China–Kazakhstan relations

Kazakhstan-People's Republic of China relations
Map indicating locations of People's Republic of China and Kazakhstan


Kazakhstani President Nursultan Nazarbayev and Chinese President Xi Jinping.

China-Kazakhstan relations[1][2]Kazakh: Қазақ-Қытай қарым-қатынасы, romanized: Kazak-Kitai Karim-Katinasy; Chinese: 中哈關係 / Zhongha Guanxi) refer to the relations between historical China and the Kazakhs up to the modern relations between the PRC and Kazakhstan. Ever since the establishment of diplomatic relations in 1992, friendly and stable political, cultural, and economic ties have developed between the two.[3] Kazakhstan recognizes the PRC as representing all of China and supports Chinese unification.[4] The Communist Party of China and Kazakhstan's Nur Otan have good ties. China has said that it values exchanges between the two parties and hopes to strengthen ties and cooperation even further.[5]

Currently, the PRC established an embassy in Astana[6]; Kazakhstan established one in Beijing.[7]

History [ edit ]

Historians say that China came in contact with the Kazakhstan region since as early as the 2nd century BC.[8] The Kazakhstan region was very useful between China and the West.[9]

Han dynasty [ edit ]

During the Han Dynasty, one of Kazakhstan's ancestors, the Wusun, practiced heqin (intermarriage) with the Chinese, marking the beginning of relations.[10] During the rule of Emperor Wu of Han, Zhang Qian was the official dispatched to the Western Regions (西域 xiyu) to help the Wusun against the Xiongnu. Since the Wusun did not want to cooperate with the Xiongnu, they allied with the Han dynasty to defeat the Xiongnu (Han–Xiongnu War).

The Battle of Zhizhi (郅支之戰) was fought in 36 BC[11][12] between the Han Dynasty and the Xiongnu chieftain Zhizhi Chanyu. Zhizhi was defeated and killed.[13] The battle was probably fought near Taraz on the Talas River in eastern Kazakhstan, which makes it one of the westernmost points reached by a Chinese army (Protectorate of the Western Regions).

Tang [ edit ]

During the Tang dynasty, China established the Anxi Protectorate. Later in 751 the Battle of Talas was fought in the same area as the Battle of Zhizhi.

Mongols [ edit ]

In the 13th century, Genghis Khan briefly unified the two regions under the Mongol Empire.

Qing [ edit ]

The Kazakh Khanate allied with Qing Dynasty against Dzungar Khanate.

Long before the founding of the Kazakh nation, the Kazakhs established ties with the Chinese western regions (xiyu). In 1456, Kelie (克烈) and Jianibieke (贾尼别克) defected to the Moghulistan, which controlled the xiyu. Esen Buqa II gave the western part of the western border in Zhetysu to two Kazakh kings. This provided the initial establishment of the Kazakh khanate. Since then the two countries have joined forces against enemies and intermarried, but they have also fought each other. In the 16th century, a group of Oirat Mongolians crossed the Altai Mountains from the Mongolian Plateau to enter the xiyu and then entered the Kazakh Steppe. In 1640, the Dzungars unified the various ministries of Oirat Mongolia and formed the Dzungar khanate. In 1680 the Dzungars defeated the Yarkent Khanate in Southern Xinjiang and unified the Chinese western regions. In the 17th century, the Dzungars defeated the second of three Zhuz's of the Kazakh khanate. The Kazakhs faced a crisis.[14]

By 1755, the Qianlong Emperor sent troops to wipe out the Dzungar Dawachi regime and ordered people to recruit the Kazakhs.[15] The tribal alliance led by Ablai Khan expressed understanding and support for the Qing troops against the Dzungars; and people to the Qing army camp before Qianlong.[15] In 1757, Dzungar nobleman Amursana fled to Abulai (阿布赉) after the rebellion failed. Abulai intended to conquer capture Amur and deliver him to the Qing court.[15] After the Qing defeated the Dzungar and arrived at Lake Balkhash, Abulai joined the Qing and sent envoys to the Chengde Mountain Resort to provide horses. In the end the Kazakh tribes, led by Abulai belonged to the Qing.[15] To show his commemoration, Qianlong bestowed the title of Khan on Abulai and let him lead all the Kazakhs. Since then Kazakh tribes have continuously paid tribute to the Qing.[15] Abulai had sent his descendants to Beijing to study, thus spreading the etiquette of China at that time to Central Asia.[16]

Due to the conflict between Russian Empire and Kazakh Khanate, many Kazakhs fled to Qing Dynasty.

In 1862, Russian Cossack cavalry invaded Xinjiang and defeated Manchu troops, occupying 580,000 square kilometers, including a large part of present-day Kazakhstan.[17] In 1864, China and Russia signed the Treaty of Demarcation of the Northwest Frontier (勘分西北界约记), which ceded part of the territory of China's northwest frontier to Russia. After that, some Kazakh tribes returned to China. The Qing government implemented a 1,000-family system in Kazakh tribes. Kazakhs had to pay taxes and accept direct jurisdiction from the central government.[18] During the Tsar's rule, a large amount of Kazakh land was converted into immigrant areas, the number of livestock was greatly reduced, and the nomadic herdsmen's life deteriorated. Therefore, a large number of Kazakhs migrated to China in order to survive.[19] During the First World War, the Tsar government recruited Kazakhs for military service, causing Kazakhs to rebel and revolt. More than 300,000 nomads fled to China to avoid repression.[20]

Modern times [ edit ]

Before the fall of the Soviet Union, the People's Republic of China and Kazakhstan (while in the Soviet Union) were previously communist states.

The People's Republic of China and Kazakhstan formed diplomatic relations on January 3, 1992. The two nations signed their first boundary agreement in April 1994, a supplementary agreement in September, 1997, and their second supplementary boundary agreement in July 1998 to mark their 1,700 kilometres (1,100 mi) shared border.[21] In 1993, the President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev made an official visit to Beijing at the invitation of the then-Chinese President Jiang Zemin. Since then, the leaders of China and Kazakhstan have frequently exchanged high-level official visits. In 1996, both nations became co-founders of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation.[21] New Kazakh President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev was educated in China.[22]

Development of bilateral relations [ edit ]

Kyrgyz deliver a white horse as a gift to the Qianlong Emperor of China (1757), soon after the Qing conquest of Xinjiang. Soon, intensive trade started in Kulja and Chuguchak, Kyrgyz horses, sheep and goats being traded for Chinese silk and cotton fabrics.[23]
The railway crossing from China to Kazakshtan between Alashankou and Dostyk. Around 10 million ton of rail freight crosses the border here annually.[24][25]

China and Kazakhstan have promoted a rapid expansion of commerce and partnership over economic development, especially in harnessing Kazakhstan's oil, natural gas, minerals and other major energy resources.[26][27] Owing to rapidly expanding domestic energy needs, China has sought to obtain a leading role in cultivating and developing energy industries in Kazakhstan.[27] Along with operating four smaller oil fields, the China National Petroleum Corporation in 2005 bought Petrokazakhstan, that was the former Soviet Union's largest independent oil company, for US$4.18 billion and spent another USD 700 million on a pipeline that will take the oil to the Chinese border. Petrokazakhstan was the largest foreign purchase ever by a Chinese company.[26] By 2016, Chinese companies (e.g. China National Petroleum Corporation, Sinopec and other) invested more than US$20 billion in the petroleum sector of Kazakhstan.[28]

In 2009 China lent $10 billion to Kazakhstan and gained a stake in MangistauMunaiGas.[29]

On October 16, 2013, the Kazakhstan Majilis and China's Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPCSC) signed a memorandum of understanding. The agreement is the most important legislations signed between the two nations that further bilateral relations. The legislation helps both parliaments meet together to discuss bilateral issues amongst one another.[30]

Strategic cooperation [ edit ]

Aimed at bolstering regional partnership on regional security, economic development and fighting terrorism and drug trafficking amongst Central Asian nations, Kazakhstan and China become co-founders of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO).[21] In developing ties with China, Kazakhstan aims to balance the geopolitical and economic influence of its northern neighbour Russia.[26][27] However, potential conflicts exist around China's cultural ties between the Kazakh people and the Uighurs of China's Xinjiang province, which could influence a Uighur separatist movement.[27] China also aims to prevent the growth of U.S. influence in the region and the possible establishment of American air bases in Kazakhstan.[26][27] In 1997, both nations signed an agreement to reduce the presence of military forces along the common border along with Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan.[21]

Border agreements [ edit ]

The Sino-Russian border set forth in the Protocol of Chuguchak (1864). Today's Sino-Kazakh border largely follows the line set in this protocol, with only fairly small changes

The origins of the border line between China and Kazakhstan date from the mid-19th century, when the Russian empire was able to establish its control over the Lake Zaysan region. The establishment of the border between the Russian Empire and the Qing Empire, not too different from today's Sino-Kazakh border was provided for in the Convention of Peking of 1860;[31] the actual border line pursuant to the convention was drawn by the Protocol of Chuguchak (1864), leaving Lake Zaysan on the Russian side.[32][33] The Qing Empire's military presence in the Irtysh basin crumbled during the Dungan revolt (1862–77). After the fall of the rebellion and the reconquest of Xinjiang by Zuo Zongtang, the border between the Russian and the Qing empires in the Irtysh basin was further slightly readjusted, in Russia's favor, by the Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1881).

After the Xinhai Revolution and the Chinese Civil War, the October Revolution and the Russian Civil War in Russia, the Sino-Russian border became the PRC-USSR border. However, the Chinese and Soviet authorities were not always in agreement where the border line run on the ground, which led, in particular to a border conflict east of lake Zhalanashkol in August 1969.

After Kazakhstan became an independent country, it negotiated a border treaty with China, which was signed in Almaty on April 26, 1994, and ratified by the Kazakh president on June 15, 1995. According to the treaty, a narrow strip of hills east of Zhalanashkol which the USSR and China had contested in 1969 have become recognized as part of China.[34]

To delineate certain small sections of the border more precisely, additional agreements were signed on 24 September 1997 and 4 July 1998.[35] Over the next several years, the border was demarcated on the ground by joint commissions. According to the commissions protocols and maps, the two countries' border line is 1782.75 km long, including 1215.86 km of land border and 566.89 km of border line run along (or across) rivers or lakes. The commissions' work was documented by several joint protocols, finalized with the Protocol signed in Beijing on May 10, 2002.[35]

Cross-border water management [ edit ]

The two most important rivers of eastern Kazakhstan, the Irtysh and the Ili, flow from China. Their waters are extensively used for irrigation and urban water supply in both countries (in particular, via China's Irtysh–Karamay–Ürümqi Canal and Kazakhstan's Irtysh–Karaganda Canal). Besides, the Ili is the main source of water for Kazakhstan's Lake Balkhash, and the smaller Emil River, also flowing from China, supplies water to Kazakhstan's Lake Alakol. Accordingly, since the 1990s, the increasing use of the two transboundary rivers' water in China has been of concern for Kazakhstan's environmentalists and politicians.[36][37] Bilateral negotiations are periodically conducted on the related issues.[37][38]

Cultural ties [ edit ]

Some say Kazakhstan is the most influential Central Asian country and is an important gateway for cultural exchanges between China and Central Asia.[39] Kazakhstan advocates solving global issues via mutual cooperation and relies on supranational organizations to achieve cooperation between civilizations. Kazakhstan is not only a representative of Central Asia, but also the embodiment of Muslim civilization and has influence around the world. Thus China can learn from Kazakhstan and the two from each other mutually. The countries can set up an example of cross-cultural cooperation so that the people of Central Asia and China can better understand each other.[40]

Indeed President Nazarbayev once said that both China and Kazakhstan have a long common history, similar traditions and cultures, and are multi-ethnic countries. Therefore, cultural exchanges between the two countries are very important.[41] In August 1992, the Chinese and Kazakh governments signed the "Agreement on Cultural Cooperation between the Government of the People's Republic of China and the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan" (中华人民共和国政府和哈萨克斯坦共和国政府文化合作协定). The Agreement serves as a platform for guiding cultural exchanges between the two countries. The two cultures hold cultural activities on the basis of the Agreement.[42]

Beijing held a "Kazakhstan culture day" (it actually lasted more than one day, between 2013 November 5-8).[43] Urumqi stages Kazakh huaju (话剧, dramas), which have even been attended by numerous leaders of the province.[44] The city also hosted a Kazakh film premiere.[45] China and Kazakhstan jointly applied for a section of the Silk Road to become a world heritage site, and the application was approved.[46] Kazakhstan and China designated 2017 as the 'year of tourism' between the two countries.[47]

Emigrants [ edit ]

Since 2000 the number of Chinese immigrants in Kazakhstan increased significantly.[48] According to a 2010 study, 68% of Kazakhs said they lived alongside Chinese citizens in their cities; 56% thought there were not that many Chinese, while 36% thought there were many.[48] Most thought that the Chinese were there to find jobs (57%) and do business (49%). A smaller number thought they were there for other purposes, including marriage (8%), acquisition of citizenship (6%), and acquisition of property (4%).[48]

Kazakhstan has more than 100,000 Donggan people (東干人) who fled from Xian, Shaanxi province more than 100 years ago. After the Chinese economic reform, they went to Xinjiang to do trade and imported technology from Xi'an to develop Kazakhstan's economy.[46] As for Kazakhs in China, most live in northern Xinjiang, with a smaller number in Gansu and Qinghai.[49] According to data from mid-2014, China has nearly 8,000 Kazakh students, and Kazakhstan also has Chinese students.[50]

Bibliography [ edit ]

  • Cardenal, Juan Pablo; Araújo, Heriberto (2011). La silenciosa conquista china (in Spanish). Barcelona: Crítica. pp. 59–70.
  • Jin Noda (6 April 2016). The Kazakh Khanates between the Russian and Qing Empires: Central Eurasian International Relations during the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-31447-4.
  • NODA, Jin; ONUMA, Takahiro (2010). "A Collection of Documents from the Kazakh Sultans to the Qing Dynasty". Crosroads. TIAS Central Eurasian Research Series. Department of Islamic Area Studies, Center for Evolving Humanities, Graduate School of Humanities and Sociology, The University of Tokyo (Special Issue 1): i-176. ISBN 978-4-904039-17-5.
  • Nurlan, KENZHEAKHMET (October 2013). "The Qazaq Khanate as Documented in Ming Dynasty Sources". Crosroads (8): 131–156.
  • Smagulova, Anar. "XVIII - XIX CENTURIES. IN THE MANUSCRIPTS OF THE KAZAKHS OF CHINA". Ust-Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan: East Kazakhstan State University.

References [ edit ]

  1. ^ "中国同哈萨克斯坦的关系". 中华人民共和国驻哈萨克斯坦共和国大使馆. Archived from the original on 2014-09-06. Retrieved 2014-09-06. (in Chinese)
  2. ^ 郭琼 (2014-07-24). "中国向西开放视角下的中哈关系". 现代国际关系. Archived from the original on 2014-09-07. Retrieved 2014-12-23. (in Chinese)
  3. ^ Kazankapova Marzhan (2013). 哈萨克斯坦投资环境研究. 江南大学. [permanent dead link] (in Chinese)
  4. ^ "中华人民共和国和哈萨克斯坦共和国关于进一步深化全面战略伙伴关系的联合宣言". 中华人民共和国外交部. 2013-09-08. Archived from the original on 2014-03-31. (in Chinese)
  5. ^ 廖雷; 赵宇; 苗苗 (2010-11-11). "贾庆林会见哈萨克斯坦总统纳扎尔巴耶夫". 新华社. Archived from the original on 2014-10-06. Retrieved 2014-10-26. (in Chinese)
  6. ^ "驻哈萨克斯坦共和国大使馆". 中华人民共和国外交部. Archived from the original on 2014-10-06. Retrieved 2014-10-26. (in Chinese)
  7. ^ "哈萨克斯坦共和国". 中国领事服务网. Archived from the original on 2014-09-11. Retrieved 2014-10-26. (in Chinese)
  8. ^ Сергей Балмасов (2013-02-24). Китайский дракон готов к поглощению Казахстана. Агентство политических новостей. Archived from the original on 2014-09-12. Retrieved 2014-12-09. (in Russian)
  9. ^ 莊一言 (2014-10-26). "與前蘇3國邊界基本解決". 明報. Archived from the original on 2015-02-22. Retrieved 2014-10-26. (in Chinese)
  10. ^ 刘国俊 (2012-06-26). 李铭 (ed.). "《皇清职贡图》:绘不完的民族情谊". 新疆日报. Archived from the original on 2014-09-07. (in Chinese)
  11. ^ Peers, Chris (1995). Imperial Chinese Armies:200 Bc-589 Ad. 1. Osprey Publishing. p. 39. ISBN 978-1-85532-514-2. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
  12. ^ Peers, Chris (2006). Soldiers of the Dragon: Chinese Armies 1500 BC-AD 1840. Osprey Publishing. p. 146. ISBN 978-18460-309-87. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
  13. ^ Grousset, Rene (1970). The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-8135-1304-1.
  14. ^ 刘国俊 (2012-06-26). 李铭 (ed.). "《皇清职贡图》:绘不完的民族情谊". 新疆日报. Archived from the original on 2014-09-07. (in Chinese)
  15. ^ a b c d e 刘国俊 (2012-06-26). 李铭 (ed.). "《皇清职贡图》:绘不完的民族情谊". 新疆日报. Archived from the original on 2014-09-07. (in Chinese)
  16. ^ 莊一言 (2014-10-26). "與前蘇3國邊界基本解決". 明報. Archived from the original on 2015-02-22. Retrieved 2014-10-26. (in Chinese)
  17. ^ "俄羅斯對中國的百年侵略". 黃花崗雜誌. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2014-10-26. (in Chinese)
  18. ^ "哈萨克 历史沿革". 《民族问题五种丛书》(〈中国少数民族〉卷). Archived from the original on 2014-09-12. Retrieved 2014-10-26. (in Chinese)
  19. ^ 李刚 (September 2006). "清末民初新疆与哈萨克斯坦哈萨克族人口变迁刍议". 新疆大学学报. Archived from the original on 2014-09-14. (in Chinese)
  20. ^ 李刚 (September 2006). "清末民初新疆与哈萨克斯坦哈萨克族人口变迁刍议". 新疆大学学报. Archived from the original on 2014-09-14. (in Chinese)
  21. ^ a b c d "Brief introduction to relations between China and Kazakhstan". China Daily. 2003-05-27. Retrieved 2008-10-10.
  22. ^ "中外文化交流的见证者与推动者(辉煌·纪念改革开放40周年)". People's Daily. 2008-07-10. Retrieved 2019-07-13.
  23. ^ Millward, James A. (2007), Eurasian crossroads: a history of Xinjiang, Columbia University Press, pp. 45–47, ISBN 0231139241
  24. ^ "Archived copy" 前10个月新疆阿拉山口口岸铁路货运增长12.8% [Freight volume at Xinjiang's Alashankou port of entry is up by 12.8% for the first 10 months of the year]. (in Chinese). 2012-11-23. Archived from the original on 2013-07-29. Retrieved 2012-11-26. CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  25. ^ "Archived copy" 新疆霍尔果斯火车站获批成立 年底有望通车. (in Chinese). 2012-11-23. Archived from the original on 2013-07-29. Retrieved 2012-11-26. CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  26. ^ a b c d Pala, Christopher (2006-03-17). "China Pays Dearly For Kazakhstan Oil". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-10-10.
  27. ^ a b c d e Marat Yermukhanov (2004-07-09). "China's relations with Kazakhstan are warming, but to what end?". Association for Asian Research, Jamestown Foundation. Archived from the original on 2015-09-23. Retrieved 2008-10-10.
  28. ^ Vakulchuk, Roman and Indra Overland (2019) “China’s Belt and Road Initiative through the Lens of Central Asia”, in Fanny M. Cheung and Ying-yi Hong (eds) Regional Connection under the Belt and Road Initiative. The Prospects for Economic and Financial Cooperation. London: Routledge, p. 119.
  29. ^ "China's Hu On Central Asian Energy Tour". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
  30. ^
  31. ^ Articles 2 and 3 in the Russian text of the treaty
  32. ^ (See the map)
  33. ^ Museum, National Palace (14 February 2010). "The Lost Frontier – Treaty Maps that Changed Qing's Northwestern Boundaries_The Changing Borders". Retrieved 17 April 2018.
  34. ^ See the text of the "Agreement between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the People's Republic of China on the Kazakhstan-China international border, signed in Almaty on Aprel 26, 1994" in О ратификации Соглашения между Республикой Казахстан и Китайской Народной Республикой о казахстанско-китайской государственной границе. Указ Президента Республики Казахстан от 15 июня 1995 г. N 2331. The border shown on Google Maps follows the description in the treaty; specifically, border point 38 described in the text is at the border line's crossing with the Terekty River (铁列克提河; Tiělièkètí Hé) can be seen at 45°37′00″N82°15′30″E / 45.61667°N 82.25833°E / 45.61667; 82.25833. The 1969-era Soviet claim in the area can be seen on the period's topo maps, e.g. border point No. 40 on this map.
  35. ^ a b О ратификации Протокола между Правительством Республики Казахстан и Правительством Китайской Народной Республики о демаркации линии казахстанско-китайской государственной границы. Закон Республики Казахстан от 4 июля 2003 года, N 469. ("On the ratification of the Protocol agreed by the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Government of the People's Republic of China on the demarcation of the line of the Kazakhstan-China international border. Law No. 469 of the Republic of Kazakhstan. July 4, 2003")
  36. ^ Stone, Richard (2012-07-27), "For China and Kazakhstan, No Meeting of the Minds on Water" (PDF), Science, 337: 405–407 [permanent dead link]
  37. ^ a b Sievers, Eric W. (2002), "Transboundary Jurisdiction and Watercourse Law: China, Kazakhstan and the Irtysh" (PDF), Texas International Law Journal, 37 (1), archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-09-21, retrieved 2013-09-19
  38. ^ Казахстан и Китай решили совместо использовать трансграничные реки. Пока Иртыш не высох...Archived 2017-12-01 at the Wayback Machine (Kazakhstan and China have decided to jointly use transborder rivers. Until the Irtysh has not dried out...). 2003-02-25 (in Russian)
  39. ^ 郭琼 (2014-07-24). "中国向西开放视角下的中哈关系". 现代国际关系. Archived from the original on 2014-09-07. Retrieved 2014-12-23. (in Chinese)
  40. ^ 郭琼 (2014-07-24). "中国向西开放视角下的中哈关系". 现代国际关系. Archived from the original on 2014-09-07. Retrieved 2014-12-23. (in Chinese)
  41. ^ "哈总统:中哈两国将互相举办旅游年". 新华网. 2014-05-20. Archived from the original on 2014-10-06. Retrieved 2014-12-23. (in Chinese)
  42. ^ 高雷; 权娟, ed. (2013-09-05). "中国与哈萨克斯坦的文化关系". 中华人民共和国文化部. Archived from the original on 2014-08-04. Retrieved 2014-12-23. (in Chinese)
  43. ^ 朱稳坦, ed. (2013-11-04). ""哈萨克斯坦文化日"将在北京举办". 环球网. Archived from the original on 2014-10-06. Retrieved 2014-12-23. (in Chinese)
  44. ^ "哈萨克斯坦经典话剧在新疆上演". 2011-12-14. Archived from the original on 2014-09-07. (in Chinese)
  45. ^ 王化洁, ed. (2011-07-15). "哈萨克斯坦哈语电影《比尔江—萨勒》在乌鲁木齐首映". Archived from the original on 2014-09-07. Retrieved 2014-12-23. (in Chinese)
  46. ^ a b "中国媒体:哈萨克斯坦——丝绸之路经济带国际段桥头堡". 哈萨克国际通讯社. 2014-08-12. Archived from the original on 2014-10-06. Retrieved 2014-12-23. (in Chinese)
  47. ^ "哈总统:中哈两国将互相举办旅游年". 新华网. 2014-05-20. Archived from the original on 2014-10-06. Retrieved 2014-12-23. (in Chinese)
  48. ^ a b c 于晓丽 (2010). "哈萨克斯坦人眼中的在哈华人". 俄罗斯中亚东欧市场 (11). Archived from the original on 2015-04-01. Retrieved 2014-12-23. (in Chinese)
  49. ^ 王治来 (1963). "试论解放前我国哈萨克族的社会性质". 中国民族 (1). Archived from the original on 2014-10-06. Retrieved 2014-12-23. (in Chinese)
  50. ^ "哈总统:八千多哈萨克斯坦学生在中国学习". 新华网. 2014-05-20. Archived from the original on 2014-10-06. Retrieved 2014-12-23. (in Chinese)
What is this?