Wikipedia

Arcadocypriot Greek

Arcadocypriot Greek
Region Arcadia, Cyprus
Era c. 1200 – 300 BC
Indo-European
Language codes
ISO 639-3
grc-arc
Glottolog arca1234 [1]
AncientGreekDialects (Woodard) en.svg
Distribution of Greek dialects in Greece in the classical period.[2]

Arcadocypriot, or southern Achaean, was an ancient Greek dialect spoken in Arcadia in the central Peloponnese and in Cyprus. Its resemblance to Mycenaean Greek, as it is known from the Linear B corpus, suggests that Arcadocypriot is its descendant.

History [ edit ]

Proto-Arcadocypriot (around 1200 BC) is supposed to have been spoken by Achaeans in the Peloponnese before the arrival of Dorians, so it is also called southern Achaean. The isoglosses of the Cypriot and Arcadian dialects testify that the Achaeans had settled in Cyprus. As Pausanias reported:

Agapenor, the son of Ancaeus, the son of Lycurgus, who was king after Echemus, led the Arcadians to Troy. After the capture of Troy the storm that overtook the Greeks on their return home carried Agapenor and the Arcadian fleet to Cyprus, and so Agapenor became the founder of Paphos, and built the sanctuary of Aphrodite at Palaepaphos (Old Paphos).[3]

The establishment happened before 1100 BC. With the arrival of Dorians in the Peloponnese, a part of the population moved to Cyprus, and the rest was limited to the Arcadian mountains.

According to John T Hooker, the preferable explanation for the general historico-linguistic picture is

"that in the Bronze Age, at the time of the great Mycenaean expansion, a dialect of a high degree of uniformity was spoken both in Cyprus and in the Peloponnese but that at some subsequent epoch the speakers of West Greek intruded upon the Peloponnese and occupied the coastal states, but made no significant inroads into Arcadia."[4]

Later developments [ edit ]

After the collapse of the Mycenaean world, communication ended, and Cypriot was differentiated from Arcadian. It was written until the 3rd century BC using the Cypriot syllabary.[5][6]

Tsan was a letter in use only in Arcadia until around the 6th century BC. Arcadocypriot kept many characteristics of Mycenaean, early lost in Attic and Ionic, such as the /w/ sound (digamma).

Glossary [ edit ]

Arcadian [ edit ]

  • ἀμφιδεκάτηamphidekatê 21st of the month ἡ μετὰ εἰκάδα ἡμέρα (ampheikas)(dekatê tenth)
  • ἄνωδαanôda up-side (Attic ἄνωθε anôthe)
  • ἄρμωλαarmôla or ἀρμώμαλα armômala (Attic ἀρτύματα artymata ἀρτύω) food Seasoning
  • ἄσιστοςasistos nearest (Attic ἄγχιστος anchistos)
  • δάρινdarin or dareir (Attic σπιθαμή spithame inch) span of all fingers see Ancient Greek units of measurement
  • ἙκατόμβαιοςHecatombaios epithet for Apollo in Athens and for Zeus in Gortys (Arcadia) and Gortyna Crete
  • ϜιστίαυWistiau (Attic Hestiou, eponym genitive of Hestios) (Cf.Hestia and gistia)
  • ϝοῖνοςwoinos (Cypriot, Cretan, Delphic, Magna Graecian also) (Attic oinos) wine
  • ζέλλωzellô (Attic βάλλω ballô "throw, put, let, cast")
  • ζέρεθρονzerethron (Homeric, Attic βέρεθρον berethron pit) (Koine barathron)
  • θύρδαthyrda outside (Attic ἔξω exô, thyra door) (Paphian θόρανδε thorande)
  • ἴνin in, inside (Attic en) (Cypriot also)
  • κάθιδοςkathidos water-jug (Attic ὑδρία hydria) (Tarentine huetos)
  • κάςkas and (Attic καί kai) Cypriotic also
  • κίδαριςkidaris Arcadian dance (Athenaeus 14.631d.)[7] and Demetra Kidaria in Arcadia.
  • κόρϝαkorwa girl (Attic korê) (Pamphylian name Κορϝαλίνα Korwalina)
  • Κορτύνιοι Kortynioi (Kortys Gortys (Arcadia))
  • κυβήβηkubêbê boot, shoe (Attic hypodema)
  • ΛῆναιLênaiBacchae (Lenaeus Dionysus, Lenaia festival)
  • μωρίαιmôriai horses, cattle
  • οὔνηounê or ounei come on! Go! (Attic δεῦρο, δράμε deuro, drame)
  • πέσσεταιpessetai (Attic ὀπτᾶται optatai it is cooked, roasted)
  • ποςpos towards, into (Attic προς pros) (Cypriot also) ποσκατυβλάψη[8] poskatublapse (Attic proskatablapsei)
  • σίς[9]sis who, anyone (Attic tis) (Laconian tir) (Thessalian kis)(Cypr. sis (si se)

Cypriot [ edit ]

  • ἀβάθωνabathôn teacher (Attic didaskalos)
  • ἁβαριστάνabaristan (γυναικιζομένην) 'effeminate'
  • ἀβαρταίabartai birds, volatile (Attic hai ptênai, ta ptêna πτηνά)
  • ἀβλάξablax 'brightly wonderful' (Attic λαμπρῶς lambrôs) (α + βλάξ (blax) "idiot", blapto "harm")
  • ἀβρεμήςabremêsἀβλεπής, ἀνάξιος του βλέπεσθαι, 'unworthy of being seen, despicable'
  • ἁγάναhagana and agana (Attic σαγήνη sagênê 'dragnet')
  • ἄγαν θές (aganthes) (Attic σιώπα siôpa, 'shut up' ( "too much" + "put" (tithemi imp.)
  • ἄγκυραankura (Attic τριώβολον triôbolon, "three obols") (Attic ankura anchor)
  • ἀγλαόνaglaon (Attic γλαφυρόν glaphyron, "smooth, sweet, simple, decorated" (Cretan also), (Attic: aglaos "bright")
  • ἀγόρagor eagle (Attic ἀετός aetos)
  • ἀγχοῦροςanchoûros near the morning (from anchauros anchi + aurion tomorrow )
  • ἄδειὁςadeios (Attic akathartos), "cleanless, impure" (cf. Attic: adeios, adeia = "fearless, safe", Byzantine and Modern: adeios, adeia = "empty")
  • ἄδρυονadryon (ploion dugout canoe) (α + δρῦς)
  • ἀθρίζεινathrizein (Attic ῥιγοῦν rhigoun to shiver)
  • ἀίειςaieis 'you listen' (Attic ἀκούεις akoueis) (aïô only in poetic use)
  • αἰπόλοςaipolos (Koine kapêlos wine-seller) (Attic aipolos 'goatherd') (Attic pôleô sell)
  • ἀκεύειakeuei (Attic τηρεῖ terei he observes, maintains, keeps order)
  • ἄκμωνakmôn (Attic ἀλετρίβανος aletribanos plough or pestle) (Attic ἄκμων anvil, meteor) (Acmon mythology)
  • ἀκοστήakostêbarley (Attic κριθή krithê ) Cypr. according to Hsch., but Thess. for grain of all kinds according to Sch.Il.6.506.)
  • ἅλς hals (Attic oinos wine) (Attic ἅλς hals sea) (ἅλα *θάλασσαν (Α 141) vgAS ἢ οἶνος Κύπριοι)
  • ἀλάβηalabê or alaba (Attic μαρίλη marile charcoal-ember) λιγνύς. σποδός. καρκίνος. ἄνθρακες
  • ἀλειπτήριονaleipterion (Attic γραφεῖον grapheion writing utensil or place of writing and engraving) (Attic ἀλειφω aleiphô smear, rub)
  • ἄλευρονaleuron grave (Attic τάφος taphos )(leuros smooth, level, even )(Attic ἄλευρον wheat flour)
  • ἄλουαaloua gardens (Attic κῆποι kêpoi)
  • ἁλουργάhalourga the red things of the sea τὰ ἐκ τῆς θαλάσσης πορφυρᾶ Cypr. according to Hsch.
  • ἄνδαanda she (Attic αὕτη hautê)
  • ἄορονaoronlever μοχλός gateway πυλῶν door-keeper θυρωρός (Aeolic aoros unsleeped)
  • ἀούματαaoumatachaffs, straws left-overs of barleys τὰ τῶν πτισσομένων κριθῶν ἄχυρα (Cf. loumata, lumata)
  • ἀπέλυκα apelyka (Attic ἀπέῤῥωγα aperrhoga I am broken, crashed)
  • ἀπλανῆaplanê many, a lot (Attic πολλά) (Laconian ameremera) (Attic aplaneis unmoving, non wandering esp. for stars)
  • ἀποαἵρειapoairei (Attic ἀποκαθαίρει apokathairei he cleans, removes) (ἀπαίρω lead off, set out to sea)
  • ἀπόγεμεapogeme imp. remove out, draw off liquor(Attic ἄφελκε aphelke) (Attic γέμω gemô to be full of)
  • ἀπολοισθεῖνapoloisthein to finish complete (Attic ἀποτελεῖν apotelein)(ὅλος holos whole)
  • ἀπόλυγμαapolugmadenudation (Attic ἀπογύμνωσις apogymnôsis)(cf. apolouma)
  • ἀρὰς ἐπισπεῖραιaras epispeirai Cypriot cursing custom sowing barley with water σπειρόντων κριθὰς μεθ' ἁλὸς καταρᾶσθαί τισιν
  • ἄριζοςarizos grave (Attic taphos) (α + ῥίζα rhiza root)
  • ἄρμυλαarmula shoes (Attic ὑποδήματα hypodemata)
  • ἀρμώατοςarmôatos (Attic σπασμός spasmos spasm)
  • ἄρουραaroura 'heap of wheat with straws' σωρὸς σίτου σὺν ἀχύροις (Homeric, Ionic ἄρουρα aroura earth)
  • ἄρπιξarpix harpix or aprix acanthus "species of thorn", εἶδος ἀκάνθης (Attic aprix fast, tight)
  • αὔγαροςaugaros (Attic ἄσωτος asôtos unsaved, wasteful, prodigal)
  • αὐεκίζεινauekizein (Attic σφακελίζειν sphakelizein produce gangrene)
  • ἈχαιομάντειςAchaiomanteis seers, priests in Cyprus (Hesychius)
  • βᾶλλαιballai (Attic βαθμοί bathmoi grades, steps, stages) (Aeolic arrows)
  • βλάσταblasta (Attic βλάστησις blastesis Vegetation)
  • βομβοίαbomboia (Attic κολυμβὰς ἐλαία kolumbas elaia pickled olive, swimming in brine)(Attic kolumbaô dive, swim)
  • βορβορίζειborborizeiγογγύζει. μολύνει it groans, pollutes
  • βουκανῆboukanêanemone flower ἀνεμώνη (bukanê trumpet)
  • βουνόςbounos (Attic στιβάς stibas bed of straw, reeds, leaves) (Koine bounos hill, mountain)
  • βοώνηταboôneta (Attic 'purchased things in the price of cows') τιμῆς βοῶν ἠγορασμένα (Cypriot unholy things)
  • βρένθιξbrenthix (Attic θριδακίνη thridakine lettuce)
  • βρίγκαbrinka small (Attic μικρόν mikron)
  • βριμάζεινbrimazeinorgasmizeὀργᾷν εἰς συνουσίαν (Brimô mythology) (brimaomai freak, be enraged)
  • βροῦκαbrouka green locust χλωρὰν ἀκρίδα (Ionic broukos)
  • βρούχετοςbrouchetos frog (Attic βάτραχος bathrachos) (Hsch. brouchetos pit βάραθρον)
  • βύβλιοιbyblioi gravekeepers
  • γάνοςganos garden pl. ganea (Hebrew gan 'garden')
  • γέμοις νυgemois nulit."you may be full, filled now" Hsch.λαβέ καὶ κάθιζε take and sit
  • γένεσιςgenesislibation (Attic σπονδή sponde)
  • γοᾶναιgoanai (Attic κλαίειν klaiein to cry) (goaô moan)
  • γρᾶgra or grasthi "eat (imp)" (Attic φάγε phage) (Attic graô gnaw) (Sanskrit grasate eat) (PIE *gres- devour) (Salaminian καγρᾶkagra kata + graô Koine kataphagas gluttonous)
  • δαματρίζεινdamatrizeinτὸ συνάγειν τὸν Δημητριακὸν καρπόν "collect the fuits of Demeter"
  • δεῖνdein 'turn' (Attic στρέφειν strephein (cf. Attic: deo tie)
  • δίπτυονdiptuon (Attic hemimedimnos, a dry measure) (Aeolic kammarpsis)
  • διφθεραλοιφόςdiphtheraloiphos elementary teacher γραμματοδιδάσκαλος grammatodidaskalos ( aleiphô "smear" + diphthera "goatskin, writing-material, parchment"
  • δρόσοςdrososἀχρείοςachreios "needless, useless" (Attic drosos dew)
  • δύσεαdusea (the things around the wall) τοῦ τοίχου τὰ πέριξ
  • ἔαρear (Attic αἷμα haima blood) (Attic Ear Spring (season))
  • Ἔγχειος Encheios Ἀφροδίτη
  • ἔλαψαelapsa (Attic διέφθειρα diephtheira I harmed)
  • ἔλφοςelphosbutter (Attic βούτυρον boutyron)
  • ἔναυὁνenauonἔνθες put in, ignite εναύοντες ἀνάπτοντες πυρί. τὰ γὰρ σμήνη τῶν μελισσῶν διώκουσι διὰ πυρὸς καὶ καπνοῦ A (n)
  • ἔπιξαepixa (Attic ὄρνεα ornea birds)
  • ἐροῦντεςerountes (Attic λέγοντες legontes the saying) (Attic erountes the ones who will say)
  • ἐρούαeroua walk and rest πορεύου,αναπαύου (cf. Homeric erôeô)
  • ἔστηestê (Attic στολή stolê, equipment, garment) (cf. esthês clothing)
  • ζάειzaei (Attic κινεῖ καὶ πνεῖ it moves and blows) (zaei binei, inire, coïre, of illicit intercourse)
  • θᾶτεςthates or thutes manual labourers (Attic θῆτες thêtes) (see Timocracy)
  • θεῖονtheiοn (Attic ἴγδιον igdion mortar) (Aristophanes θυεία thyeia igdion mortar)
  • θίβωνthibôn (Koine thibis ark, basket) (Hebrew tēbhāh ark, from Egyptian tebt 'box')
  • θρόδαξthrodax (Attic θρίδαξ thridax lettuce)
  • θύα thua flavourings ἀρτύματα. Κύπριοι. ἔνιοι τὰ ἀρώματα. Καλλίμαχος (fr.564). Εὔπολις (fr. 108,2) τὰ πέμματα. λέγεται δὲ καὶ τὰ θυόμενα ταῖν θεαῖν
  • ἵγαhiga shut up (Attic σιώπα siôpa) (Cretan iga)
  • ἱμονιάhimonia strap (Attic ἵμας himas)
  • ἳνhin dat. and acc. of the old pers. Pron. hi (q.v.). in, Arc., Cypr., and Cret. for en (q.v.)[10]
  • καλίνδιναkalindina intestines (Attic ἔντερα entera) (PIE: ghel-ond-, ghol-n•d- stomach; bowels) (Homeric cholades) (Macedonian gola)
  • καχίλαkachila flowers (Attic ἄνθη anthê)
  • κενεά (Attic ἀναδενδράδες anadendrades climbing vineyards) (Attic kena kenea vain
  • κίβισιςkibisis bag (Attic πήρα pêra) (Aetolian kibba)
  • κίλλοςkillos morning cicada ( τέττιξ πρωϊνὸς tettix proinos) (Hesychius killos donkey)
  • ΚινυράδαιKinyradai priests of Aphrodite ἱερεῖς Ἀφροδίτης
  • κίριςkiris or kirris (cypriotic epithet for Adonis) (Laconian kirris λύχνος lychnos light, lamp)
  • κίτταριςkittaris Cypriot Diadem.Κίτταροι Kittaroi, the ones who wear it
  • κιχητόςkichêtos the vessel or the substance where the censer(Attic libanôtos) is being dyed εἰς ὃ ἐμβάπτεται ὁ λιβανωτός
  • κυνύπισμαkunupisma drink from pomace (stemphyla), i.e. left-overs of pressed grapes.
  • λήνεα lênea or λείνα leina (Attic ἔρια eria wools)
  • μόψοςmopsos 'stain on the clothes' (Attic kêlis κηλὶς ἡ ἐν τοῖς ἱματίοις) (Mopsus mythology) (Mopsopia old name of Attica and Attic tales of Euphorion of Chalcis)
  • μύθαmytha voice (Attic φωνή phonê mythos μυθέομαι mytheomai speak narrate)
  • μυλάσασθαιmulasasthai cleanse with oil (Attic σμήξασθαι smêxasthai σμήχω smêchô)
  • ὄλινοιolinoisheaves of barley ὄλινοι κριθῆς δέσμαι. καὶ ὤλενος παρὰ Κυπρίοις
  • ὀρτόςortos (Attic βωμός bômos altar)
  • οὐάραιouarai we (Attic ἡμεῖς hemeis)
  • οὔαρονouaron olive oil (Attic ἔλαιον elaion)
  • οὖνονounon or ounos road (Attic odos) (Koine dromos)
  • πέσσονpesson (Attic ὄρος mountain or χωρίον village)
  • πιλνόνpilnon (Attic φαιόν phaion obscure brown, πελιδνόν pelidnon livid (blue, green/ dark)
  • πρέπονprepon beast (Attic τέρας teras beast)(prepôn -ontos, a fish) (Attic prepon -ntos suitable)
  • Πυγμαίων Pygmaion Ἄδωνις Adonis
  • ῥύειναrhueina lamb, accusative (Attic ἄρνα arna)(nom. rhuein, arên from Wrêna)
  • σί βόλεsi bole? (Attic τί βούλει; ti boulei? what do you want?)
  • σίγυνονsigunon (Attic ἀκόντιον akontion spear)[11]

Paphian [ edit ]

  • ἐπίκορονepicoron (Attic ἐπίκοπον epikopon) cutting, re-stamped coin (from keirô and koptô cut)
  • ἐς πόθ' ἕρπεςes poth' herpes? (Attic πόθεν ἥκειςpothen hekeis? where do you come from?) (Attic ἕρπεινherpein to creep, to crawl, move slowly like a serpent
  • εὐτρόσσεσθαιeutrossesthai (Attic ἐπιστρέφεσθαι epistrephesthai return)
  • θόρανδεthorande (Attic ἔξω exo outside) θύρα thyra door
  • ἵγγιαhingia one (Cypr. ingia) (εἷς heis) (Cretan itton hen one)
  • ἰμίτραιονimitraion (Hsch.ὑπόζωστον hypozoston under-girdle, rope of ship
  • ἰμπάταὁνimpataon (Attic ἔμβλεψον emblepson look inside -imperative) (Hsch. inkapathaon enkatablepson)
  • κάβειοςkabeios young (Attic νέος neos)
  • καβλήkablê (Koine μάνδαλος mandalos latch)
  • κακκέρσαιkakkersai (Attic κατακόψαι katakopsai to cut, slay) (kata + keirô cut)
  • καλέχεοkalecheo (Attic κατάκεισο katakeiso lay down -imperative) (Homeric λέχος lechos bed)
  • καπατάξειςkapataxeis (Attic κατακόψεις katakopseis you will cut, slay)
  • κάῤῥαξονkarrhaxon (Attic κατάραξον kataraxon strike -imperative) (kata + arassô
  • κατέρεαιkatereai (Atticκάθισαι kathisa sit)
  • κίβοςkibos (Attic kibôtos ark or ἐνεός eneos speechless)
  • κιδνόνkidnon here (Attic ἐνθάδε enthade)
  • κόρζαkorza or korzia heart ( Attic καρδία kardia ) ( Ionic kardiê )( Homeric kradiê ) ( Aeolic karza )
  • κύβοςkubos saucer bowl dish (Attic τρύβλιον trublion) (Attic kubos cube)
  • λιμήνlimênἀγορά and (ἐνδιατριβή endiatribê delay, abide, stay) (Attic λιμήν limên port, harbour)
  • μοχοῖmochoi inside (Attic ἐντός entos)(cf.muchos innermost part, nook, corner)
  • σάπιθοςsapithos sacrifice (Attic θυσία thysia)
  • σάσαιsasai to sit (Attic καθίσαι kathisai) (cf. Poetic thassô sit, thôkos backless throne)
  • σέςses (Attic ἔλαθες elathes you were hidden, escaped notice see λανθάνω lanthano)
  • σίαἱsihai to spit (Attic πτύσαι ptusai to spit, cast out)
  • σοάναsoana (Attic ἀξίνη axinê axe)
  • στροπάstropa (Attic ἀστραπή astrapê) (Homeric sterope, lightning flash)
  • ὕεσιhuesi (Koine στολή stolê "garment", (Attic ἀμφίεσις amphiesis clothing, Hsch. ὑεστάκα huestaka)
  • ΦάπηPhapêΠαφία Paphia (Paphian Aphrodite)

See also [ edit ]

References [ edit ]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Arcadocypriot". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Roger D. Woodard (2008), "Greek dialects", in: The Ancient Languages of Europe, ed. R. D. Woodard, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 51.
  3. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece8.5.1
  4. ^ John T Hooker, Mycenaean Greece (Routledge Revivals). Routledge, 2014 ISBN 1317751221 p164
  5. ^ Kypros, Salamis, c. 600 BC [1]
  6. ^ Kypros — Kourion ~320 BC [2]
  7. ^ Mortals and Immortals [3] by Jean-Pierre Vernant
  8. ^ Arkadia — Tegea — 4th century BC IG V,2 6 38
  9. ^ Arkadia — Mantineiastoichedon. — 5th century BC [4]
  10. ^ LSJ
  11. ^ Aristotle, Poetics, XXI [5]

Bibliography [ edit ]

  • A History of Ancient Greek: From the Beginnings to Late Antiquity- Arcado-Cypriot by A.Panayotou
  • C. M. Bowra Homeric Words in Arcadian Inscriptions
  • Yves Duhoux. Introduction aux dialectes grecs anciens. Lounain-la-Neuve: Cabay, 1983 ISBN 2-87077-177-0
  • Rüdiger Schmitt. Einführung in die griechischen Dialekte. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1977 ISBN 3-534-05672-8
  • Markus Egetmeyer. Le dialecte grec ancien de Chypre. 2 vols., vol. 1: Grammaire; vol. 2: Répertoire des inscriptions en syllabaire chypro-grec. Berlin–NY: De Gruyter, 2010.

Further reading [ edit ]

  • Bakker, Egbert J., ed. 2010. A companion to the Ancient Greek language. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Christidis, Anastasios-Phoivos, ed. 2007. A history of Ancient Greek: From the beginnings to Late Antiquity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Colvin, Stephen C. 2007. A historical Greek reader: Mycenaean to the koiné. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Horrocks, Geoffrey. 2010. Greek: A history of the language and its speakers. 2nd ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Palmer, Leonard R. 1980. The Greek language. London: Faber & Faber.
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