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Dōjinshi (同人誌, often transliterated doujinshi) is the Japanese term for self-published works, usually magazines, manga or novels. Dōjinshi are often the work of amateurs, though some professional artists participate as a way to publish material outside the regular industry. Dōjinshi are part of a wider category of dōjin including art collections, anime and games. Groups of dōjinshi artists refer to themselves as a sākuru (サークル, circle). A number of such groups actually consist of a single artist: they are sometimes called kojin sākuru (個人サークル, personal circles).
Since the 1980s, the main method of distribution has been through regular dōjinshi conventions, the largest of which is called Comiket (short for "Comic Market") held in the summer and winter in Tokyo's Big Sight. At the convention, over 20 acres (81,000 m2) of dōjinshi are bought, sold, and traded by attendees. Dōjinshi creators who base their materials on other creators' works normally publish in small numbers to maintain a low profile so as to protect themselves against litigation, making a talented creator's or circle's dōjinshi a coveted commodity.
Etymology [ edit ]
The term dōjinshi is derived from dōjin (同人, literally "same person", used to refer to a person or people with whom one shares a common goal or interest) and shi (誌, a suffix generally meaning "periodical publication").
History [ edit ]
The pioneer among dōjinshi was Meiroku Zasshi (明六雑誌), published in the early Meiji period (since 1874). Not a literary magazine in fact, Meiroku Zasshi nevertheless played a big role in spreading the idea of dōjinshi. The first magazine to publish dōjinshi novels was Garakuta Bunko (我楽多文庫), founded in 1885 by writers Ozaki Kōyō and Yamada Bimyo. Dōjinshi publication reached its peak in the early Shōwa period, and dōjinshi became a mouthpiece for the creative youth of that time. Created and distributed in small circles of authors or close friends, dōjinshi contributed significantly to the emergence and development of the shishōsetsu genre. During the postwar years, dōjinshi gradually decreased in importance as outlets for different literary schools and new authors. Their role was taken over by literary journals such as Gunzo, Bungakukai and others. One notable exception was Bungei Shuto (文芸首都, lit. Literary Capital), which was published from 1933 until 1969. Few dōjinshi magazines survived with the help of official literary journals. Haiku and tanka magazines are still published today.
It has been suggested that technological advances in the field of photocopying during the 1970s contributed to an increase in publishing dōjinshi. During this time, manga editors were encouraging manga authors to appeal to a mass market, which may have also contributed to an increase in the popularity of writing dōjinshi.
During the 1980s, the content of dōjinshi shifted from being predominantly original content to being mostly parodic of existing series. Often called aniparo, this was often an excuse to feature certain characters in romantic relationships. Male authors focused on series like Urusei Yatsura, and female authors focused on series like Captain Tsubasa. This coincided with the rise in popularity of Comiket, the first event dedicated specifically to the distribution of dōjinshi, which had been founded in 1975.
As of February 1991, there were some dōjinshi creators who sold their work through supportive comic book stores. This practice came to light when three managers of such shops were arrested for having a lolicon dōjinshi for sale.
Over the last decade, the practice of creating dōjinshi has expanded significantly, attracting thousands of creators and fans alike. Advances in personal publishing technology have also fueled this expansion by making it easier for dōjinshi creators to write, draw, promote, publish, and distribute their works. For example, some dōjinshi are now published on digital media. Furthermore, many dōjinshi creators are moving to online download and print-on-demand services, while others are beginning to distribute their works through American channels such as anime shop websites and specialized online direct distribution sites. In 2008, a white paper on the otaku industry was published, this estimated that gross revenue from sales of dōjinshi in 2007 were 27.73 billion yen, or 14.9% of total otaku expenditure on their hobby.
To avoid legal problems, the dōjin mark (同人マーク) was created. A license format inspired by Creative Commons licenses, the first author to authorize the license was Ken Akamatsu in the manga UQ Holder!, released on August 28, 2013 in the magazine Weekly Shōnen Magazine.
Comiket [ edit ]
Comiket is the world's largest comic convention. It is held twice a year (summer and winter) in Tokyo, Japan. The first CM was held in December 1975, with only about 32 participating circles and an estimated 600 attendees. About 80% of these were female, but male participation in Comiket increased later. In 1982, there were fewer than 10,000 attendees, this increased to over 100,000 attendees as of 1989, and over half a million people in recent years. . This rapid increase in attendance enabled dōjinshi authors to sell thousands of copies of their works, earning a fair amount of money with their hobby. In 2009, Meiji University opened a dōjin manga library, named “Yoshihiro Yonezawa Memorial Library” to honour its alumni in its Surugadai campus. It contains Yonezawa's own dōjinshi collection, comprising 4137 boxes, and the collection of Tsuguo Iwata, another famous person in the sphere of dōjinshi.
Categories [ edit ]
Like their mainstream counterparts, dōjinshi are published in a variety of genres and types. However, due to the target audience, certain themes are more prevalent, and there are a few major division points by which the publications can be classified. It can be broadly divided into original works and aniparo—works which parody existing anime and manga franchises.
As in fanfics, a very popular theme to explore is non-canonical pairings of characters in a given show (for dōjinshi based on mainstream publications). Many such publications contain yaoi or yuri (stories containing same-sex romance) themes, either as a part of non-canon pairings, or as a more direct statement of what can be hinted by the main show.
Another category of dōjinshi is furry or kemono, often depicting homosexual male pairings of anthropomorphic animal characters and, less often, lesbian pairings. Furry dōjinshi shares some characteristics with the yaoi and yuri genres, with many furry dōjinshi depicting characters in erotic settings or circumstances, or incorporating elements typical of anime and manga, such as exaggerated drawings of eyes or facial expressions.
A major part of dōjinshi, whether based on mainstream publications or original, contains sexually explicit material, due to both the large demand for such publications and absence of restrictions official publishing houses have to follow. Indeed, often the main point of a given dōjinshi is to present an explicit version of a popular show's characters. Such works may be known to English speakers as "H-dōjinshi", in line with the former Japanese use of letter H to denote erotic material. The Japanese usage, however, has since moved towards the word ero, and so ero manga (エロ漫画) is the term almost exclusively used to mark dōjinshi with adult themes. Sometimes they will also be termed "for adults" (成人向け, seijin muke) or 18-kin (18禁) (an abbreviation of "forbidden to minors less than 18 years of age" (18歳未満禁止, 18-sai-miman kinshi)). To differentiate, ippan (一般, , "general", from the general public it is suitable for) is the term used for publications absent of such content.
Most dōjinshi are commercially bound and published by dōjinshi-ka (dōjinshi authors) who self-publish through various printing services. Copybooks, however, are self-made using xerox machines or other copying methods. Few are copied by drawing by hand.
Not all category terms used by English-language fans of dōjinshi are derived from Japanese. For example, an AU dōjinshi is one set in an alternate universe.
Legality [ edit ]
Many dōjinshi are derivative works and dōjinshi artists rarely secure the permission of the original creator, a practice that has existed since the early 1980s. Dōjinshi are considered shinkokuzai under Japanese copyright law, meaning that dōjinshi creators cannot be prosecuted unless a complaint is made by the holders of the copyrights they have violated. In 2016, then-Prime Minister of Japan Shinzo Abe affirmed that dōjinshi "don't compete in the market with the original works and don't damage the original creators' profits, so they are shinkokuzai." Copyright holders take an unofficial policy of non-enforcement towards the dōjinshi market, due to it having beneficial impact on the commercial manga market, as well, by creating an avenue for aspiring manga artists to practice, and talented dōjinshi creators are contacted by publishers. Salil K. Mehra, a law professor at Temple University, hypothesizes that dōjinshi market actually causes the manga market to be more productive and that strict enforcement of copyright law would cause the industry to suffer.
Notable cases [ edit ]
In 1999, the author of an erotic Pokémon manga was prosecuted by Nintendo. This created a media furor as well as an academic analysis in Japan of the copyright issues around dōjinshi. At this time, the legal analysis seemed to conclude that dōjinshi should be overlooked because they are produced by amateurs for one-day events and not sold in the commercial market. In 2006, an artist selling an imagined "final chapter" for the series Doraemon, which was never completed, was given a warning by the estate of author Fujiko F. Fujio. His creation apparently looked confusingly similar to a real Doraemon manga. He ceased distribution of his dōjinshi and sent compensation to the publisher voluntarily. The publisher noted at this time that dōjinshi were not usually a cause of concern for him. The Yomiuri Shinbun noted, "Fanzines don't usually cause many problems as long as they are sold only at one-day exhibitions," but quoted an expert saying that due to their increasing popularity a copyright system should be set up.
In 2020, the Intellectual Property High Court ordered a dōjinshi sharing website to pay ¥2.19 million to a creator whose dōjinshi were uploaded to the website without the creator's consent. The file sharing site claimed that the dōjinshi was a derivative work and thus not protected by copyright law, though the court ruled that there was insufficient evidence to classify the dōjinshi as an illegally derivative work. The ruling was noted by commentators as potentially broadening rights for dōjinshi creators under commercial law.
Impact [ edit ]
John Oppliger of AnimeNation stated that creating dōjinshi is largely popular with Japanese fans, but not with Western fans. Oppliger claimed that because Japanese natives grow up with anime and manga "as a constant companion", Japanese fans "are more intuitively inclined" to create or expand on existing manga and anime in the form of dōjinshi. Since Western fans experience a "more purely" visual experience as most Western fans cannot understand the Japanese language, the original language of most anime, and are "encouraged by social pressure to grow out of cartoons and comics during the onset of adolescence", most of them usually participate in utilizing and rearranging existing work into anime music videos.
In most Western cultures, dōjinshi is often perceived to be derivative of existing work, analogous to fan fiction and almost completely pornographic. This is partly true: dōjinshi are often, though not always, parodies or alternative storylines involving the worlds of popular manga, game or anime series, and can often feature overtly sexual material. However, there are also many non sexually explicit dōjinshi being created as well. The Touhou Project series for example, is known to be notable for the large amount of dōjinshi being produced for it that are not pornographic in nature. Some groups releasing adults-only themed materials during the annual Touhou only event Reitaisai in 2008 were only estimated at roughly 10%.
Notable artists [ edit ]
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Individuals [ edit ]
- Yoshitoshi ABe has published some of his original works as dōjinshi, such as Haibane Renmei. He cited the reason as, essentially, not wanting to answer to anyone about his work, especially because he saw it as so open-ended.
- Ken Akamatsu, creator of manga such as Love Hina and Negima, continues to make dōjinshi which he sells at Comiket under the pen-name Awa Mizuno.
- Kiyohiko Azuma, creator of Azumanga Daioh and Yotsuba& started out doing dōjinshi using the pen-name A-Zone.
- Nanae Chrono, creator of the manga Peacemaker Kurogane, has published multiple Narutodōjinshi, most of a yaoi nature.
- Kazushi Hagiwara, creator of Bastard!!, and his group Studio Loud in School have published popular Bastard!!-related dōjinshi such as Wonderful Megadeth!, as well as various Capcom-related dōjinshi.
- Masaki Kajishima, creator of Tenchi Muyo! Ryo-Ohki, has long used the dōjinshi format to produce additional information about the series he has created, primarily Tenchi Muyo! Ryo-Ohki and Tenchi Muyo! GXP. These dōjinshi can either be completely filled with his work, or he will contribute a work to the dōjinshi title. Kajishima's dōjinshi works break down into one (or more) types of works: manga-style (where he illustrates a new story, usually with limited text), interviews, early drafts of scripts for the series (giving fans great insight into the creative process), storyboards drawn by Kajishima that ultimately were not animated, story notes (or short stories) giving further little details of various characters, situations, or places in Kajishima's World of Tenchi. As of this writing, Kajishima does two dōjinshi titles a year under the circle names "Kajishima Onsen" and "Kamidake Onsen". He has also used these to communicate with fans about his current projects, namely the Saint Knight's Tale spinoff anime featuring Tenchi's half-brother and the GXP novels.
- Kazuhiko Katō, also known as Monkey Punch, creator of Lupin III began as a dōjinshi artist.
- Kodaka Kazuma, creator of Kizuna, Rotten Teacher's Equation (Kusatta Kyōshi no Hōteishiki), Love Equation (Renai Hōteishiki) and Border among others, has published several parody yaoi dōjinshi as K2 Company of Prince of Tennis, Fullmetal Alchemist, and Tiger and Bunny, as well as an original dōjinshi series called 'Hana to Ryuu' (Flower and Dragon).
- Rikdo Koshi, creator of the manga Excel Saga, originally started out as a dōjinshi artist.
- Yun Kouga, a longtime published manga artist and creator of two well-known BL series, Earthian and Loveless has published dōjinshi for series such as Gundam Wing and Tiger and Bunny.
- Sanami Matoh, creator of FAKE, has published parody yaoi dōjinshi (mostly of One Piece) and original dōjinshi as East End Club.
- Maki Murakami, creator of Gravitation and Gamers' Heaven. Her circle Crocodile Ave. created Remix Gravitation AKA Rimigra and Megamix Gravitation, which were extremely sexually graphic.
- Minami Ozaki, creator of the boy's love manga Zetsuai, is an extremely prolific dōjinshi creator. She authored numerous yaoi dōjinshi before her debut as a professional artist, most notably featuring characters from the soccer manga Captain Tsubasa. The main characters of her manga Zetsuai strongly resemble the main characters of her Captain Tsubasa dōjinshi. Ozaki continued to release dōjinshi about her own professional manga, often including sexual content that could not be published in Margaret, the young girls-oriented manga magazine in which Zetsuai was serialized.
- Yukiru Sugisaki, creator of D.N.Angel and The Candidate for Goddess, started as a dōjinka. She released dōjinshi about King of Fighters, Evangelion, etc.; all were gag dōjinshi.
- Rumiko Takahashi, creator of Ranma ½ and Inuyasha, made dōjinshi before she became a professional artist.
- Yoshihiro Togashi, creator of YuYu Hakusho and Hunter x Hunter, has authored dōjinshi such as Church!.
- Hajime Ueda, the creator of Q•Ko-chan and the comic adaptation of FLCL.
- Nobuteru Yūki sells dōjinshi based on his animated works under his pen-name "The Man in the High Castle".
- Kana Ueda, creator of Nanoha Strikersfutanari dōjin. Girl lovers several as Teana Lanster, Subaru Nakajima, Signum, Yagami Hayate and more.
- Yana Toboso used to be a yaoi dōjinka before she authored Black Butler, which explained why there are some notable BL hints throughout the series.
- Sunao Minakata, the illustrator of Akuma no Riddle, is a regular dōjinka, especially in girls' love theme. Usually makes Touhou dōjinshi and has collaborated with other known-for-Touhou-works-popular artists, such as Banpai Akira.
Online [ edit ]
- Bleedman, creator of the online Powerpuff Girls Doujinshi, Grim Tales From Down Below, and Sugar Bits.
- Fred Gallagher, creator of the Megatokyo series, as well as the in-development series Warmth. His Megatokyo co-creator and former writer, Rodney "Largo" Caston, can also be considered one, though Caston has since left the business.
- Daniel Kim, creator of the Cardcaptor Sakura parody Tomoyo42's Room, has written and illustrated several dōjinshi, all of which are hosted at the Clone Manga collective.
- Jesús García Ferrer (Jesulink) created Raruto, a Spanish Naruto dōjinshi published online.
- Fabio Yabu produced the sentai spoof Combo Rangers.
- Kittyhawk, creator of Sparkling Generation Valkyrie Yuuki.
Circles [ edit ]
- 07th Expansion, creators of both Higurashi no Naku Koro ni and Umineko no Naku Koro ni.
- Clamp started out as a dōjinshi group of 11 known as Clamp Cluster.
See also [ edit ]
Related concepts [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
- An article "同人誌" from encyclopedia 世界百科辞典.
- Galbraith, Patrick W. (2011). "Fujoshi: Fantasy Play and Transgressive Intimacy among "Rotten Girls" in Contemporary Japan". Signs. 37 (1): 211–232. doi:10.1086/660182.
- Wilson, Brent; Toku, Masami. "Boys' Love," Yaoi, and Art Education: Issues of Power and Pedagogy 2003
- Orbaugh, Sharalyn (2003). "Creativity and Constraint in Amateur Manga Production". US-Japan Women's Journal. 25: 104–124.
- "2007年のオタク市場規模は1866億円―メディアクリエイトが白書 | インサイド". インサイド (in Japanese). Retrieved 2017-04-07.
- Metzger, Axel (2015). Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) and other Alternative License Models: A Comparative Analysis. Springer. p. 274. ISBN 9783319215600
- 二次創作OKの意思を示す「同人マーク」運用開始 - 許諾範囲も公開
- Lessig, Lawrence (March 25, 2004). "Chapter One: Creators". Free Culture (book). Authorama.com. Retrieved 2009-09-08.
- Mizoguchi Akiko (2003). "Male-Male Romance by and for Women in Japan: A History and the Subgenres of Yaoi Fictions". U.S.-Japan Women’s Journal, 25: 49–75.
- "Dojin Manga Library "Yoshihiro Yonezawa Memorial Library" opening this Summer". en.gigazine.net. April 2, 2009. Archived from the original on July 8, 2012. Retrieved 2009-05-13.
- Sabucco, Veruska "Guided Fan Fiction: Western "Readings" of Japanese Homosexual-Themed Texts" in Berry, Chris, Fran Martin, and Audrey Yue (editors) (2003). Mobile Cultures: New Media in Queer Asia. Durham, North Carolina; London: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-3087-3. pp.70–72
- Article on the term "hentai" explains the differences between Japanese and English usage.
elfgrove (May 16, 2008). "Princess Tutu Doujinshi". deviantART: elfgrove's Journal: Princess Tutu Doujinshi. Retrieved 2 September 2011.
The story is an AU Swan Lake set after the Princess Tutu anime series... F.A.Q... What does AU mean? Alternate Universe.
- McLelland, Mark. Why are Japanese Girls' Comics full of Boys Bonking? Refractory: A Journal of Entertainment Media Vol.10, 2006/2007
- Stimson, Eric (April 9, 2016). "Prime Minister Abe: Dōjinshi Safe Under TPP". Anime News Network. Retrieved October 26, 2020.
- Mehra, Salil K. (2002). "Copyright and Comics in Japan: Does Law Explain Why All the Cartoons My Kid Watches are Japanese Imports?". Rutgers Law Review. 55. doi:10.2139/ssrn.347620.
- Brient, Hervé, ed. (2008). "Entretien avec Hisako Miyoshi". Homosexualité et manga : le yaoi. Manga: 10000 images (in French). Editions H. pp. 17–19. ISBN 978-2-9531781-0-4.
- John Ingulsrud and Kate Allen. Reading Japan Cool: Patterns of Manga Literacy and Discourse. p. 49.
- Fukuda Makoto, “Doraemon Fanzine Ignites Copyright Alarms Archived 2017-04-12 at the Wayback Machine,” Daily Yomiuri, June 17, 2007, 22. See also Ingulsrud and Allen, p.49.
- Ikeya, Hayato (February 14, 2020). "二次創作でも違法アップロード駄目――"違法同人誌サイト"運営会社に219万円の賠償命令 過去の取材には「存じ上げないサイトですね」". Netorabo (in Japanese). Retrieved October 26, 2020.
- Kurihara, Kiyoshi (October 10, 2020). "知財高裁でBL同人作品の無断コピーは著作権侵害という当たり前の判決". Yahoo! Japan (in Japanese). Retrieved October 26, 2020.
- Oppliger, John (2005-06-23). "Ask John: Why Hasn't Doujinshi Caught on Outside of Japan?". AnimeNation. Archived from the original on 2012-01-11. Retrieved 2009-09-08.
- Oppliger, John (2003-09-08). "Ask John: Why Are Anime Music Videos so Popular?". AnimeNation. Archived from the original on 2009-04-30. Retrieved 2009-09-08.
- "第七回博麗神社例大祭サークルリスト". Archived from the original on 2011-07-21. Retrieved 2010-05-09.
- "東方のエロ需要が少ないのは何故なんだぜ？ - GilCrowsのペネトレイト・トーク". はてなダイアリー.
- "<<セーラームーン>> A-ZONE VOLUME 2 / A-ZONE - 中古 - 男性向一般同人誌 - 通販ショップの駿河屋". suruga-ya.jp.
- Cha, Kai-Ming (2007) Sex & Silliness: Maki Murakami’s Gravitation Publishers Weekly