Colombian literature

Colombian literature, as an expression of the culture of Colombia, is heterogeneous due to the coexistence of Spanish, African and Native American heritages in an extremely diverse geography. Five distinct historical and cultural traditions can be identified, with their own socioeconomic history: the Caribbean coast, Greater Antioquia, the Cundinamarca-Boyacá Highlands, Greater Tolima and the Western Valley.[1] Colombia produced one of the richest literatures of Latin America, as much for its abundance as for its variety and innovation during the 19th and 20th centuries. Colombian intellectuals who forged the literature of this period also contributed decisively to the consolidation of Latin American literature.[2][3]

Conquest and early colonial period (1499-1810) [ edit ]

Juan Rodríguez Freyle was an early writer in the New Kingdom of Granada. His major work El Carnero is a collection of stories, anecdotes and rumours about the early days of colonial Colombia and the demise of the Muisca Confederation

Under the Spanish Empire, major literary topics included conquest narratives, chronicles, religious devotion, and love themes. Some of the best-known authors of this period are:

Emancipation and national consolidation (1780-1830) [ edit ]

The republic forces defeated the Spanish Empire in the Battle of Boyacá

During the process of independence, Colombian literature was strongly influenced by the political motivations of the moment. The main literary movements were close to Romanticism.

During the nineteenth century, political writing was led by Simón Bolívar. Local journalism was initiated by Antonio Nariño. The Colombian government established the first Academy of Spanish language in the American continent, in 1871.

Other relevant authors were:

Costumbrismo [ edit ]

María is a novel written by Colombian writer Jorge Isaacs. It is a costumbrist novel representative of the Spanish romantic movement.

In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the main topic in Colombian literature was the colourful depiction of peasant life, tied to strong criticism of society and government. This type of literature was called costumbrista literature. Some of the authors of this period are:

Modern literature [ edit ]

José Eustasio Rivera in 1928, author of La Vorágine, a novel that depicts the brutal slavery of the native American forced to harvest latex from the Para rubber tree.

Modernismo and modernism are reactions against the previous literature of Romanticism. Modernism's main topics are ugliness and mystery. The main modern writers are:

Stone and Sky (Piedra y Cielo) [ edit ]

The industrialization process in Latin America during the twentieth century generated new literary movements such as the poetic movement named “Piedra y cielo” (1939). Its main authors are:

  • Eduardo Carranza
  • Jorge Gaitán Durán
  • Jorge Rojas
  • Arturo Camacho Ramírez
  • Augusto Pinilla

Nothing-ism (Nadaísmo) [ edit ]

Fernando González in Nevado del Ruiz Snow Mountain in 1929 during the visits that inspired his work "Viaje a pie" ("Trip By Foot"). González is considered one of the most original writers of Colombia during the 20th century. His ideas were controversial and had a great influence in the Colombian society at his time and today. The González work was the inspiration of Nadaism, a literary movement founded by one of his disciples, Gonzalo Arango.

The violent events in Colombia during the 1940s and 1950s, such as La Violencia and the military government of Gustavo Rojas Pinilla, as well as a considerable urban expansion, influenced in the formation of the Nadaísta (Nothing-ist) movement, which was the Colombian expression of numerous avant-garde-like movements in the poetry of the Americas during the 1950s and 60s (such as the *Beat Generation in the United States and the Tzanticos in Ecuador). Nadaísmo included elements of existentialism and nihilism, a dynamic incorporation of city life, and a generally irreverent, iconoclastic flavor. Authors who were part of this movement include:

The Boom [ edit ]

Yellow butterflies are a distinctive feature in 100 Years of Solitude by Gabriel García Márquez

The Latin American Boom was a prolific period for Colombian literature.

Contemporary authors [ edit ]

William Ospina. He won the Romulo Gallegos Prize for his novel El país de la canela, part of a trilogy about the conquest of the Amazon

Disillusioned Generation / Generación Desencantada [ edit ]

This generation groups a broad and ambiguous list of writers, poets who began to publish after the Nadaísmo movement (see above) in the 1970s. Poets like Giovanni Quessep, Harold Alvarado Tenorio, Juan Gustavo Cobo Borda, Elkin Restrepo, José Manuel Arango, Darío Jaramillo Agudelo, Augusto Pinilla, María Mercedes Carranza, and Juan Manuel Roca among many others, have been considered part of this generation, although they have differences in style, themes and ideology.

Recent generations [ edit ]

Some writers like Cristian Valencia, Alberto Salcedo Ramos and Jorge Enrique Botero, have written literary journalism, close to Gonzo style. In fiction there are authors like Hector Abad Faciolince, Santiago Gamboa, Juan Sebastian Cardenas, Nahum Montt, Miguel Mendoza Luna, Sebastian Pineda Buitrago, Mauricio Loza, Ignacio Arroyave Piedrhíta, Antonio Garcia, Mario Mendoza, James Canon, Ricardo Abdahllah, Juan Pablo Plata, Evelio Rosero Diago, Antonio Ungar, Laura Restrepo, Ruben Varona, William Ospina, David Alberto Campos, Oscar Perdomo Gamboa, Juan Esteban Constain, Juan Álvarez, Andrés Del Castillo, Antonio Iriarte Cadena, Esmir Garcés, Antonieta Villamil, Winston Morales, Efraim Medina Reyes, Ricardo Silva Romero and many others.[8][9][10]

Recent poetry [ edit ]

In recent decades, in Colombia there has been a significant number of poets of importance, who deal with urban issues and anti-poetry. Among them are Antonieta Villamil, Andrea Cote, Lucia Estrada, Felipe García Quintero, whose poetry has been recognized internationally.

Poetry [ edit ]

José Asunción Silva was a Colombian poet. He is considered one of the founders of Spanish–American Modernism.

Children's literature [ edit ]

Some of the characters most recognized in Colombian children's literature and the popular imaginary are the stock characters created by Rafael Pombo, which are often found in nursery rhymes, familiar folk tales and in the textbooks for elementary school.

Other important children literature authors are:

  • Jairo Anibal Niño: with his works "La alegria de querer" (The joy of love), "Razzgo, Indo y Zas", "Catalino Bocachica" among others
  • Euclides Jaramillo: with the "Tales of Uncle rabbit"
  • From the 1980s, young adult fiction authors Gloria Cecilia Díaz, Irene Vasco, Evelio José Rosero, Yolanda Reyes and Pilar Lozano introduced new subjects for the genre such as conflict, kidnapping, death and fear.[11]
  • Recent picture book voices include the work of Ivar da Coll, Claudia Rueda, Jairo Buitrago and Rafael Yockteng

References [ edit ]

  1. ^ "Colombia." by Robert L. Sims. Concise Encyclopedia of Latin American Literature. London: Routledge, 2000.
  2. ^ Rodríguez-Arenas, F. M. (2006). Bibliografía de la literatura colombiana del siglo XIX: AL. Stockcero, Inc.
  3. ^ Rodríguez-Arenas, F. M. (2006). Bibliografía de la literatura colombiana del siglo XIX: MZ. Stockcero, Inc.
  4. ^ (in Spanish) Antijovio
  5. ^ Graham (1922) page 2
  6. ^ There is considerable disagreement about Gonzalo Jimenez de Quesada's birth year and place.
  7. ^ Biblioteca Virtual Luis Ángel Arango. Castillo y Guevara, Francisca Josefa De. Web. 11 September 2012.
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 14, 2007. Retrieved March 15, 2011. CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)

See also [ edit ]

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