Ruled together|
|Bakru II and Abgar I Piqa||94–92 BC||-||Ruled together|
|Abgar I||92–68 BC||-||Ruled alone|
|Abgar II, son of Abgar I||68–53 BC||-|
|Ma'nu II||52–34 BC||-|
|Abgar III||29–26 BC||-|
|Abgar IV Sumaqa||26–23 BC||-|
|Ma'nu III Saflul||23–4 BC||-|
|Abgar V Ukkama, son of Ma'nu||4 BC–7 AD||-||1st tenure|
|Ma'nu IV, son of Ma'nu||7–13 AD||-|
|Abgar V Ukkama||13–50 AD||-||2nd tenure|
|Ma'nu V, son of Abgar||50–57 AD||-|
|Ma'nu VI, son of Abgar||57–71 AD||-|
|Abgar IV, son of Ma'nu||71–91 AD||-|
|Abgar VII, son of Ezad||109–116 AD||-|
|Yalur (Yalud) and Parthamaspates||118–122 AD||-||Ruled together|
|Parthamaspates||122–123 AD||-||Ruled alone|
|Ma'nu VII, son of Ezad||123–139 AD||-|
|Ma'nu VIII, son of Ma'nu||139–163 AD||-||First tenure|
|Wa'el, son of Sahru||163–165 AD||-||Installed by the Parthians|
|Ma'nu VIII, son of Ma'nu||165–177 AD||-||Second tenure|
|Abgar VIII the Great, son of Ma'nu||177–212 AD||-|
|Abgar IX Severus, son of Abgar||212–214 AD||-||Deposed by the Romans; Osroene incorporated as a Roman province (colonia)|
|Ma'nu IX, son of Ma'nu||214–240 AD||-||Ruled only in name|
|Abgar X Frahad, son of Ma'nu||240–242 AD||-||Ruled only in name|
References [ edit ]
Sources [ edit ]
- Ramelli, Ilaria L.E. (2018). "Abgarids". In Hunter, David G.; van Geest, Paul J.J.; Peerbolte, Bert Jan Lietaert (eds.). Brill Encyclopedia of Early Christianity Online. doi:10.1163/2589-7993_EECO_SIM_00000012.
- Sartre, Maurice (2005). "The Arabs and the desert peoples". In Bowman, Alan K.; Garnsey, Peter; Cameron, Averil (eds.). The Cambridge Ancient History: Volume 12, The Crisis of Empire, AD 193-337. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521301992.
- Segal, J.B. (1982). "ABGAR". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. I, Fasc. 2. pp. 210–213.