المتوكل على الله الثالث
|17th Caliph of Cairo
|Reign||22 January 1517|
|Successor||Selim I as Ottoman Caliph|
Cairo, Mamluk Sultanate now Egypt
Al-Mutawakkil III (Arabic: المتوكل على الله الثالث) (died 1543) was the seventeenth Caliph of Cairo for the Mamluk Sultanate from 1508 to 1516, and again in 1517. He was the last caliph of the later Egyptian-based Caliphate. Since the Mongol sack of Baghdad and the execution of Caliph Al-Musta'sim in 1258, these Cairene Caliphs had resided in Cairo as nominal rulers used to legitimize the actual rule of the Mamluk sultans.
Al-Mutawakkil III was deposed briefly in 1516 by his predecessor Al-Mustamsik, but was restored to the office the following year. In 1517, Ottoman Sultan Selim I had managed to defeat the Mamluk Sultanate, and made Egypt part of the Ottoman Empire. Al-Mutawakkil III was captured together with his family and transported to Constantinople.
According to traditional history, at this time he formally surrendered the title of caliph as well as its outward emblems—the sword and mantle of Muhammad—to Ottoman sultan Selim I. This story does not appear in the literature until the 1780s and was advanced to bolster the claims of caliphal jurisdiction over Muslims outside of the empire, as asserted in the 1774 Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca.
References [ edit ]
- Drews, Robert (August 2011). "Chapter Thirty – The Ottoman Empire, Judaism, and Eastern Europe to 1648" (PDF). Coursebook: Judaism, Christianity and Islam, to the Beginnings of Modern Civilization. Vanderbilt University.
- Lewis, Bernard (1961). The Emergence of Modern Turkey. Oxford University Press.
Bibliography [ edit ]
- "Biography of Al-Mutawakkil III" (in Arabic). Islampedia.com. Archived from the original on 2008-06-11.
- Garcin, Jean-Claude (1967). "Histoire, opposition, politique et piétisme traditionaliste dans le Ḥusn al Muḥādarat de Suyûti" [History, opposition, politics and traditionalistic pietism in Suyuti's Ḥusn al Muḥādarat] (PDF). Annales Islamologiques (in French). Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale. 7: 33–90. Archived from the original (PDF, 14.62 MB) on 2011-07-24. Retrieved 2010-07-22.
- Holt, P. M. (1984). "Some Observations on the 'Abbāsid Caliphate of Cairo". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. University of London. 47 (3): 501–507. doi:10.1017/s0041977x00113710. JSTOR 618882.
Al-Mutawakkil IIIBorn: ? Died: 1543
|Sunni Islam titles|
|Caliph of Cairo
|Caliph of Cairo
Caliphate surrendered to Selim I
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