Wikipedia

Arabic script

Arabic script

Arabic-script.png
Type
Impure abjad (abugida or true alphabet in some adaptations)
Languages See below
Time period
400 CE to the present
Parent systems
Child systems
Inspired the N'Ko alphabet and the Hanifi script
Direction Right-to-left
ISO 15924 Arab, 160
Unicode alias
Arabic

The Arabic script is a writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Persian, Kurdish, Sindhi, Balochi, Pashto, Lurish, Urdu, Kashmiri and Mandinka, among others.[1] Until the 16th century, it was also used to write some texts in Spanish. Additionally, prior to the language reform in 1928, it was the writing system of Turkish.[2] It is the second-most widely used writing system in the world by the number of countries using it and the third by the number of users, after the Latin and Chinese scripts.[3]

The Arabic script is written from right to left in a cursive style, in which most of the letters are written in slightly different forms according to whether they stand alone or are joined to a following or preceding letter. The basic letter form remains unchanged. In most cases, the letters transcribe consonants or consonants and a few vowels, so most Arabic alphabets are abjads. Additionally, it does not have capital letters.[4]

The script was first used to write texts in Arabic, most notably the Qurʼān, the holy book of Islam. With the spread of Islam, it came to be used as the primary script for many language families, leading to the addition of new letters and other symbols, with some versions, such as Kurdish, Uyghur and old Bosnian being abugidas or true alphabets. It is also the basis for the tradition of Arabic calligraphy.

Worldwide use of the Arabic script
Countries where the Arabic script:
 →  is the only official script
 →  is the only official script, but other scripts are recognized for national or regional languages
 →  is official alongside other scripts
 →  is official at a sub-national level (China, India) or is a recognized alternative script (Malaysia)

Languages written with the Arabic script [ edit ]

Overview [ edit ]

the Arabic alphabet
خ ح ج ث ت ب ا
ḫā’ /

khā’
ḥā’ jīm ṯā’ /

tha’
tā’’ bā’ ’alif
ص ش س ز ر ذ د
ṣād šīn /

shīn
sīn zāy /

zayn
rā’ ḏāl /

dhāl
dāl
ق ف غ ع ظ ط ض
qāf fā’ ġayn /

ghayn
‘ayn ẓā’ ṭā’ ḍād
ي و ه ن م ل ك
yā’ wāw hā’ nūn mīm lām kāf
(see below for other alphabets)

The Arabic script has been adapted for use in a wide variety of languages besides Arabic, including Persian, Malay and Urdu, which are not Semitic. Such adaptations may feature altered or new characters to represent phonemes that do not appear in Arabic phonology. For example, the Arabic language lacks a voiceless bilabial plosive (the [p] sound), therefore many languages add their own letter to represent [p] in the script, though the specific letter used varies from language to language. These modifications tend to fall into groups: Indian and Turkic languages written in the Arabic script tend to use the Persian modified letters, whereas the languages of Indonesia tend to imitate those of Jawi. The modified version of the Arabic script originally devised for use with Persian is known as the Perso-Arabic script by scholars.[citation needed]

In the cases of Bosnian, Kurdish, Kashmiri and Uyghur writing systems, vowels are mandatory. The Arabic script can therefore be used in both abugida and abjad forms, although it is often strongly, if erroneously, connected to the latter due to it being originally used only for Arabic.[citation needed]

Use of the Arabic script in West African languages, especially in the Sahel, developed with the spread of Islam. To a certain degree the style and usage tends to follow those of the Maghreb (for instance the position of the dots in the letters fāʼ and qāf). Additional diacritics have come into use to facilitate the writing of sounds not represented in the Arabic language. The term ʻAjamī, which comes from the Arabic root for "foreign," has been applied to Arabic-based orthographies of African languages.[citation needed]

Wikipedia in Arabic script of five languages

Table of writing styles [ edit ]

Script or style Alphabet(s) Language(s) Region Derived from Comment
Naskh Arabic

& others
Arabic

& others
Every region where Perso-Arabic scripts are used Sometimes refers to a very specific calligraphic style, but sometimes used to refer more broadly to almost every font that is not Kufic or Nastaliq.
Nastaliq Urdu,

Persian,

& others
Urdu,

Persian,

& others
Southern and Western Asia Taliq Used for almost all modern Urdu text, but only occasionally used for Persian
Taliq Persian Persian
Kufic Arabic Arabic Middle East and parts of North Africa
Rasm Restricted Arabic alphabet Arabic Mainly historical Omits all diacritics including i'jam. Digital replication usually requires some special characters. See: ٮ ڡ ٯ (links to Wiktionary).

Table of alphabets [ edit ]

Alphabet Letters Additional

Characters
Script or Style Languages Region Derived from:

(or related to)
Note
Arabic 28 ^(see above) Naskh, Kufi, Rasm, & others Arabic North Africa, West Asia Aramaic,

Syriac,

Nabataean
Ajami script 33 Hausa, Swahili West Africa Arabic Abjad
Arebica 30 Bosnian Southeastern Europe Perso-Arabic Latest stage with full vowel marking
Arwi alphabet 41 Tamil Southern India, Sri Lanka Perso-Arabic
Belarusian Arabic alphabet 32 Belarusian Eastern Europe Perso-Arabic 15th / 16th century
Berber Arabic alphabet(s) Various Berber languages North Africa Arabic
Burushaski 53 ݳ ݴ څ ݼ ڎ ݽ ڞ ݣ ݸ ݹ ݶ ݷ ݺ ݻ

(see note)
Burushaski South-West Asia (Pakistan) Urdu Also uses the additional letters shown for Urdu.(see below) Sometimes written with just the Urdu alphabet, or with the Latin alphabet.
Chagatai alphabet(s) 32 Chagatai Central Asia Perso-Arabic
Galal 32 Somali Horn of Africa Arabic
Jawi 36 ݘ ڠ ڤ ݢ ڽ ۏ Malay Peninsular Malay Perso-Arabic Since 1303 AD (Trengganu Stone)
Kashmiri 44 Kashmiri South Asia Perso-Arabic
Kazakh Arabic alphabet 35 Kazakh Central Asia, China Perso-Arabic

/ Chagatai
Since 11th century, now official only in China
Khowar 60 Khowar South Asia Perso-Arabic
Kyrgyz Arabic alphabet 33 Kyrgyz Central Asia Perso-Arabic Now official only in China
Kuryan alphabet 44 Korean East Asia, South Korea Perso-Arabic Invented by Korean Muslim in the 2000s
Pashto 45 Pashto South-West Asia, Afghanistan and Pakistan Perso-Arabic
Pegon script 35 Javanese, Sundanese South-East Asia (Indonesia) Perso-Arabic
Persian 32 پ ݘ ژ گ Nastaliq or Naskh Persian (Farsi) West Asia (Iran etc. ) Arabic
Saraiki 45 Saraiki South-West Asia (Pakistan) Perso-Arabic
Shahmukhi 41+

(see note)
Usually Nastaliq Punjabi South-West Asia (Pakistan) Perso-Arabic Similar to Urdu; 58[citation needed] letters including digraphs for aspirated consonants.
Sindhi 64 ڪ ڳ ڱ گ ک

پ ڀ ٻ ٽ ٿ ٺ

ڻ ڦ ڇ چ ڄ ڃ

ھ ڙ ڌ ڏ ڎ ڍ ڊ
Naskh-like Sindhi South-West Asia (Pakistan) Perso-Arabic
Sorabe 33 Malagasy Madagascar Arabic
Soranî 33 Central Kurdish Middle-East Perso-Arabic Vowels are mandatory, i.e. abugida
Swahili
İske imlâ 35 Tatar Chagatai / Perso-Arabic Before 1920
Ottoman Turkish 32 Ottoman Turkish Ottoman Empire Perso-Arabic Official until 1928
Urdu 39+

(see notes)
پ ژ ݘ

ٹ ڈ ڑ ں ہ ھ ے


(see notes)
Nastaliq Urdu South Asia Perso-Arabic 58[citation needed] letters including digraphs representing aspirated consonants.

بھ پھ تھ ٹھ جھ چھ دھ ڈھ کھ گھ
Uyghur 32 Uyghur China, Central Asia Perso-Arabic

/ Chagatai
Vowels are mandatory, i.e. abugida
Wolofal 28 Wolof West Africa Arabic
Xiao'erjing 36 Sinitic languages China, Central Asia Perso-Arabic
Yaña imlâ 29 Tatar Russia Perso-Arabic

/ Chagatai
1920–1927 replaced with Cyrillic

Current use [ edit ]

Today Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and China are the main non-Arabic speaking states using the Arabic alphabet to write one or more official national languages, including Azerbaijani, Baluchi, Brahui, Persian, Pashto, Central Kurdish, Urdu, Sindhi, Kashmiri, Punjabi and Uyghur.[citation needed]

An Arabic alphabet is currently used for the following languages:[citation needed]

Middle East and Central Asia [ edit ]

East Asia [ edit ]

South Asia [ edit ]

Southeast Asia [ edit ]

Africa [ edit ]

Former use [ edit ]

In the 20th century, the Arabic script was generally replaced by the Latin alphabet in the Balkans,[dubious ] parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, and Southeast Asia, while in the Soviet Union, after a brief period of Latinisation,[33] use of Cyrillic was mandated. Turkey changed to the Latin alphabet in 1928 as part of an internal Westernizing revolution. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, many of the Turkic languages of the ex-USSR attempted to follow Turkey's lead and convert to a Turkish-style Latin alphabet. However, renewed use of the Arabic alphabet has occurred to a limited extent in Tajikistan, whose language's close resemblance to Persian allows direct use of publications from Afghanistan and Iran.[34]

Most languages of the Iranian languages family continue to use Arabic script, as well as the Indo-Aryan languages of Pakistan and of Muslim populations in India. However, the Bengali language of India and Bangladesh was never written in Arabic script, which has been written in the Bengali alphabet since inception.[35]

Africa [ edit ]

Europe [ edit ]

Central Asia and Caucasus [ edit ]

Southeast Asia [ edit ]

Middle East [ edit ]

Unicode [ edit ]

As of Unicode 13.0, the following ranges encode Arabic characters:

Additional letters used in other languages [ edit ]

Pronunciation of the Most Common Non-Classical Arabic Consonant Phonemes / Graphemes [ edit ]

Language Family Austron. Dravid Turkic Indic (Indo-European) Iranian (Indo-European) Arabic (Semitic)
Language/Script Jawi Pegon Arwi Uyghur Sindhi Punjabi Urdu Persian Balochi Kurdish Pashto Moroccan Tunisian Algerian Hejazi Najdi Egyptian Palestinian Iraqi Gulf
/p/ ڤ ڣ پ پ / ب
/g/ ݢ گ ګ ڭ / گ ڨ / ڧـ ـڧــٯ / ق ق ج چ / ج گ / ك ق / گ
/t͡ʃ/ چ Ø چ ڜ تش چ
/v/ ۏ ف و ۋ و Ø ڤ Ø ڥ / ڢ / ف ڤ / ف
/ʒ/ Ø ژ Ø ژ its usage depends on the dialect
/ŋ/ ڠ ڭ ڱ ن٘ Ø Ø
/ɳ/ Ø Ø ڹ Ø ڻ ݨ ن Ø ڼ Ø
/ɲ/ ڽ ۑ ݧ Ø ڃ نج Ø Ø
Table of additional letters in other languages
Letter or Digraph [A] Use & Pronunciation Unicode i'jam & other additions Shape Similar Arabic Letter(s)
U+ [B] [C] above below
پ پـ ـپـ ـپ Pe, used to represent the phoneme /p/ in Persian, Pashto, Punjabi, Khowar, Sindhi, Urdu, Kurdish; it is not used in most Arabic varieties (except Mesopotamian and Gulf) and it is normalized as /b/; e.g., pepsi > bibsi. U+067E none 3 dots ٮ ب
ݐ ݐـ ـݐـ ـݐ used to represent the equivalent of the Latin letter Ƴ (palatalized glottal stop /ʔʲ/) in some African languages such as Fulfulde. U+0750   ﮳﮳﮳ ‎  none 3 dots

(horizontal)
ٮ ب
ٻ ٻـ ـٻـ ـٻ B̤ē, used to represent a voiced bilabial implosive /ɓ/ in Hausa, Sindhi and Saraiki. U+067B none 2 dots

(vertically)
ٮ ب
ڀ ڀـ ـڀـ ـڀ represents an aspirated voiced bilabial plosive // in Sindhi. U+0680 none 4 dots ٮ ب
ٺ ٺـ ـٺـ ـٺ Ṭhē, represents the aspirated voiceless retroflex plosive /ʈʰ/ in Sindhi. U+067A 2 dots

(vertically)
none ٮ ت
ټ ټـ ـټـ ـټ ṭē, used to represent the phoneme /ʈ/ in Pashto. U+067C ﮿ 2 dots ring ٮ ت
ٽ ٽـ ـٽـ ـٽ Ṭe, used to represent the phoneme (a voiceless retroflex plosive /ʈ/) in Sindhi U+067D 3 dots

(inverted)
none ٮ ت
ٹـ ـٹـ ـٹ Ṭe, used to represent Ṭ (a voiceless retroflex plosive /ʈ/) in Punjabi, Urdu. U+0679 ◌ؕ small

ط
none ٮ ت
ٿ ٿـ ـٿـ ـٿ Teheh, used in Sindhi and Rajasthani (when written in Sindhi alphabet); used to represent the phoneme /t͡ɕʰ/ (pinyin q) in Chinese Xiao'erjing. U+067F 4 dots none ٮ ت
ڄ ڄـ ـڄـ ـڄ represents the "ц" voiceless dental affricate /t͡s/ phoneme in Bosnian. U+0684 none 2 dots

(vertically)
ح ج
ڃ ڃـ ـڃـ ـڃ represents the "ћ" voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate /t͡ɕ/ phoneme in Bosnian. U+0683 none 2 dots ح ح ج
چ چـ ـچـ ـچ Che, used to represent /t͡ʃ/ ("ch"). It is used in Persian, Pashto, Punjabi, Urdu and Kurdish. /ʒ/ in Egypt. U+0686 none 3 dots ح ج
څ څـ ـڅـ ـڅ Ce, used to represent the phoneme /t͡s/ in Pashto. U+0685 3 dots none ح ج خ ح
ݗ ݗـ ـݗـ ـݗ represents the "ђ" voiced alveolo-palatal affricate /d͡ʑ/ phoneme in Bosnian. U+0757 2 dots none ح ح
ځ ځـ ـځـ ـځ źim, used to represent the phoneme /d͡z/ in Pashto. U+0681 ◌ٔ Hamza none ح ج خ ح
ݙ ݙ ـݙ used in Saraiki to represent a Voiced alveolar implosive /ɗ̢/. U+0759 small

ط
2 dots

(vertically)
د د
ڊ ڊ ـڊ used in Saraiki to represent a voiced retroflex implosive //. U+068A none 1 dot د د
ڈ ڈ ـڈ Ḍal, used to represent a Ḍ (a voiced retroflex plosive /ɖ/) in Punjabi and Urdu. U+0688 ◌ؕ small ط none د د
ڌ ڌ ـڌ Dhal used to represent the phoneme /d̪ʱ/ in Sindhi U+068C 2 dots none د د
ډ ډ ـډ Ḍal, used to represent the phoneme /ɖ/ in Pashto. U+0689 ﮿ none ring د د
ڑ ڑ ـڑ Ṛe, represents a retroflex flap /ɽ/ in Punjabi and Urdu. U+0691 ◌ؕ small ط none ر ر
ړ ړ ـړ "ṛe" represents a retroflex lateral flap in Pashto. U+0693 ﮿ none ring ر _
ݫ ݫ ـݫ used in Ormuri to represent a voiced alveolo-palatal fricative /ʑ/, as well as in Torwali. U+076B 2 dots

(vertically)
none ر _
ژ ژ ـژ Že/zhe, used to represent the voiced postalveolar fricative/ʒ/ in, Persian, Pashto, Kurdish, Urdu, Punjabi and Uyghur. U+0698 3 dots none ر ز
ږ ږ ـږ ǵe / ẓ̌e, used to represent the phoneme /ʐ//ɡ//ʝ/ in Pashto. U+0696 1 dot 1 dot ر ز
ڕ ڕ ـڕ used in Kurdish to represent rr /r/ in Soranî dialect. U+0695 ٚ none V pointing down ر ر
ݭ ݭـ ـݭـ ـݭ used in Kalami to represent a voiceless retroflex fricative /ʂ/, and in Ormuri to represent a voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative /ɕ/. U+076D 2 dots vertically none س س
ݜ ݜـ ـݜـ ـݜ used in Shina to represent a voiceless retroflex fricative /ʂ/. U+075C 4 dots none س ش س
ښ ښـ ـښـ ـښ x̌īn /ṣ̌īn, used to represent the phoneme /x//ʂ//ç/ in Pashto. U+069A 1 dot 1 dot س ش س
ڜ ڜـ ـڜـ ـڜ used to represent Spanish words with /t͡ʃ/ in Morocco. U+069C 3 dots 3 dots س ش س
ڨ ڨـ ـڨـ ـڨ Ga, used to represent the voiced velar plosive/ɡ/ in Algerian and Tunisian. U+06A8 3 dots none ٯ ق
گ گـ ـگـ ـگ Gaf, represents a voiced velar plosive /ɡ/ in Persian, Pashto, Punjabi, Kyrgyz, Kazakh, Kurdish, Uyghur, Mesopotamian, Urdu and Ottoman Turkish. U+06AF line horizontal line none گ ك
ګ ګـ ـګـ ـګ Gaf, used to represent the phoneme /ɡ/ in Pashto. U+06AB ﮿ ring none ک ك
ݢ ݢـ ـݢـ ـݢ Gaf, represents a voiced velar plosive /ɡ/ in the Jawi script of Malay. U+0762 1 dot none ک ك
ڬ ڬـ ـڬـ ـڬ U+06AC 1 dot none ك ك
ࢴـ ـࢴـ ـࢴ Gaf, represents a voiced velar plosive /ɡ/ in the Pegon script of Indonesian. U+08B4 none 1 dot ك ك
ڭ ڭـ ـڭـ ـڭ Ng, used to represent the /ŋ/ phone in Ottoman Turkish, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, and Uyghur, and to represent the /ɡ/ in Morocco and in many dialects of Algerian. U+06AD 3 dots none ك ك
أي أيـ ـأيـ ـأي Ee, used to represent the phoneme // in Somali. U+0623 U+064A ◌ٔ Hamza 2 dots اى أ + ي
ئ ئـ ـئـ ـئ E, used to represent the phoneme /e/ in Somali. U+0626 ◌ٔ Hamza none ى ي ی
ىٓ ىٓـ ـىٓـ ـىٓ Ii, used to represent the phoneme // in Somali and Saraiki. U+0649 U+0653 ◌ٓ Madda none ى ي
ؤ ؤ ـؤ O, used to represent the phoneme /o/ in Somali. U+0624 ◌ٔ Hamza none و ؤ
ې ېـ ـېـ ـې Pasta Ye, used to represent the phoneme /e/ in Pashto and Uyghur. U+06D0 none 2 dots vertical ى ي
ی یـ ـیـ ـی Nārīna Ye, used to represent the phoneme [ɑj] and phoneme /j/ in Pashto. U+06CC 2 dots

(start + mid)
none ى ي
ۍ ـۍ end

only
x̌əźīna ye Ye, used to represent the phoneme [əi] in Pashto. U+06CD line horizontal

line
none ى ي
ئ ئـ ـئـ ـئ FāiliyaYe, used to represent the phoneme [əi] and /j/ in Pashto, Punjabi, Saraiki and Urdu U+0626 ◌ٔ Hamza none ى ي ى
أو أو ـأو Oo, used to represent the phoneme // in Somali. U+0623 U+0648 ◌ٔ Hamza none او أ + و
ﻭٓ ﻭٓ ـﻭٓ Uu, used to represent the phoneme // in Somali. ‎ + ◌ٓU+0648 U+0653 ◌ٓ Madda none و + ◌ٓ
ڳ ڳـ ـڳـ ـڳ represents a voiced velar implosive /ɠ/ in Sindhi and Saraiki U+06B1 horizontal

line
2 dots گ ك
ڱ ڱـ ـڱـ ـڱ represents the Velar nasal /ŋ/ phoneme in Sindhi. U+06B1 2 dots + horizontal

line
none گ ك
ک کـ ـکـ ـک Khē, represents // in Sindhi. U+06A9 none none none ک ك
ڪ ڪـ ـڪـ ـڪ "Swash kāf" is a stylistic variant of ك in Arabic, but represents un- aspirated /k/ in Sindhi. U+06AA none none none ڪ ك or ڪ
ݣ ݣـ ـݣـ ـݣ used to represent the phoneme /ŋ/ (pinyin ng) in Chinese. U+0763 none 3 dots ک ك
ڼ ڼـ ـڼـ ـڼ represents the retroflex nasal /ɳ/ phoneme in Pashto. U+06BC ں ﮿ 1 dot ring ن
ڻ ـڻ ـڻـ ڻـ represents the retroflex nasal /ɳ/ phoneme in Sindhi. U+06BB ◌ؕ small ط none ں ن
ݨ ـݨ ـݨـ ݨـ used in Punjabi to represent /ɳ/ and Saraiki to represent /ɲ/. U+0768 1 dot + small ط none ں ن
ڽ ـڽ ـڽـ ڽـ Nya/ɲ/ in the Jawi script. U+06BD 3 dots none ں ن
ۑ ۑـ ـۑـ ـۑ Nya/ɲ/ in the Pegon script. U+06D1 none 3 dots ى _
ڠ ـڠ ـڠـ ڠـ Nga/ŋ/ in the Jawi script and Pegon script and Gain /g/ in Khowar alphabet. U+06A0 3 dots none ع غ
ݪ ـݪ ـݪـ ݪـ used in Marwari to represent a retroflex lateral flap /ɺ̢/, and in Kalami to represent a voiceless lateral fricative /ɬ/. U+076A line horizontal

line
none ل ل
لؕ ࣇ‍ ‍ࣇ‍ ‍ࣇ - or alternately typeset as لؕ ‎ - is used in Punjabi to represent voiced retroflex lateral approximant /ɭ/[39] U+08C7 ◌ؕ small ط none ل ل
ـلؕ ـلؕـ لؕـ U+0644 U+0615
ڥ ڥـ ـڥـ ـڥ Vi, used in Algerian and Tunisian when written in Arabic script to represent the sound /v/. U+06A5 none 3 dots ڡ ف
ڤ ڤـ ـڤـ ـڤ Ve, used in by some Arabic speakers to represent the phoneme /v/ in loanwords, and in the Kurdish language when written in Arabic script to represent the sound /v/. Also used as pa /p/ in the Jawi script and Pegon script. U+06A4 3 dots none ڡ ف
ۏ ـۏ ۏ Va in the Jawi script. U+06CF 1 dot none و و
ۋ ـۋ ۋ represents a voiced labiodental fricative /v/ in Kyrgyz, Uyghur, and Old Tatar; and /w, ʊw, ʉw/ in Kazakh; also formerly used in Nogai. U+06CB 3 dots none و و
ۆ ـۆ ۆ represents "O" /o/ in Kurdish, and in Uyghur it represents the sound similar to the French eu andœu /ø/ sound. It represents the "у" close back rounded vowel /u/ phoneme in Bosnian. U+06C6 ◌ٚ V pointing down none و و
ێ ێـ ـێـ ـێ represents Ê or É /e/ in Kurdish. U+06CE ◌ٚ V pointing down 2 dots

(start + mid)
ى ي
ھ

ھ
ھـ ـھـ ـھ

ھھھ
Do-chashmi he (two-eyed hāʼ), used in digraphs for aspiration /ʰ/ and breathy voice /ʱ/ in Punjabi and Urdu. [D] U+06BE none none none ھ ه
ے ـے end

only
Baṛī ye ('big yāʼ'), represents "ai" or "e" in Urdu /ɛː/, // and Punjabi. U+06D2 none none none ے ي
ڞ ڞـ ـڞـ ـڞ used to represent the phoneme /tsʰ/ (pinyin c) in Chinese. U+069E 3 dots none ص ص ض
ط طـ ـطـ ـط used to represent the phoneme /t͡s/ (pinyin z) in Chinese. U+0637 ط ط
ۉ ۉ ـۉ represents the "o" open-mid back rounded vowel /ɔ/ phoneme in Bosnian. U+06C9 ◌ٛ V pointing up none و و
ݩ ݩـ ـݩـ ـݩ represents the "њ" palatal nasal /ɲ/ phoneme in Bosnian. U+0769 ◌ٚ 1 dot

V pointing down
none ں ن
ڵ ڵـ ـڵـ ـڵ used in Kurdish to represent ll /ɫ/ in Soranî dialect. U+06B5 ◌ٚ V pointing down none ل ل
ڵ ڵـ ـڵـ ـڵ represents the "љ" palatal lateral approximant /ʎ/ phoneme in Bosnian. U+06B5 ◌ٚ V pointing down none ل ل
اٖى اٖىـ ـاٖىـ ـاٖى represents the "и" close front unrounded vowel /i/ phoneme in Bosnian. U+0627 U+0656 U+0649 ◌ٖ Alef none اى اٖ + ى
Footnotes:
  1. ^ From right: start, middle, end, and isolated forms.
  2. ^ Joined to the letter, closest to the letter, on the first letter, or above.
  3. ^ Further away from the letter, or on the second letter, or below.
  4. ^ Shown in Naskh (top) and Nastaliq (bottom) styles. The Nastaliq version of the connected forms are connected to each other, because the tatweel character U+ used to show the other forms does not work in many Nastaliq fonts.

Letter construction [ edit ]

Most languages that use alphabets based on the Arabic alphabet use the same base shapes. Most additional letters in languages that use alphabets based on the Arabic alphabet are built by adding (or removing) diacritics to existing Arabic letters. Some stylistic variants in Arabic have distinct meanings in other languages. For example, variant forms of kāf ك ک ڪ are used in some languages and sometimes have specific usages. In Urdu and some neighbouring languages the letter Hā has diverged into two forms ھ dō-čašmī hē and ہ ہـ ـہـ ـہ gōl hē.[40] while a variant form of ي referred to as baṛī yē ے is used at the end of some words.[40]

Table of Letter Components [ edit ]

abbreviations used below [ edit ]

A = The letter is used for most languages and dialects with writing systems based on Arabic.

MSA = Letters used in Modern Standard Arabic.

CA = Letters used in Classical Arabic.

AD = Letters used in some regional Arabic Dialects.

"Arabic" = Letters used in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic, and most regional dialects.

"Farsi" = Letters used in modern Persian.

FW = Foreign words: the letter is sometimes used to spell foreign words.

SV = Stylistic variant: the letter is used interchangeably with at least one other lletter depending on the calligraphic style.

AW = Arabic words: the letter is used in additional languages to spell Arabic words.



Table [ edit ]

No additions [ edit ]
Letter Line Shapes (ii) ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
positional forms isolated ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
start ء ا none ىـ (YNB) ٮـ حـ سـ صـ طـ عـ ڡـ (QF) ٯـ ڪـ كـ کـ گـ لـ مـ د ر و ھـ ہـ هـ لا
middle ء ـا none ـىـ (YNB) ـٮـ ـحـ ـسـ ـصـ ـطـ ـعـ ـڡـ (QF) ـٯـ ـڪـ ـكـ ـکـ ـگـ ـلـ ـمـ ـد ـر ـو ـھـ ـہـ ـهـ ـلا
end ء ـا ـے ـى ـں ـٮ ـح ـس ـص ـط ـع ـڡ ـٯ ـڪ ـك ـک ـگ ـل ـم ـد ـر ـو ـھ ـہ ـه ـلا
image of forms isolated

start

middle

end
ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
Unicode for above U+0621 U+0627 U+06D2 U+0649 U+06BA U+066E U+062D U+0633 U+0635 U+0637 U+0639 U+06A1 U+066F U+06AA U+0643 U+06A9 U+06AF U+0644 U+0645 U+062F U+0631 U+0648 U+06BE U+06C1 U+0647 ا + ل
Languages that use the letter shape with or without i'jam Arabic Arabic Urdu Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Sindhi, Arabic SV Arabic Farsi, Urdu, Arabic SV Farsi, Urdu Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Urdu, Arabic SV Urdu, Arabic SV Arabic, Farsi Arabic
diacritics (i) isolated ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
none start

mid

end
ء ـا ا  ـــے ے   ىـ

ـىـ

ـى
ـں ں ٮـ

ـٮـ

ـٮ
حـ

ـحـ

ـح
سـ

ـسـ

ـس
صـ

ـصـ

ـص
طـ

ـطـ

ـط
عـ

ـعـ

ـع
ڡـ

ـڡـ

ـڡ
ٯـ

ـٯـ

ـٯ
ڪــ

ـڪــ

ـڪ
كـ

ـكـ

ـك
کـ

ـکـ

ـک
گـ

ـگـ

ـگ
لـ

ـلـ

ـل
مـ

ـمـ

ـم
ـد د ـر ر ـو و ھـ

ـھـ

ـھ
ہـ

ـہـ

ـہ
هـ

ـهـ

ـه
ـلا لا
Languages using the bare shape with no additions Arabic Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Urdu MSA Urdu, Arabic SV Arabic SV Rasm Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Arabic SV in Rasm Arabic SV in Rasm Sindhi, Arabic SV Arabic Farsi, Urdu, Arabic SV Farsi, Urdu Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Urdu, Arabic SV Urdu, Arabic SV Arabic, Farsi MSA
Unicode for above U+0621 U+0627 U+06D2 U+0649 U+06BA U+066E U+062D U+0633 U+0635 U+0637 U+0639 U+06A1 U+066F U+06AA U+0643 U+06A9 U+06AF U+0644 U+0645 U+062F U+0631 U+0648 U+06BE U+06C1 U+0647 ل + ا
Bare line in isolated and end forms only isolated ء ا ے ی ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
start

mid

end
یـ

ـیـ

ـی
ࢽـ

ـࢽـ

ـࢽ
ࢻـ

ـࢻـ

ـࢻ
ࢼـ

ـࢼـ

ـࢼ
image
Languages
Unicode U+08BD U+08BB U+08BC
dots [ edit ]
dots bigger heading
1 [ edit ]
Diacritics (i) Letter Shapes:

(ii)
ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
1 dot below   ◌࣭  ◌ٜ  ــٜـ     isolated ء ا ے ى ں ب ج س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
connected بـ ـبـ ـب جـ ـجـ ـج
image
Languages
U+FBB3 U+065C Unicode U+0628 U+062C
1 dot above + 1 dot below  ﮲﮳  isolated ء ا ے ى ڹ ٮ ح ښ ۻ ط ۼ ڣ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ږ و ھ ہ ه لا
connected
image
Languages
Unicode
1 dot above ◌࣪   isolated ء ا ے ى ن ٮ خ س ض ظ غ ف ڧ ڪ ك ک گ ل م ذ ز و ھ ہ ه لا
connected
image
Languages
U+FBB2 Unicode U+0646 U+062E U+0636 U+0638 U+063A U+0641 U+06A7 U+0630 U+0632
2 [ edit ]
diacritics (i) Letter Shapes (ii) ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
2 dots below

start and mid (iii)
isolated form ء ا ے یـ ـیـ ـی ی ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages Farsi, Urdu, AD
U+FBB5 U+FBB5 Unicode U+06CC
2 dots below

all positions
isolated form ء ا ے يـ ـيـ ـي ي ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages Arabic (iv)
U+FBB5 U+FBB5 Unicode U+064A
2 vertical dots below       isolated form ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages
U+FBBE Unicode
2 vertical dots above       isolated form ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages
U+FBBD Unicode
2 horizontal

dots above
isolated form ء ا ے ى ں ت ح س ص ط ع ڡ ق ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ـۃ ـة لا
image
Languages
FBB4 Unicode U+062A U+0642 U+06C3 U+0629
diacritics (i) Letter Shapes (ii) ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
above: 2 dots
below: 2 dots
above: 2 dots

(vertically)
below: 2 dots

(vertically)
U+08EB (2283) ◌࣫ TWO DOTS ABOVE
U+08EE (2286) ◌࣮ TWO DOTS BELOW
3 [ edit ]
ث پ چ ژ ش Arabic & Persian
ݑ ڥ ڤ ڨ ڠ ڟ ڞ ۺ ڜ ڛ څ ڿ ۑ ۋ ڮ ڴ ڷ ڸ other pointing out
ݤ ڏ ݓ ݒ ݡ ݘ ݞ inverted
3 dots below (horizontal)

 ﮳ ﮳ ﮳ 

character ء ا ے ى ں ݐ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages Fula
Unicode U+0750
3 dots below (inverted)    character ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages
U+FBB7 Unicode
3 dots below    isolated form ء ا ے ى ں پ چ س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages
U+FBB9 Unicode U+067E U+0686
3 dots above

+ 3 dots below
   isolated form ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح ڜ ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages
U+FBB6 + U+FBB9 Unicode
3 dots above    isolated form ث ش ژ
image
Languages
U+FBB6 Unicode U+062B U+0634 U+0698
3 dots above (inverted)    character ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
U+FBB8 Languages
Unicode
4 [ edit ]
4 dots below      isolated form ء ا ے ى ں ڀ ڇ س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages
U+FBBB Unicode
4 dots above      isolated form ء ا ے ى ں ٿ ح ݜ ص ط ع ڦ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م ڐ ڙ و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages Shina, Torwali Sindhi, Shina, Torwali
U+FBBA Unicode U+067F U+075C U+0690 U+0699
different dots above and below [ edit ]
mixed dots

above + below
isolated form ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ڿ ۺ ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages
Unicode
diacritics (i) Letter Shapes (ii) ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
tōē [ edit ]
small tōē

below
isolated form ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ݮ س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
connected form(s) ݮـ ـݮـ ـݮ
image U+076E Naskh style.svg
Unicode U+076E
Languages Khowar
small tōē

above
ـــؕــ     ◌ؕ isolated form ء ا ے ى ڻ ٹ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ  لؕ م ڈ ڑ و ھ ہ ه لا
connected form(s)
image
Urdu Punjabi Languages Punjabi Urdu Punjabi [39] Urdu Urdu
U+0615 U+FBC0 Unicode U+06BB U+0679 U+0688 U+0691
small tōē + dot(s) isolated form ء ا ے ى ݨ ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
connected form(s)
image
Languages Punjabi, Seraiki, Shina
Unicode
diacritics (i) Letter Shapes (ii) ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
ring [ edit ]
ring       isolated form ء ا ے ؠ ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ګ گ ل م ډ ړ ۄ ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages
FBBF Unicode
ring and dots isolated form ء ا ے ى ڼ ټ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages
Unicode
diacritics (i) Letter Shapes (ii) ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
line [ edit ]
horizontal line isolated form ء ا ے ۍ ـۍ ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ؈ ڪ ك گ ݪ م د ݛ ۅ ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages Punjabi, Marwari, Kalami Kirghiz [citation needed]
Unicode U+075B
multiple lines        isolated form ۽ ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ۾ د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages
U+FBBC Unicode U+08A6
vertical line isolated form ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر

ۈ

ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages
Unicode
numeral [ edit ]
https://hisamullahbeg.blogspot.com/2010/04/burushaski-primer.html
diacritics (i) Letter Shapes (ii) ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ك ڪ ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
Persian numeral 2 above ٢ ٢ isolated form ء ا ݺ ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر ݸ ھ ہ ه لا
image
Burushaski Languages Burushaski Burushaski
Unicode U+077A
Persian numeral 3 above ٣ ٣ isolated form ء ا ݻ ݶ ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Burushaski Languages Burushaski
Unicode U+077B
Persian numeral 4 above ۴ ۴ isolated form ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح ݽ ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Burushaski Languages Burushaski
Unicode U+077D
Persian numeral 4 below ۴ ۴ isolated form ء ا ے ݷ ں ٮ ݼ س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Burushaski Languages Burushaski
Unicode U+077C
diacritics (i) Letter Shapes (ii) ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
arrows [ edit ]
V below   ٚ     ٛ   isolated form ء ا ے ى ں ݕ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ڕ و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages Wolof
U+065B U+065A Unicode
small V above ــٚـ ◌ٚ isolated form ء ا ے ێ ں ݖ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ڵ م د ڒ ۆ ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages Wolof
U+065A Unicode U+0756
inverted V above ــٛـ ◌ٛ isolated form ء ا ے ؽ ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م ۮ ۯ ۉ ۿ ہ ه لا
image
U+065B Unicode
Languages
arrow and dots isolated form ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Unicode
Languages
Hamza [ edit ]
diacritics (i) Letter Shapes (ii) ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
Hamza below ــٕـ ◌ٕ isolated form ء إ ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لإ
image
sometimes omitted in contexts where short vowel diacritics are omitted Languages
U+0655 Unicode U+0625 U+0644

+ U+0625
Hamza above ــٔـ ◌ٔ isolated form ء أ ۓ ئ ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر ؤ ھ ۂ ۀ لأ
image
sometimes omitted in contexts where short vowel diacritics are omitted Languages
U+0674 U+0654 Unicode U+0623 U+06D3 U+0626 U+0624 U+06C2 U+06C0 U+0644

+ U+0623
Hamza and dots isolated form ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Unicode
Languages
other semi-optional vowels [ edit ]
maddah above ــۤـ ــٓـ ◌ٓ ◌ۤ isolated form ء آ ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لآ
image
doesn't strictly count as i'jam, but included in a lot of situations where other diacritics are left out. Languages Arabic, Urdu
U+06E4 U+0653 Unicode U+0622
Wasala above isolated form ء ٱ ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages CA
none

(v)
Unicode U+0671
diacritics (i) Letter Shapes (ii) ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
table end [ edit ]

|- |}[clarification needed]

blank line for new entries [ edit ]

header [ edit ]
diacritics (i) Letter Shapes (ii) ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ك ڪ ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا

References [ edit ]

footnotes [ edit ]

^i. The i'jam diacritic characters are illustrative only, in most typesetting the combined characters in the middle of the table are used. The characters used to illustrate the consonant diacritics are from Unicode set "Arabic pedagogical symbols".[43] The "Arabic Tatweel Modifier Letter" U+0640 character used to show the positional forms doesn't work in some Nastaliq fonts.

^ii. For most letters the isolated form is shown, for select letters all forms (isolated, start, middle, and end) are shown.

^iii. Urdu Choti Yē has 2 dots below in the initial and middle positions only. The standard Arabic version ي يـ ـيـ ـي always has 2 dots below.

^iv. These characters are used by most languages that use writing systems based on Arabic, though sometimes only in foreign words.

^v. A Wasala diacritic Unicode character has been proposed but not yet released.[citation needed]

See also [ edit ]

References [ edit ]

  1. ^ Mahinnaz Mirdehghan. 2010. Persian, Urdu, and Pashto: A comparative orthographic analysis. Writing Systems Research Vol. 2, No. 1, 9–23.
  2. ^ "Exposición Virtual. Biblioteca Nacional de España". Bne.es. Archived from the original on 2012-02-18. Retrieved 2012-04-06.
  3. ^ "Arabic Alphabet". Encyclopædia Britannica online. Archived from the original on 26 April 2015. Retrieved 2015-05-16.
  4. ^ Ahmad, Syed Barakat. Introduction to Qur'anic script. ISBN 978-1-136-11138-9. OCLC 1124340016.
  5. ^ "Sayad Zahoor Shah Hashmii". baask.com.
  6. ^ Language Protection Academy [permanent dead link]
  7. ^ Sarlak, Riz̤ā (2002). "Dictionary of the Bakhtiari dialect of Chahar-lang". google.com.eg.
  8. ^ Iran, Mojdeh (5 February 2011). "Bakhtiari Language Video (bak) بختياري ها! خبری مهم" – via Vimeo.
  9. ^ "Ethnologue". Retrieved Feb 1, 2020.
  10. ^ "Pakistan should mind all of its languages!". tribune.com.pk.
  11. ^ "Ethnologue". Retrieved Feb 1, 2020.
  12. ^ "Ethnologue". Retrieved Feb 1, 2020.
  13. ^ Khadim. "Balti to English". khadimskardu1.blogspot.com.
  14. ^ "The Bible in Brahui". Worldscriptures.org. Archived from the original on October 30, 2016. Retrieved August 5, 2013.
  15. ^ "HUNZA DEVELOPMENT FORUM". hisamullahbeg.blogspot.com.
  16. ^ "Chittagonian". scriptsource.org.
  17. ^ "Rohingya Language Book A-Z". Scribd.
  18. ^ "Ida'an". scriptsource.org.
  19. ^ urangCam. "Bông Sứ". naipaleikaohkabuak.blogspot.com.
  20. ^ "Zribi, I., Boujelbane, R., Masmoudi, A., Ellouze, M., Belguith, L., & Habash, N. (2014). A Conventional Orthography for Tunisian Arabic. In Proceedings of the Language Resources and Evaluation Conference (LREC), Reykjavík, Iceland".
  21. ^ Brustad, K. (2000). The syntax of spoken Arabic: A comparative study of Moroccan, Egyptian, Syrian, and Kuwaiti dialects. Georgetown University Press.
  22. ^ "The Coptic Studies' Corner". stshenouda.com. Archived from the original on 2012-04-19. Retrieved 2012-04-17.
  23. ^ "--The Cradle of Nubian Civilisation--". thenubian.net.
  24. ^ "2 » AlNuba egypt". 19 July 2012. Archived from the original on 19 July 2012.
  25. ^ "Zarma". scriptsource.org.
  26. ^ "Tadaksahak". scriptsource.org.
  27. ^ "Lost Language — Bostonia Summer 2009". bu.edu.
  28. ^ "Dyula". scriptsource.org.
  29. ^ "Jola-Fonyi". scriptsource.org.
  30. ^ "Ibn Sayyid manuscript". Archived from the original on 2015-09-08. Retrieved 2018-09-27.
  31. ^ "Muhammad Arabic letter". Archived from the original on 2015-09-08. Retrieved 2018-09-27.
  32. ^ "Charno Letter". Muslims In America. Archived from the original on May 20, 2013. Retrieved August 5, 2013.
  33. ^ Alphabet Transitions – The Latin Script: A New Chronology – Symbol of a New Azerbaijan, by Tamam Bayatly
  34. ^ Sukhail Siddikzoda. "Tajik Language: Farsi or Not Farsi?" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 13, 2006.
  35. ^ Escudero Pascual Alberto (23 October 2005). "Writing Systems/ Scripts" (PDF). Primer to Localization of Software. it46.se. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2006.
  36. ^ "Brief history of writing in Chechen". Archived from the original on December 23, 2008.
  37. ^ p. 20, Samuel Noel Kramer. 1986. In the World of Sumer: An Autobiography. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.
  38. ^ J. Blau. 2000. Hebrew written in Arabic characters: An instance of radical change in tradition. (In Hebrew, with English summary). In Heritage and Innovation in Judaeo-Arabic Culture: Proceedings of the Sixth Conference of the Society For Judaeo-Arabic Studies, p. 27-31. Ramat Gan.
  39. ^ a b Lorna Priest Evans; M. G. Abbas Malik. "Proposal to encode ARABIC LETTER LAM WITH SMALL ARABIC LETTER TAH ABOVE in the UCS" (PDF). www.unicode.org. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  40. ^ a b "Urdu Alphabet". www.user.uni-hannover.de. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
  41. ^ "Extended Arabic Letter". unicode.org. Retrieved 7 May 1920. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  42. ^ "Based on ISO 8859-6". unicode.org. Retrieved 7 May 1920. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  43. ^ "Unicode Utilities: UnicodeSet Arabic pedagogical symbols". unicode.org. Retrieved 20 March 2020.

External links [ edit ]

Media related to Arabic script at Wikimedia Commons

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