It has been requested that the title of this article be changed to the relevant discussion. The page should not be moved unless the discussion is closed; summarizing the consensus achieved in support of the move.. Please see
Climate change occurs when changes in Earth's climate system result in new weather patterns that remain in place for an extended period of time. This length of time can be as short as a few decades to as long as millions of years. The climate system receives nearly all of its energy from the sun, with a relatively tiny amount from earth's interior. The climate system also gives off energy to outer space. The balance of incoming and outgoing energy, and the passage of the energy through the climate system, determines Earth's energy budget. When the incoming energy is greater than the outgoing energy, earth's energy budget is positive and the climate system is warming. If more energy goes out, the energy budget is negative and earth experiences cooling.
The energy moving through Earth's climate system finds expression in weather, varying on geographic scales and time. Long-term averages of weather in a region constitute the region's climate. Climate change is a long-term, sustained trend of change in climate. Such changes can be the result of "internal variability", when natural processes inherent to the various parts of the climate system alter the distribution of energy. Examples include variability in ocean basins such as the Pacific decadal oscillation and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. Climate change can also result from external forcing, when events outside of the climate system's components nonetheless produce changes within the system. Examples include changes in solar output and volcanism. Human activities can also change climate, and are presently driving climate change through global warming.
The field of climatology incorporates many fields of research. For ancient periods of climate change, researchers rely on evidence preserved in climate proxies, such as ice cores, ancient tree rings, geologic records of changes in sea level, and glacial geology. Physical evidence of current climate change covers many independent lines of evidence, a few of which are temperature records, the disappearance of ice, and extreme weather events.
- 1 Terminology
- 2 Causes
- 3 Study of past climates
- 4 Change in different elements climate system
- 5 Notes
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
The most general definition of climate change is a change in the statistical properties (principally its mean and spread) of the climate system when considered over long periods of time, regardless of cause. Accordingly, fluctuations over periods shorter than a few decades, such as El Niño, do not represent climate change.
The term "climate change" is often used to refer specifically to anthropogenic climate change (also known as global warming). Anthropogenic climate change is caused by human activity, as opposed to changes in climate that may have resulted as part of Earth's natural processes. In this sense, especially in the context of environmental policy, the term climate change has become synonymous with anthropogenic global warming. Within scientific journals, global warming refers to surface temperature increases while climate change includes global warming and everything else that increasing greenhouse gas levels affect.
A related term, "climatic change", was proposed by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in 1966 to encompass all forms of climatic variability on time-scales longer than 10 years, but regardless of cause. During the 1970s, the term climate change replaced climatic change to focus on anthropogenic causes, as it became clear that human activities had a potential to drastically alter the climate. Climate change was incorporated in the title of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Climate change is now used as both a technical description of the process, as well as a noun used to describe the problem.
On the broadest scale, the rate at which energy is received from the Sun and the rate at which it is lost to space determine the equilibrium temperature and climate of Earth. This energy is distributed around the globe by winds, ocean currents, and other mechanisms to affect the climates of different regions.
Factors that can shape climate are called climate forcings or "forcing mechanisms". These include processes such as variations in solar radiation, variations in the Earth's orbit, variations in the albedo or reflectivity of the continents, atmosphere, and oceans, mountain-building and continental drift and changes in greenhouse gas concentrations. There are a variety of climate change feedbacks that can either amplify or diminish the initial forcing. Some parts of the climate system, such as the oceans and ice caps, respond more slowly in reaction to climate forcings, while others respond more quickly. There are also key threshold factors which when exceeded can produce rapid change.
Climate change can either occur due to external forcing or due to internal processes. Internal unforced processes often involve changes in the distribution of energy in the ocean and atmosphere, for instance changes in the thermohaline circulation. External forcing mechanisms can be either anthropogenic (e.g. increased emissions of greenhouse gases and dust) or natural (e.g., changes in solar output, the earth's orbit, volcano eruptions).
Whether the initial forcing mechanism is internal or external, the response of the climate system might be fast (e.g., a sudden cooling due to airborne volcanic ash reflecting sunlight), slow (e.g. thermal expansion of warming ocean water), or a combination (e.g., sudden loss of albedo in the Arctic Ocean as sea ice melts, followed by more gradual thermal expansion of the water). Therefore, the climate system can respond abruptly, but the full response to forcing mechanisms might not be fully developed for centuries or even longer.
Scientists generally define the five components of earth's climate system to include atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere (restricted to the surface soils, rocks, and sediments), and biosphere. Natural changes in the climate system result in internal "climate variability". Examples include the type and distribution of species, and changes in ocean-atmosphere circulations.
The ocean and atmosphere can work together to spontaneously generate internal climate variability that can persist for years to decades at a time. Examples of this type of variability include the El Niño–Southern Oscillation, the Pacific decadal oscillation, and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. These variations can affect global average surface temperature by redistributing heat between the deep ocean and the atmosphere and/or by altering the cloud/water vapor/sea ice distribution which can affect the total energy budget of the earth.
The oceanic aspects of these circulations can generate variability on centennial timescales due to the ocean having hundreds of times more mass than in the atmosphere, and thus very high thermal inertia. For example, alterations to ocean processes such as thermohaline circulation play a key role in redistributing heat in the world's oceans. Due to the long timescales of this circulation, ocean temperature at depth is still adjusting to effects of the Little Ice Age which occurred between the 1600 and 1800s.
From a climate perspective, the weather can be considered as being random. If there are little clouds in a particular year, there is an energy imbalance and extra heat can be absorbed by the oceans. Due to climate inertia, this signal can be 'stored' in the ocean and be expressed as variability on longer time scales than the original weather disturbances.
Life affects climate through its role in the carbon and water cycles and through such mechanisms as albedo, evapotranspiration, cloud formation, and weathering. Examples of how life may have affected past climate include:
- glaciation 2.3 billion years ago triggered by the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis, which depleted the atmosphere of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide and introduced free oxygen
- another glaciation 300 million years ago ushered in by long-term burial of decomposition-resistant detritus of vascular land-plants (creating a carbon sink and forming coal)
- termination of the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum 55 million years ago by flourishing marine phytoplankton
- reversal of global warming 49 million years ago by 800,000 years of arctic azolla blooms
- global cooling over the past 40 million years driven by the expansion of grass-grazer ecosystems
External climate forcing
Whereas greenhouse gases released by the biosphere is often seen as a feedback or internal climate process, greenhouse gases emitted from volcanoes are typically classified as external by climatologists. Greenhouse gases, such as CO
2, methane and nitrous oxide, heat the climate system by trapping infrared light.
The scientific consensus on climate change is "that climate is changing and that these changes are in large part caused by human activities", and it "is largely irreversible". There has been multiple indications of how human activities affect global warming and continue to do so.
... there is a strong, credible body of evidence, based on multiple lines of research, documenting that climate is changing and that these changes are in large part caused by human activities. While much remains to be learned, the core phenomenon, scientific questions, and hypotheses have been examined thoroughly and have stood firm in the face of serious scientific debate and careful evaluation of alternative explanations.— United States National Research Council, Advancing the Science of Climate Change
Human's main impact is by emitting CO2 from fossil fuel combustion, followed by aerosols (particulate matter in the atmosphere), and the CO2 released by cement manufacture. Other factors, including land use, ozone depletion, animal husbandry (ruminant animals such as cattle produce methane), and deforestation, are also play a role.
Volcanoes are also part of the extended carbon cycle. Over very long (geological) time periods, they release carbon dioxide from the Earth's crust and mantle, counteracting the uptake by sedimentary rocks and other geological carbon dioxide sinks. The US Geological Survey estimates are that volcanic emissions are at a much lower level than the effects of current human activities, which generate 100–300 times the amount of carbon dioxide emitted by volcanoes. The annual amount put out by human activities may be greater than the amount released by supererruptions, the most recent of which was the Toba eruption in Indonesia 74,000 years ago.
Slight variations in Earth's motion lead to changes in the seasonal distribution of sunlight reaching the Earth's surface and how it is distributed across the globe. There is very little change to the area-averaged annually averaged sunshine; but there can be strong changes in the geographical and seasonal distribution. The three types of kinematic change are variations in Earth's eccentricity, changes in the tilt angle of Earth's axis of rotation, and precession of Earth's axis. Combined together, these produce Milankovitch cycles which affect climate and are notable for their correlation to glacial and interglacial periods, their correlation with the advance and retreat of the Sahara, and for their appearance in the stratigraphic record.
The IPCC notes that Milankovitch cycles drove the ice age cycles, CO2 followed temperature change "with a lag of some hundreds of years", and that as a feedback amplified temperature change. The depths of the ocean have a lag time in changing temperature (thermal inertia on such scale). Upon seawater temperature change, the solubility of CO2 in the oceans changed, as well as other factors affecting air-sea CO2 exchange.
The Sun is the predominant source of energy input to the Earth's climate system. Other sources include geothermal energy from the Earth's core, tidal energy from the Moon and heat from the decay of radioactive compounds. Both long- and short-term variations in solar intensity are known to affect global climate.
Three to four billion years ago, the Sun emitted only 75% as much power as it does today. If the atmospheric composition had been the same as today, liquid water should not have existed on the Earth's surface. However, there is evidence for the presence of water on the early Earth, in the Hadean and Archean eons, leading to what is known as the faint young Sun paradox. Hypothesized solutions to this paradox include a vastly different atmosphere, with much higher concentrations of greenhouse gases than currently exist. Over the following approximately 4 billion years, the energy output of the Sun increased and atmospheric composition changed. The Great Oxygenation Event—oxygenation of the atmosphere around 2.4 billion years ago—was the most notable alteration. Over the next five billion years from the present, the Sun's ultimate death as it becomes a red giant and then a white dwarf will have large effects on climate, with the red giant phase possibly ending any life on Earth that survives until that time.
Solar output varies on shorter time scales, including the 11-year solar cycle and longer-term modulations. Solar intensity variations, possibly as a result of the Wolf, Spörer, and the Maunder Minima, are considered to have been influential in triggering the Little Ice Age. This event extended from 1550 to 1850 AD and was marked by relative cooling and greater glacier extent than the centuries before and afterward. Solar variation may also have affected some of the warming observed from 1900 to 1950.
The eruptions considered to be large enough to affect the Earth's climate on a scale of more than 1 year are the ones that inject over 100,000 tons of SO2 into the stratosphere. This is due to the optical properties of SO2 and sulfate aerosols, which strongly absorb or scatter solar radiation, creating a global layer of sulfuric acid haze. On average, such eruptions occur several times per century, and cause cooling (by partially blocking the transmission of solar radiation to the Earth's surface) for a period of several years. Although volcanoes are technically part of the lithosphere, which itself is part of the climate system, the IPCC explicitly defines volcanism as an external forcing agent.
Notable eruptions in the historical records are the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 which lowered global temperatures by about 0.5 °C (0.9 °F) for up to three years, and the Mount Tambora eruption in 1815 causing the Year Without a Summer. Much larger eruptions, known as large igneous provinces, occur only a few times every 50,000,000–100,000,000 years through flood basalts; in Earth's past, they have caused global warming and mass extinctions. Small eruptions, with injections of less than 0.1 Mt of sulfur dioxide into the stratosphere, affect the atmosphere only subtly, as temperature changes are comparable with natural variability. However, because smaller eruptions occur at a much higher frequency, they too significantly affect Earth's atmosphere.
Seismic monitoring maps current and future trends in volcanic activities, and tries to develop early warning systems. In climate modelling the aim is to study the physical mechanisms and feedbacks of volcanic forcing.
Over the course of millions of years, the motion of tectonic plates reconfigures global land and ocean areas and generates topography. This can affect both global and local patterns of climate and atmosphere-ocean circulation.
The position of the continents determines the geometry of the oceans and therefore influences patterns of ocean circulation. The locations of the seas are important in controlling the transfer of heat and moisture across the globe, and therefore, in determining global climate. A recent example of tectonic control on ocean circulation is the formation of the Isthmus of Panama about 5 million years ago, which shut off direct mixing between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. This strongly affected the ocean dynamics of what is now the Gulf Stream and may have led to Northern Hemisphere ice cover. During the Carboniferous period, about 300 to 360 million years ago, plate tectonics may have triggered large-scale storage of carbon and increased glaciation. Geologic evidence points to a "megamonsoonal" circulation pattern during the time of the supercontinent Pangaea, and climate modeling suggests that the existence of the supercontinent was conducive to the establishment of monsoons.
The size of continents is also important. Because of the stabilizing effect of the oceans on temperature, yearly temperature variations are generally lower in coastal areas than they are inland. A larger supercontinent will therefore have more area in which climate is strongly seasonal than will several smaller continents or islands.
In 1997, it was postulated that ionized particles known as cosmic rays could impact cloud cover and thereby the climate. As the sun shields the earth from these particles, changes in solar activity were hypothesized to influence climate indirectly as well. To test the hypothesis, CERN designed the CLOUD experiment, which showed the effect of cosmic rays is too weak to influence climate noticeably.
Evidence exists that the Chicxulub asteroid impact some 66 million years ago had severely affected the Earth's climate. Large quantities of sulfate aerosols were kicked up into the atmosphere, decreasing global temperatures by up to 26 °C and producing sub-freezing temperatures for a period of 3–16 years. The recovery time for this event took more than 30 years.
Study of past climates
A number of disciplines throw light on past climates. Paleoclimatology is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth. It uses a variety of proxy methods from the Earth and life sciences to obtain data previously preserved within things such as rocks, sediments, ice sheets, tree rings, corals, shells, and microfossils. It then uses the records to determine the past states of the Earth's various climate regions and its atmospheric system. Notable climate events known to paleoclimatology are provided in this list of periods and events in climate history.
Historical climatology is the study of historical changes in climate and their effect on human history and development. The primary sources include written records such as sagas, chronicles, maps and local history literature as well as pictorial representations such as paintings, drawings and even rock art.
Climate change in the recent past may be detected by corresponding changes in settlement and agricultural patterns. Archaeological evidence, oral history and historical documents can offer insights into past changes in the climate. Climate change effects have been linked to the rise and also the collapse of various civilizations.
Change in different elements climate system
All elements of the climate systems portray changes as a consequence of climate change. Evidence for climatic change is taken from a variety of sources that can be used to reconstruct past climates. Reasonably complete global records of surface temperature are available beginning from the mid-late 19th century. For earlier periods, most of the evidence is indirect—climatic changes are inferred from changes in proxies, indicators that reflect climate, such as vegetation, ice cores, dendrochronology, sea level change, and glacial geology.
The instrumental temperature record from surface stations was supplemented by radiosonde balloons, extensive atmospheric monitoring by the mid-20th century, and, from the 1970s on, with global satellite data as well. Taking the record as a whole, most of the 20th century had been unprecedentedly warm, while the 19th and 17th centuries were quite cool.
Analysis of ice in a core drilled from an ice sheet such as the Antarctic ice sheet, can be used to show a link between temperature and global sea level variations. The air trapped in bubbles in the ice can also reveal the CO2 variations of the atmosphere from the distant past, well before modern environmental influences. The study of these ice cores has been a significant indicator of the changes in CO2 over many millennia, and continues to provide valuable information about the differences between ancient and modern atmospheric conditions.
Cloud cover and precipitation
Climatological temperatures substantially affect cloud cover and precipitation. At lower temperatures, air can hold less water vapour, which can lead to decreased precipitation. For instance, during the Last Glacial Maximum of 18,000 years ago, thermal-driven evaporation from the oceans onto continental landmasses was low, causing large areas of extreme desert, including polar deserts (cold but with low rates of cloud cover and precipitation). In contrast, the world's climate was cloudier and wetter than today near the start of the warm Atlantic Period of 8000 years ago.
Cloud formation is not only influenced by how much water is in the air and the temperature, but also by the amount of aerosols in the air such as dust. Globally, more dust is available if there are many regions with dry soils, little vegetation and strong winds.
Satellite cloud and precipitation data has been available since the 1970s. Quantification of climatological variation of precipitation in prior centuries and epochs is less complete but approximated using proxies such as marine sediments, ice cores, cave stalagmites, and tree rings.
Oceans and other water bodies
The 18O/16O ratio in calcite and ice core samples used to deduce ocean temperature in the distant past is an example of a temperature proxy method, as are other climate metrics noted in subsequent categories.
Sea level change
Global sea level change for much of the last century has generally been estimated using tide gauge measurements collated over long periods of time to give a long-term average. More recently, altimeter measurements—in combination with accurately determined satellite orbits—have provided an improved measurement of global sea level change. To measure sea levels prior to instrumental measurements, scientists have dated coral reefs that grow near the surface of the ocean, coastal sediments, marine terraces, ooids in limestones, and nearshore archaeological remains. The predominant dating methods used are uranium series and radiocarbon, with cosmogenic radionuclides being sometimes used to date terraces that have experienced relative sea level fall. In the early Pliocene, global temperatures were 1–2˚C warmer than the present temperature, yet sea level was 15–25 meters higher than today.
According to recent studies, global-mean sea level rose by 195 mm during the period from 1870 to 2004. Since 2004, satellite-based records indicate that there has been a further 43 mm of global-mean sea levels rise, as of July 2017[update].
Glaciers and ice sheets
Glaciers are considered among the most sensitive indicators of climate change. Their size is determined by a mass balance between snow input and melt output. As temperatures warm, glaciers retreat unless snow precipitation increases to make up for the additional melt; the converse is also true.
Glaciers grow and shrink due both to natural variability and external forcings. Variability in temperature, precipitation, and englacial and subglacial hydrology can strongly determine the evolution of a glacier in a particular season. Therefore, one must average over a decadal or longer time-scale and/or over many individual glaciers to smooth out the local short-term variability and obtain a glacier history that is related to climate.
The most significant climate processes since the middle to late Pliocene (approximately 3 million years ago) are the glacial and interglacial cycles. The present interglacial period (the Holocene) has lasted about 11,700 years. Shaped by orbital variations, responses such as the rise and fall of continental ice sheets and significant sea-level changes helped create the climate. Other changes, including Heinrich events, Dansgaard–Oeschger events and the Younger Dryas, however, illustrate how glacial variations may also influence climate without the orbital forcing.
Glaciers leave behind moraines that contain a wealth of material—including organic matter, quartz, and potassium that may be dated—recording the periods in which a glacier advanced and retreated. Similarly, by tephrochronological techniques, the lack of glacier cover can be identified by the presence of soil or volcanic tephra horizons whose date of deposit may also be ascertained.
From satellite data and aerial photographs, glaciers worldwide have been found to be shrinking significantly Data from NASA's Grace satellites show that the land ice sheets in both Antarctica (upper chart) and Greenland (lower) have been losing mass since 2002. Both ice sheets have seen an acceleration of ice mass loss since 2009.
Sea ice plays an important role in Earth's climate as it affects the total amount of sunlight that is reflected away from the Earth. In the past, the Earth's oceans have been almost entirely covered by sea ice on a number of occasions, when the Earth was in a so-called Snowball Earth state, and completely ice-free in periods of warm climate. When there is a lot of sea ice present globally, especially in the tropics and subtropics, the climate is more sensitive to forcings as the ice–albedo feedback is very strong.
The decline in Arctic sea ice, both in extent and thickness, over the last several decades is further evidence for rapid climate change. Sea ice is frozen seawater that floats on the ocean surface. It covers millions of square kilometers in the polar regions, varying with the seasons. In the Arctic, some sea ice remains year after year, whereas almost all Southern Ocean or Antarctic sea ice melts away and reforms annually. Satellite observations show that Arctic sea ice is now declining at a rate of 13.2 percent per decade, relative to the 1981 to 2010 average.
A change in the type, distribution and coverage of vegetation may occur given a change in the climate. Some changes in climate may result in increased precipitation and warmth, resulting in improved plant growth and the subsequent sequestration of airborne CO2. The effects are expected to affect the rate of many natural cycles like plant litter decomposition rates. A gradual increase in warmth in a region will lead to earlier flowering and fruiting times, driving a change in the timing of life cycles of dependent organisms. Conversely, cold will cause plant bio-cycles to lag.
Larger, faster or more radical changes, however, may result in vegetation stress, rapid plant loss and desertification in certain circumstances. An example of this occurred during the Carboniferous Rainforest Collapse (CRC), an extinction event 300 million years ago. At this time vast rainforests covered the equatorial region of Europe and America. Climate change devastated these tropical rainforests, abruptly fragmenting the habitat into isolated 'islands' and causing the extinction of many plant and animal species. Such stress can alter the growth rate of trees, which allows scientists to infer climate trends by analyzing the growth rate of tree rings. This branch of climate science is called dendroclimatology, and is one of the many ways they research climate trends prior to written records.
Palynology is the study of contemporary and fossil palynomorphs, including pollen. Palynology is used to infer the geographical distribution of plant species, which vary under different climate conditions. Different groups of plants have pollen with distinctive shapes and surface textures, and since the outer surface of pollen is composed of a very resilient material, they resist decay. Changes in the type of pollen found in different layers of sediment in lakes, bogs, or river deltas indicate changes in plant communities. These changes are often a sign of a changing climate. As an example, palynological studies have been used to track changing vegetation patterns throughout the Quaternary glaciations and especially since the last glacial maximum.
Remains of beetles are common in freshwater and land sediments. Different species of beetles tend to be found under different climatic conditions. Given the extensive lineage of beetles whose genetic makeup has not altered significantly over the millennia, knowledge of the present climatic range of the different species, and the age of the sediments in which remains are found, past climatic conditions may be inferred.
America's Climate Choices: Panel on Advancing the Science of Climate Change; National Research Council (2010). Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-14588-6. Archived from the original on 29 May 2014.
(p1) ... there is a strong, credible body of evidence, based on multiple lines of research, documenting that climate is changing and that these changes are in large part caused by human activities. While much remains to be learned, the core phenomenon, scientific questions, and hypotheses have been examined thoroughly and have stood firm in the face of serious scientific debate and careful evaluation of alternative explanations. (pp. 21–22) Some scientific conclusions or theories have been so thoroughly examined and tested, and supported by so many independent observations and results, that their likelihood of subsequently being found to be wrong is vanishingly small. Such conclusions and theories are then regarded as settled facts. This is the case for the conclusions that the Earth system is warming and that much of this warming is very likely due to human activities.
- Petit, J.R.; Jouzel, J.; Raynaud, D.; et al. (3 June 1999). "Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica". Nature. 399 (1): 429–46. Bibcode:1999Natur.399..429P. doi:10.1038/20859.
- Solomon, S.; Qin, D.; Manning, M.; Chen, Z.; Marquis, M.; Averyt, K.B.; Tignor, M.; Miller, H.L., eds. (2007). "Understanding and Attributing Climate Change". Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
- "Glossary – Climate Change". Education Center – Arctic Climatology and Meteorology. NSIDC National Snow and Ice Data Center.; Glossary, in IPCC TAR WG1 2001.
"The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change". 21 March 1994.
Climate change means a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods.
- "What's in a Name? Global Warming vs. Climate Change". NASA. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- Hulme, Mike (2016). "Concept of Climate Change, in: The International Encyclopedia of Geography". The International Encyclopedia of Geography. Wiley-Blackwell/Association of American Geographers (AAG). Retrieved 16 May 2016.
- Hsiung, Jane (November 1985). "Estimates of Global Oceanic Meridional Heat Transport". Journal of Physical Oceanography. 15 (11): 1405–1413. doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1985)015<1405:EOGOMH>2.0.CO;2.
- Vallis, Geoffrey K.; Farneti, Riccardo (October 2009). "Meridional energy transport in the coupled atmosphere–ocean system: scaling and numerical experiments". Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society. 135 (644): 1643–1660. doi:10.1002/qj.498.
- Trenberth, Kevin E.; et al. (2009). "Earth's Global Energy Budget". Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 90 (3): 311–323. Bibcode:2009BAMS...90..311T. doi:10.1175/2008BAMS2634.1.
- Smith, Ralph C. (2013). Uncertainty Quantification: Theory, Implementation, and Applications. Computational Science and Engineering. 12. SIAM. p. 23. ISBN 978-1611973228.
- Cronin 2010, pp. 17–18
"Glossary". NASA Earth Observatory. 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
Climate System: The five physical components (atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere) that are responsible for the climate and its variations.
- IPCC (2007). "What are Climate Change and Climate Variability?". IPCC.
- Brown, Patrick T.; Li, Wenhong; Cordero, Eugene C.; Mauget, Steven A. (21 April 2015). "Comparing the model-simulated global warming signal to observations using empirical estimates of unforced noise". Scientific Reports. 5: 9957. Bibcode:2015NatSR...5E9957B. doi:10.1038/srep09957. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 4404682. PMID 25898351.
- Hasselmann, K. (1 December 1976). "Stochastic climate models Part I. Theory". Tellus. 28 (6): 473–85. Bibcode:1976TellA..28..473H. doi:10.1111/j.2153-3490.1976.tb00696.x. ISSN 2153-3490.
- Meehl, Gerald A.; Hu, Aixue; Arblaster, Julie M.; Fasullo, John; Trenberth, Kevin E. (8 April 2013). "Externally Forced and Internally Generated Decadal Climate Variability Associated with the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation". Journal of Climate. 26 (18): 7298–310. Bibcode:2013JCli...26.7298M. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00548.1. ISSN 0894-8755.
- England, Matthew H.; McGregor, Shayne; Spence, Paul; Meehl, Gerald A.; Timmermann, Axel; Cai, Wenju; Gupta, Alex Sen; McPhaden, Michael J.; Purich, Ariaan (1 March 2014). "Recent intensification of wind-driven circulation in the Pacific and the ongoing warming hiatus". Nature Climate Change. 4 (3): 222–27. Bibcode:2014NatCC...4..222E. doi:10.1038/nclimate2106. ISSN 1758-678X.
- Brown, Patrick T.; Li, Wenhong; Li, Laifang; Ming, Yi (28 July 2014). "Top-of-atmosphere radiative contribution to unforced decadal global temperature variability in climate models". Geophysical Research Letters. 41 (14): 2014GL060625. Bibcode:2014GeoRL..41.5175B. doi:10.1002/2014GL060625. hdl:10161/9167. ISSN 1944-8007.
- Palmer, M. D.; McNeall, D. J. (1 January 2014). "Internal variability of Earth's energy budget simulated by CMIP5 climate models". Environmental Research Letters. 9 (3): 034016. Bibcode:2014ERL.....9c4016P. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/3/034016. ISSN 1748-9326.
- Kirk Bryan, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. Man's Great Geophysical Experiment. U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
- Hasselmann, K. (1976). "Stochastic climate models Part I. Theory". Tellus. 28 (6): 473–485. doi:10.1111/j.2153-3490.1976.tb00696.x. ISSN 2153-3490.
- Liu, Zhengyu (14 October 2011). "Dynamics of Interdecadal Climate Variability: A Historical Perspective". Journal of Climate. 25 (6): 1963–1995. doi:10.1175/2011JCLI3980.1. ISSN 0894-8755.
- Spracklen, D. V.; Bonn, B.; Carslaw, K. S. (2008). "Boreal forests, aerosols and the impacts on clouds and climate". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. 366 (1885): 4613–26. Bibcode:2008RSPTA.366.4613S. doi:10.1098/rsta.2008.0201. PMID 18826917.
- Christner, B. C.; Morris, C. E.; Foreman, C. M.; Cai, R.; Sands, D. C. (2008). "Ubiquity of Biological Ice Nucleators in Snowfall" (PDF). Science. 319 (5867): 1214. Bibcode:2008Sci...319.1214C. doi:10.1126/science.1149757. PMID 18309078.
- Schwartzman, David W.; Volk, Tyler (1989). "Biotic enhancement of weathering and the habitability of Earth". Nature. 340 (6233): 457–60. Bibcode:1989Natur.340..457S. doi:10.1038/340457a0.
- Kopp, R.E.; Kirschvink, J.L.; Hilburn, I.A.; Nash, C.Z. (2005). "The Paleoproterozoic snowball Earth: A climate disaster triggered by the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 102 (32): 11131–36. Bibcode:2005PNAS..10211131K. doi:10.1073/pnas.0504878102. PMC 1183582. PMID 16061801.
- Kasting, J.F.; Siefert, JL (2002). "Life and the Evolution of Earth's Atmosphere". Science. 296 (5570): 1066–68. Bibcode:2002Sci...296.1066K. doi:10.1126/science.1071184. PMID 12004117.
- Mora, C.I.; Driese, S.G.; Colarusso, L. A. (1996). "Middle to Late Paleozoic Atmospheric CO2 Levels from Soil Carbonate and Organic Matter". Science. 271 (5252): 1105–07. Bibcode:1996Sci...271.1105M. doi:10.1126/science.271.5252.1105.
- Berner, R.A. (1999). "Atmospheric oxygen over Phanerozoic time". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 96 (20): 10955–57. Bibcode:1999PNAS...9610955B. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.20.10955. PMC 34224. PMID 10500106.
- Bains, Santo; Norris, Richard D.; Corfield, Richard M.; Faul, Kristina L. (2000). "Termination of global warmth at the Palaeocene/Eocene boundary through productivity feedback". Nature. 407 (6801): 171–74. Bibcode:2000Natur.407..171B. doi:10.1038/35025035. PMID 11001051.
- Zachos, J.C.; Dickens, G.R. (2000). "An assessment of the biogeochemical feedback response to the climatic and chemical perturbations of the LPTM". GFF. 122: 188–89. doi:10.1080/11035890001221188.
- Speelman, E.N.; Van Kempen, M.M.L.; Barke, J.; Brinkhuis, H.; Reichart, G.J.; Smolders, A.J.P.; Roelofs, J.G.M.; Sangiorgi, F.; De Leeuw, J.W.; Lotter, A.F.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S. (2009). "The Eocene Arctic Azolla bloom: Environmental conditions, productivity and carbon drawdown". Geobiology. 7 (2): 155–70. doi:10.1111/j.1472-4669.2009.00195.x. PMID 19323694.
- Brinkhuis, Henk; Schouten, Stefan; Collinson, Margaret E.; Sluijs, Appy; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S. Sinninghe; Dickens, Gerald R.; Huber, Matthew; Cronin, Thomas M.; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Takahashi, Kozo; Bujak, Jonathan P.; Stein, Ruediger; Van Der Burgh, Johan; Eldrett, James S.; Harding, Ian C.; Lotter, André F.; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Van Konijnenburg-Van Cittert, Han van Konijnenburg-van; De Leeuw, Jan W.; Matthiessen, Jens; Backman, Jan; Moran, Kathryn; Expedition 302, Scientists (2006). "Episodic fresh surface waters in the Eocene Arctic Ocean". Nature. 441 (7093): 606–09. Bibcode:2006Natur.441..606B. doi:10.1038/nature04692. hdl:11250/174278. PMID 16752440.
- Retallack, Gregory J. (2001). "Cenozoic Expansion of Grasslands and Climatic Cooling". The Journal of Geology. 109 (4): 407–26. Bibcode:2001JG....109..407R. doi:10.1086/320791.
- Dutton, Jan F.; Barron, Eric J. (1997). "Miocene to present vegetation changes: A possible piece of the Cenozoic cooling puzzle". Geology. 25 (1): 39. Bibcode:1997Geo....25...39D. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1997)025<0039:MTPVCA>2.3.CO;2.
- Cronin 2010, p. 17
- America's Climate Choices: Panel on Advancing the Science of Climate Change; National Research Council (2010). Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-14588-6. Archived from the original on 29 May 2014.
- Susan Solomon; Gian-Kasper Plattner; Reto Knutti; Pierre Friedlingstein (2009). "Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 106 (6): 1704–09. Bibcode:2009PNAS..106.1704S. doi:10.1073/pnas.0812721106. PMC 2632717. PMID 19179281.
- Nickerson, Raymond S. (October 2014). "Is Global Warming a Challenge to Human Factors/Ergonomics?". Ergonomics in Design: The Quarterly of Human Factors Applications. 22 (4): 4–7. doi:10.1177/1064804614547127. ISSN 1064-8046.
- "3. Are human activities causing climate change? | Australian Academy of Science". www.science.org.au. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
- Steinfeld, H.; P. Gerber; T. Wassenaar; V. Castel; M. Rosales; C. de Haan (2006). Livestock's long shadow.
- The Editorial Board (28 November 2015). "What the Paris Climate Meeting Must Do". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- "Volcanic Gases and Their Effects". U.S. Department of the Interior. 10 January 2006. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
- "Human Activities Emit Way More Carbon Dioxide Than Do Volcanoes". American Geophysical Union. 14 June 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- "Milankovitch Cycles and Glaciation". University of Montana. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2009.
- Gale, Andrew S. (1989). "A Milankovitch scale for Cenomanian time". Terra Nova. 1 (5): 420–25. Bibcode:1989TeNov...1..420G. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3121.1989.tb00403.x.
- "Same forces as today caused climate changes 1.4 billion years ago". sdu.dk. University of Denmark. Archived from the original on 12 March 2015.
- FAQ 6.1: What Caused the Ice Ages and Other Important Climate Changes Before the Industrial Era? in IPCC AR4 WG1 2007.
- Box 6.2: What Caused the Low Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations During Glacial Times? in IPCC AR4 WG1 2007 .
- Ribas, Ignasi (February 2010). The Sun and stars as the primary energy input in planetary atmospheres. Proceedings of the IAU Symposium 264 'Solar and Stellar Variability – Impact on Earth and Planets'. 264. pp. 3–18. arXiv:0911.4872. Bibcode:2010IAUS..264....3R. doi:10.1017/S1743921309992298.
- Marty, B. (2006). "Water in the Early Earth". Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry. 62 (1): 421–50. Bibcode:2006RvMG...62..421M. doi:10.2138/rmg.2006.62.18.
- Watson, E.B.; Harrison, TM (2005). "Zircon Thermometer Reveals Minimum Melting Conditions on Earliest Earth". Science. 308 (5723): 841–44. Bibcode:2005Sci...308..841W. doi:10.1126/science.1110873. PMID 15879213.
- Hagemann, Steffen G.; Gebre-Mariam, Musie; Groves, David I. (1994). "Surface-water influx in shallow-level Archean lode-gold deposits in Western, Australia". Geology. 22 (12): 1067. Bibcode:1994Geo....22.1067H. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1994)022<1067:SWIISL>2.3.CO;2.
- Sagan, C.; G. Mullen (1972). Earth and Mars: Evolution of Atmospheres and Surface Temperatures.
- Sagan, C.; Chyba, C (1997). "The Early Faint Sun Paradox: Organic Shielding of Ultraviolet-Labile Greenhouse Gases". Science. 276 (5316): 1217–21. Bibcode:1997Sci...276.1217S. doi:10.1126/science.276.5316.1217. PMID 11536805.
- Schröder, K.-P.; Connon Smith, Robert (2008), "Distant future of the Sun and Earth revisited", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 386 (1): 155–63, arXiv:0801.4031, Bibcode:2008MNRAS.386..155S, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13022.x
- Willson, Richard C.; Hudson, Hugh S. (1991). "The Sun's luminosity over a complete solar cycle". Nature. 351 (6321): 42–44. Bibcode:1991Natur.351...42W. doi:10.1038/351042a0.
- Turner, T. Edward; Swindles, Graeme T.; Charman, Dan J.; Langdon, Peter G.; Morris, Paul J.; Booth, Robert K.; Parry, Lauren E.; Nichols, Jonathan E. (5 April 2016). "Solar cycles or random processes? Evaluating solar variability in Holocene climate records". Scientific Reports. 6 (1): 1–15. doi:10.1038/srep23961. ISSN 2045-2322.
- "Solar Irradiance Changes and the Relatively Recent Climate". Solar influences on global change. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press. 1994. p. 36. ISBN 0-309-05148-7.
- "Glossary I-M". NASA Earth Observatory. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
- Bard, Edouard; Raisbeck, Grant; Yiou, Françoise; Jouzel, Jean (2000). "Solar irradiance during the last 1200 years based on cosmogenic nuclides". Tellus B. 52 (3): 985–92. Bibcode:2000TellB..52..985B. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0889.2000.d01-7.x.
- Miles, M.G.; Grainger, R.G.; Highwood, E.J. (2004). "The significance of volcanic eruption strength and frequency for climate". Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society. 130 (602): 2361–76. doi:10.1256/qj.30.60 (inactive 20 August 2019).
- "Volcanic Gases and Climate Change Overview". usgs.gov. USGS. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
- Annexes, in IPCC AR4 SYR 2008, p. 58.
- Diggles, Michael (28 February 2005). "The Cataclysmic 1991 Eruption of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines". U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 113-97. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 8 October 2009.
- Diggles, Michael. "The Cataclysmic 1991 Eruption of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines". usgs.gov. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
- Oppenheimer, Clive (2003). "Climatic, environmental and human consequences of the largest known historic eruption: Tambora volcano (Indonesia) 1815". Progress in Physical Geography. 27 (2): 230–59. doi:10.1191/0309133303pp379ra.
- Wignall, P (2001). "Large igneous provinces and mass extinctions". Earth-Science Reviews. 53 (1): 1–33. Bibcode:2001ESRv...53....1W. doi:10.1016/S0012-8252(00)00037-4.
- Graf, H.-F.; Feichter, J.; Langmann, B. (1997). "Volcanic sulphur emissions: Estimates of source strength and its contribution to the global sulphate distribution". Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 102 (D9): 10727–38. Bibcode:1997JGR...10210727G. doi:10.1029/96JD03265. hdl:21.11116/0000-0003-2CBB-A.
- "IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007". archive.ipcc.ch. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
- Forest, C.E.; Wolfe, J.A.; Molnar, P.; Emanuel, K.A. (1999). "Paleoaltimetry incorporating atmospheric physics and botanical estimates of paleoclimate". Geological Society of America Bulletin. 111 (4): 497–511. Bibcode:1999GSAB..111..497F. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1999)111<0497:PIAPAB>2.3.CO;2.
- "Panama: Isthmus that Changed the World". NASA Earth Observatory. Archived from the original on 2 August 2007. Retrieved 1 July 2008.
- Haug, Gerald H.; Keigwin, Lloyd D. (22 March 2004). "How the Isthmus of Panama Put Ice in the Arctic". Oceanus. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. 42 (2). Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- Bruckschen, Peter; Oesmanna, Susanne; Veizer, Ján (30 September 1999). "Isotope stratigraphy of the European Carboniferous: proxy signals for ocean chemistry, climate and tectonics". Chemical Geology. 161 (1–3): 127–63. Bibcode:1999ChGeo.161..127B. doi:10.1016/S0009-2541(99)00084-4.
- Parrish, Judith T. (1993). "Climate of the Supercontinent Pangea". Chemical Geology. The University of Chicago Press. 101 (2): 215–33. Bibcode:1993JG....101..215P. doi:10.1086/648217. JSTOR 30081148.
- Hausfather, Zeke (18 August 2017). "Explainer: Why the sun is not responsible for recent climate change". Carbon Brief. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
- Pierce, J. R. (2017). "Cosmic rays, aerosols, clouds, and climate: Recent findings from the CLOUD experiment". Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 122 (15): 8051–8055. doi:10.1002/2017JD027475. ISSN 2169-8996.
- Brugger, Julia; Feulner, Georg; Petri, Stefan (April 2017), "Severe environmental effects of Chicxulub impact imply key role in end-Cretaceous mass extinction", 19th EGU General Assembly, EGU2017, proceedings from the conference held 23–28 April, 2017 in Vienna, Austria., p.17167, 19, p. 17167, Bibcode:2017EGUGA..1917167B.
- Demenocal, P.B. (2001). "Cultural Responses to Climate Change During the Late Holocene" (PDF). Science. 292 (5517): 667–73. Bibcode:2001Sci...292..667D. doi:10.1126/science.1059827. PMID 11303088.
- Sindbaek, S.M. (2007). "Networks and nodal points: the emergence of towns in early Viking Age Scandinavia". Antiquity. 81 (311): 119–32. doi:10.1017/s0003598x00094886.
- Von Radowitz, John (23 April 1998). "CLIMATE WARMEST SINCE MIDDLE AGES". Century Newspapers LTD.
- Haerter, Jan O.; Moseley, Christopher; Berg, Peter (2013). "Strong increase in convective precipitation in response to higher temperatures". Nature Geoscience. 6 (3): 181–185. doi:10.1038/ngeo1731. ISSN 1752-0908.
Adams, J.M.; Faure, H., eds. (1997). "Review and Atlas of Palaeovegetation: Preliminary land ecosystem maps of the world since the Last Glacial Maximum". Tennessee: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Archived from the original on 16 January 2008.Cite journal requires
|journal=(help) QEN members.
- Hadlington, Simon 9 (May 2013). "Mineral dust plays key role in cloud formation and chemistry". Chemistry World. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
- Mahowald, Natalie; Albani, Samuel; Kok, Jasper F.; Engelstaeder, Sebastian; Scanza, Rachel; Ward, Daniel S.; Flanner, Mark G. (1 December 2014). "The size distribution of desert dust aerosols and its impact on the Earth system". Aeolian Research. 15: 53–71. doi:10.1016/j.aeolia.2013.09.002. ISSN 1875-9637.
- New, M., Todd, M., Hulme, M. and Jones, P. (December 2001). "Review: Precipitation measurements and trends in the twentieth century". International Journal of Climatology. 21 (15): 1889–922. Bibcode:2001IJCli..21.1889N. doi:10.1002/joc.680. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Dominic, F., Burns, S.J., Neff, U., Mudulsee, M., Mangina, A. and Matter, A. (April 2004). "Palaeoclimatic interpretation of high-resolution oxygen isotope profiles derived from annually laminated speleothems from Southern Oman". Quaternary Science Reviews. 23 (7–8): 935–45. Bibcode:2004QSRv...23..935F. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2003.06.019. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "Sea Level Change". University of Colorado at Boulder. Archived from the original on 19 February 2009. Retrieved 21 July 2009.
- Hansen, James. "Science Briefs: Earth's Climate History". NASA GISS. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- "Singapore underwater". The Straits Times. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
- "How Singapore is responding to the threat of rising sea levels". The Straits Times. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
- Church, John A.; White, Neil J. (16 January 2006). "A 20th century acceleration in global sea-level rise". Geophysical Research Letters. 33 (1): n/a. Bibcode:2006GeoRL..33.1602C. doi:10.1029/2005gl024826. ISSN 1944-8007.
- "NASA Global Climate Change, Vital Signs". Retrieved 2 April 2018.
- Seiz, G.; N. Foppa (2007). The activities of the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS) (PDF) (Report). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 21 June 2009.
- "International Stratigraphic Chart". International Commission on Stratigraphy. 2008. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2011.
- Zemp, M.; I.Roer; A.Kääb; M.Hoelzle; F.Paul; W. Haeberli (2008). United Nations Environment Programme – Global Glacier Changes: facts and figures (PDF) (Report). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 21 June 2009.
- EPA, OA, US. "Climate Change Indicators: Glaciers". US EPA.
- "Land ice – NASA Global Climate Change".
- Belt, Simon T.; Cabedo-Sanz, Patricia; Smik, Lukas; et al. (2015). "Identification of paleo Arctic winter sea ice limits and the marginal ice zone: Optimised biomarker-based reconstructions of late Quaternary Arctic sea ice". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 431: 127–139. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2015.09.020. ISSN 0012-821X.
- Warren, Stephen G.; Voigt, Aiko; Tziperman, Eli; et al. (1 November 2017). "Snowball Earth climate dynamics and Cryogenian geology-geobiology". Science Advances. 3 (11): e1600983. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1600983. ISSN 2375-2548.
- Caballero, R.; Huber, M. (2013). "State-dependent climate sensitivity in past warm climates and its implications for future climate projections". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110 (35): 14162–14167. doi:10.1073/pnas.1303365110. ISSN 0027-8424.
- Hansen James; Sato Makiko; Russell Gary; Kharecha Pushker (2013). "Climate sensitivity, sea level and atmospheric carbon dioxide". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. 371 (2001): 20120294. doi:10.1098/rsta.2012.0294. PMC 3785813. PMID 24043864.
- Shaftel, Holly (ed.). "Climate Change: How do we know?". NASA Global Climate Change. Earth Science Communications Team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
- Shaftel, Holly (ed.). "Arctic Sea Ice Minimum". NASA Global Climate Change. Earth Science Communications Team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
- Ochoa-Hueso, R; Delgado-Baquerizo, N; King, PTA; Benham, M; Arca, V; Power, SA (2019). "Ecosystem type and resource quality are more important than global change drivers in regulating early stages of litter decomposition". Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 129: 144–152. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2018.11.009.
- Kinver, Mark (15 November 2011). "UK trees' fruit ripening '18 days earlier'". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- Sahney, S.; Benton, M.J.; Falcon-Lang, H.J. (2010). "Rainforest collapse triggered Pennsylvanian tetrapod diversification in Euramerica" (PDF). Geology. 38 (12): 1079–82. Bibcode:2010Geo....38.1079S. doi:10.1130/G31182.1. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- Bachelet, D.; Neilson, R.; Lenihan, J. M.; Drapek, R.J. (2001). "Climate Change Effects on Vegetation Distribution and Carbon Budget in the United States". Ecosystems. 4 (3): 164–85. doi:10.1007/s10021-001-0002-7.
- Hughes, Malcolm K.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Diaz, Henry F., eds. (2010). Dendroclimatology: progress and prospect. Developments in Paleoenvironmental Research. 11. New York: Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-1-4020-4010-8.
- Langdon, P.G.; Barber, K.E.; Lomas-Clarke, S.H.; Lomas-Clarke, S.H. (August 2004). "Reconstructing climate and environmental change in northern England through chironomid and pollen analyses: evidence from Talkin Tarn, Cumbria". Journal of Paleolimnology. 32 (2): 197–213. Bibcode:2004JPall..32..197L. doi:10.1023/B:JOPL.0000029433.85764.a5.
- Birks, H.H. (March 2003). "The importance of plant macrofossils in the reconstruction of Lateglacial vegetation and climate: examples from Scotland, western Norway, and Minnesota, US" (PDF). Quaternary Science Reviews. 22 (5–7): 453–73. Bibcode:2003QSRv...22..453B. doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(02)00248-2. hdl:1956/387.
- Miyoshi, N; Fujiki, Toshiyuki; Morita, Yoshimune (1999). "Palynology of a 250-m core from Lake Biwa: a 430,000-year record of glacial–interglacial vegetation change in Japan". Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. 104 (3–4): 267–83. doi:10.1016/S0034-6667(98)00058-X.
- Prentice, I. Colin; Bartlein, Patrick J; Webb, Thompson (1991). "Vegetation and Climate Change in Eastern North America Since the Last Glacial Maximum". Ecology. 72 (6): 2038–56. doi:10.2307/1941558. JSTOR 1941558.
- Coope, G.R.; Lemdahl, G.; Lowe, J.J.; Walkling, A. (4 May 1999). "Temperature gradients in northern Europe during the last glacial – Holocene transition (14–9 14 C kyr BP) interpreted from coleopteran assemblages". Journal of Quaternary Science. 13 (5): 419–33. Bibcode:1998JQS....13..419C. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1417(1998090)13:5<419::AID-JQS410>3.0.CO;2-D. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Cronin, Thomas N. (2010). Paleoclimates: understanding climate change past and present. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-14494-0.
- IPCC (2007). Solomon, S.; Qin, D.; Manning, M.; Chen, Z.; et al. (eds.). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis (PDF). Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-88009-1. (pb: 978-0-521-70596-7).
- IPCC (2008). The Core Writing Team; Pachauri, R. K.; Reisinger, A. R (eds.). Climate Change 2008: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva, Switzerland: IPCC. ISBN 92-9169-122-4..
- IPCC TAR WG1 (2001). Houghton, J.T.; Ding, Y.; Griggs, D.J.; Noguer, M.; van der Linden, P.J.; Dai, X.; Maskell, K.; Johnson, C.A. (eds.). Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-80767-0. Archived from the original on 30 March 2016. Retrieved 5 July 2019. (pb: 0-521-01495-6).
- Ipcc ar4 wg1 (2007). "Summary for Policymakers". In Solomon, S.; Qin, D.; Manning, M.; Chen, Z.; Marquis, M.; Averyt, K.B.; Tignor, M.; Miller, H.L. (eds.). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-88009-1. (pb: 978-0-521-70596-7).
- Ipcc ar4 syr (2007). "Summary for Policymakers". In Core Writing Team; Pachauri, R.K; Reisinger, A. (eds.). Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. IPCC. ISBN 978-92-9169-122-7.
- Edwards, Paul Geoffrey; Miller, Clark A. (2001). Changing the atmosphere: expert knowledge and environmental governance. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-63219-5.
- Francis, Jennifer, "Rough Weather Ahead: Recent disasters show how climate change is making winter storms, flooding rains and summer heat waves more extreme", Scientific American, vol. 320, no. 6 (June 2019), pp. 46–53.
- McKibben, Bill (2011). The Global Warming Reader. New York, N.Y.: OR Books. ISBN 978-1-935928-36-2.
- Ruddiman, William F. (2005). Plows, plagues, and petroleum: how humans took control of climate. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-13398-0.
- Wagner, Frederic H., ed. (2009). Climate Change in Western North America: Evidence and Environmental Effects. ISBN 978-0-87480-906-0.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Climate change|
|Wikinews has news related to:|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Climate change.|
|Wikisource has media related to: Climate change|
- Fourth National Climate Assessment: Volume 1: Climate Science Special Report | Volume 2: Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States
- Climate Change Resources from SourceWatch
- Global Climate Change Indicators from NOAA
- Global Climate Change from NASA (US)
- Climate Change: Evidence & Causes, from the Royal Society and the U.S. National Academy of Sciences
- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
- Confronting the Realities of Climate Change Union of Concerned Scientists
- A rough guide to the components of Earth's Climate System