Counties are shown in green
|Category||Special municipalities, counties, and cities|
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Historical divisions of
Republic of China (1912–49)
A county,[I] constitutionally known as a hsien, is an administrative division unit in Taiwan. Under the administrative structure of Taiwan, it is with the same level of a provincial city. Historically the counties were under the jurisdiction of provinces, but after the streamlining of provinces in 1998, they are all directly led by the central government.
History [ edit ]
The first administrative divisions named "county" (縣) was first established in 1661 by the Kingdom of Tungning. The later ruler Qing empire inherited this type of administrative divisions. With the increase of Han Chinese population in Taiwan, the number of counties also grew by time. By the end of Qing era, there were 11 counties in Taiwan. Protestant missionaries in China first romanized the term as hien.
Taiwan was ceded to Japan by the Treaty of Shimonoseki in 1895. The hierarchy of divisions also incorporated into the Japanese system in the period when Taiwan under Japanese rule. By the end of World War II in 1945, Taiwan was divided into eight (8) prefectures (州 and 廳). The prefectures were reformed into eight counties (縣) with the same name under Taiwan Province of the Republic of China. Their roman spellings were also changed to reflect the official language shift from Japanese to Mandarin Chinese, but characters remained the same. Note that most of the Japanese prefectural cities were reformed to provincial cities and are not a part of counties.
|Counties in 1950|
|新竹州||Shinchiku||新竹縣||Hsinchu||Hsinchu, Miaoli, Taoyuan|
|臺中州||Taichū||臺中縣||Taichung||Changhua, Nantou, Taichung|
|臺南州||Tainan||臺南縣||Tainan||Chiayi, Tainan, Yunlin|
In late 1949, the government of the Republic of China lost the Chinese Civil War and was relocated to Taipei, Taiwan. In 1950, the counties in Taiwan were reorganized. Counties in populous western Taiwan were split into two to three counties. This pushed the number of counties up to 16. After the war, the government only controlled a few offshore islands of mainland China. These territories were reorganized into two counties: Kinmen and Lienchiang under Fukien. The number of counties under jurisdiction, 16 in Taiwan and 2 in Fukien, remained stable in the period of Martial law in Taiwan until the early 1990s.
Following the democratic reforms in the early 1990s, more proposals of administrative division reforms were widely discussed and ultimately caused some populous counties be reformed to special municipalities in the 2010 and 2014. These counties are:
- Kaohsiung County (1945–2010), now part of Kaohsiung special municipality; the county seat was at Fengshan City
- Taichung County (1945–2010), now part of Taichung special municipality; the county seat was at Fengyuan City
- Tainan County (1945–2010), now part of Tainan special municipality; the county seat was located at Xinying City
- Taipei County (1945–2010), now New Taipei special municipality; the county seat was located at Banqiao City
- Taoyuan County (1950–2014), now Taoyuan special municipality; the county seat was located at Taoyuan City (county-controlled)
Currently, the counties are established according to the Local Government Act under the supervision of the Ministry of the Interior. This act also endorses some special articles that grants counties with a population of over two million can grant some extra privileges in local autonomy that was designed for special municipalities. This type of counties are often called quasi-municipalities (準直轄市). This term applied to New Taipei and Taoyuan before they became special municipalities.
Current counties [ edit ]
There are currently 13 counties:
|Chông-fa||Changhua City||彰化市||Taiwan Province|
|Chiayi||嘉義縣||Jiāyì||Chia¹-i⁴||Jiayì||Ka-gī||Kâ-ngi||Taibao City||太保市||Taiwan Province|
|Hsinchu||新竹縣||Xīnzhú||Hsin¹-chu²||Sinjhú||Sin-tek||Sîn-chuk||Zhubei City||竹北市||Taiwan Province|
|Fâ-lièn||Hualien City||花蓮市||Taiwan Province|
|Kinmen||金門縣||Jīnmén||Chin¹-mên²||Jinmén||Kim-mn̂g||Kîm-mùn||Jincheng Township||金城鎮||Fujian Province|
|Lienchiang||連江縣||Liánjiāng||Lien²-chiang¹||Liánjiang||Liân-kang||Lièn-kông||Nangan Township||南竿鄉||Fujian Province|
|Mèu-li̍t||Miaoli City||苗栗市||Taiwan Province|
|Nantou||南投縣||Nántóu||Nan²-tʻou²||Nántóu||Lâm-tâu||Nàm-thèu||Nantou City||南投市||Taiwan Province|
|Phàng-fù||Magong City||馬公市||Taiwan Province|
|Pingtung||屏東縣||Píngdōng||Pʻing²-tung¹||Píngdong||Pîn-tong||Phìn-tûng||Pingtung City||屏東市||Taiwan Province|
|Taitung||臺東縣||Táidōng||Tʻai²-tung¹||Táidong||Tâi-tang||Thòi-tûng||Taitung City||臺東市||Taiwan Province|
|Yilan||宜蘭縣||Yílán||I²-lan²||Yílán||Gî-lân||Ngì-làn||Yilan City||宜蘭市||Taiwan Province|
|Yunlin||雲林縣||Yúnlín||Yün²-lin²||Yúnlín||Hûn-lîm||Yùn-lìm||Douliu City||斗六市||Taiwan Province|
Under Article 9 of the Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China, regulated by the Local Government Act, each county has a government headed by an elected county magistrate and an elected county council exercising legislative functions. The governing bodies (executive and legislature) of the counties are:
See also [ edit ]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Counties of Taiwan.|
- Political divisions of Taiwan (1895–1945)
- Prefectures of Japan
- Counties of the People's Republic of China
|Republic of China|
|Free area [i]||Mainland area|
|Special municipalities [G] [ii]||Provinces[iii]||Not administered[iv]|
|Counties [G]||Cities [G] [v]|
|Districts [O]||Mountain indigenous districts[G]||Townships and county-administered cities [G] [vi]||Districts [O]|
|Villages [O] [vii]|
- [G] Has an administrative body with an elected leader and a legislative body with elected members
- [O] Has a governmental office for managing local affairs and carrying out commissioned tasks by superior agency
Notes [ edit ]
- Also known as the Taiwan area or Tai–Min area (Chinese: 臺閩地區; literally: 'Taiwan–Fujian area')
- In Chinese, special municipalities, cities, and county-administered cities have the word shi (Chinese: 市; literally: 'city') in their official names
- Nominal; provincial governments have been abolished
- Constitutionally having the same structure as the free area
- Cities are sometimes called provincial cities (Chinese: 省轄市) to distinguish them from the other two types of cities.
- In Chinese, there are two types of townships: xīang (Chinese: 鄉) and zhèng (Chinese: 鎮); there is little practical difference between the two
- In Chinese, villages of xīang townships are known as tsūn (Chinese: 村), those of other types are known as lǐ (Chinese: 里)
Words in native languages [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
- "Laws & Regulations Database of The Republic of China". law.moj.gov.tw. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- Davidson, James W. (1903). The Island of Formosa, Past and Present: History, People, Resources, and Commercial Prospects: Tea, Camphor, Sugar, Gold, Coal, Sulphur, Economical Plants, and Other Productions. London and New York: Macmillan & Co. p. 93. OL 6931635M.
- "Glossary of Names for Admin Divisions"(PDF). Taiwan Geographic Names Information Systems. The Ministry of Interior of ROC. Retrieved 6 June 2015. [permanent dead link]