Bosniakisation designates the process of ethnic and cultural assimilation of non-Bosniak individuals or groups into the Bosniak ethnocultural corpus. Historically, bosniakisation was directed mainly towards some other South Slavic groups, like ethnic Muslims (Muslimani) in former Yugoslavia. Since Bosniaks are Sunni Muslims, Bosniakisation was also manifested towards some distinctive ethnoreligious minorities within Serbian and Croatian national corpus, mainly towards Serbian Muslims and Croatian Muslims.
History [ edit ]
This process was initiated in Bosnia and Herzegovina, originally during the period of Austro-Hungarian administration (1878–1918), when the first political projects were designed to create an integral "Bosnian", and then a special "Bosniak" nation. An integral "Bosnian" project proved to be unachievable even during the Austro-Hungarian administration, since not only the Bosnian Serbs, but also the Bosnian Croatians gave a determined resistance to the creation of an integral "Bosnian" nation. Therefore, the focus was transferred to a special "Bosniak" project, which acquired a certain foothold in the Bosnian-Herzegovinian governor. The key role in the design and implementation of these projects was played by Austro-Hungarian Minister Benjamin Kalai, who from 1882 to 1903 was responsible for Bosnia and Herzegovina.
As a foothold for Bosniak ethnogenesis and history, Bogomilism and a non-Slavic origin had been contrived. Then after the direct influence of the Ottoman Conquest, a cultural identity was imposed (through the process of Islamization). This gave to the ultimate expression of a Bosniak specificity, which has led to the religious doctrine of ethnos. The Bosniak project was restarted at the time of the breakup of Yugoslavia, when Yugoslavian Muslims decided to rename themselves ethnic "Bosniaks". This process initially affected much of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and then spread to northeastern Montenegro and southwestern Serbia, including the Raška region, as well as parts of Kosovo and Metohija.
Bosniakisation was often manifested through cultural and educational programs. In 1996, the Atlantic Council of the United States noted that "Non-Muslims in Sarajevo, Tuzla, and other areas under Bosniak control feel increasingly alienated in their own communities as a result of a wide array of government decisions, from the "Bosniakization" of the school curriculum". Specific forms of Bosniakisation were also integrated into linguistic policy, and perception of regional history.
Insisting on the imposition of Bosniaks and the spreading of a Bosniak project outside of Bosnia, a controversy erupted on the part of Yugoslav ethnic Muslims primarily in Serbia and Montenegro. In opposing the imposition of Bosniaks, president of the Muslim Matica in Montenegro, Dr. Avdul Kurpejović explicitly stressed in 2014 that the "Greater Bosniak Nationalist, Islamic Assimilation Program" is based exactly on the Islamic Declaration of Alija Izetbegović.
See also [ edit ]
- Bosniak nationalism
- Muslims (ethnic group)
- Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina
References [ edit ]
- Kurpejović 2014.
- Kraljačić 1987.
- Чедомир Антић. "Савремени српско-хрватски односи". www.napredniklub.org.
- Atlantic Council of the United States 1996.
- Lehfeldt 1999, p. 89.
- Džaja 2002, p. 245.
- Авдул Курпејовић (2014): Муслимани су национална мањина
Nomachi, Motoki (2019). "The Gorani People in Search of Identity: The Current Sociolinguistic Situation Among the Gorani Community of the Former Yugoslavia". Sapporo, Japan.
Cite journal requires
- Dankaz, Musa (2018). The Gorani People During the Kosovo War: Ethnic Identity in the Conflict. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: La Salle University. pp. 51, 52, 75, 77–78.
Literature [ edit ]
- Atlantic Council of the United States (1996). Bosnia's Security and US Policy in the Next Phase: A Policy Paper. Washington: International Research and Exchanges Board.
- Dimitrova, Bohdana (2001). "Bosniak or Muslim? Dilemma of one Nation with two Names" (PDF). Southeast European Politics. 2 (2): 94–108.
- Đečević, Mehmed; Vuković-Ćalasan, Danijela; Knežević, Saša (2017). "Re-designation of Ethnic Muslims as Bosniaks in Montenegro: Local Specificities and Dynamics of This Process". East European Politics and Societies and Cultures. 31 (1): 137–157. doi:10.1177/0888325416678042.
- Džaja, Srećko M. (2002). Die politische Realität des Jugoslawismus (1918-1991): Mit besonderer Berücksichtigung Bosnien-Herzegowinas. München: R. Oldenbourg Verlag. ISBN 9783486566598.
- Jović, Dejan (2013). "Identitet Bošnjaka/Muslimana". Politička Misao: Časopis Za Politologiju. 50 (4): 132–159.
- Kraljačić, Tomislav (1987). Kalajev režim u Bosni i Hercegovini (1882-1903). Sarajevo: Veselin Masleša.
- Kurpejović, Avdul (2014). Analiza nacionalne diskriminacije i asimilacije Muslimana Crne Gore. Podgorica: Matica muslimanska Crne Gore. ISBN 9789940620035.
- Kurpejović, Avdul (2018). Ko smo mi Muslimani Crne Gore (PDF). Podgorica: Matica muslimanska Crne Gore.
- Lehfeldt, Werner (1999). "Zur gegenwärtigen Situation des Bosnischen". Wiener Slavistisches Jahrbuch. 45: 83–90.
- Pokos, Nenad; Hasanbegović, Zlatko (2014). "(Tro)jedan narod: Bošnjaci, Muslimani i Hrvati muslimani u Hrvatskoj u popisima stanovništva 2001. i 2011. godine". Društvena Istraživanja. 23 (3): 427–448. doi:10.5559/di.23.3.03.
- Tanasković, Darko (2000). Islam i mi (1. ed.). Beograd: Partenon.