Wikipedia

Da-Qing Tongbi

A machine-struckDà Qīng tóngbì (大清銅幣) cash coin of 10 wén in standard cash coins.

The Da-Qing Tongbi (Traditional Chinese: 大清銅幣), or the Tai-Ching-Ti-Kuo copper coin, refers to a series of copper machine-struck coins from the Qing dynasty produced from 1906 (Guangxu 31) until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911. These coins were intended to replace the earlier cast cash coins and provincial coinages, but were welcomed to mixed receptions.

Two series of Tongyuan (銅元) were simultaneously in circulation, one carried the inscription Guangxu Yuanbao (光緒元寶), which was also used for silver coins, and the other with the inscription Da-Qing Tongbi. While the Guangxu Yuanbao were often provincially issued and at first were of different weights, the Da-Qing Tongbi was introduced by the imperial government in the hopes to create a unified national currency system.

Name [ edit ]

The name "Da-Qing Tongbi" (大清銅幣) can be translated as "Copper currency of the Great Qing" and was used to indicate that this series was supposed to be the standard coinage of the entire empire as opposed to provincial coinages.

The Qing dynasty had a bimetallic coinage system,[1] and similar titles were also used for other standardised metal coinages such as the silver Da-Qing Yinbi (大清銀幣) and the gold Da-Qing Jinbi (大清金幣).[2][3][4]

History [ edit ]

Due to a shortage of copper at the end of the Qing dynasty, the mint of Guangzhou, Guangdong began striking round copper coins without square holes in June 1900. Tóngyuán () or Tóngbǎn () and they were struck in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 30 wén. These struck coins were well received because of their higher quality compared to cast coins and their convenience in carriage, as well as their uniform weight and copper content compared to the less consistent alloys of cast Chinese coinage. As these coins were profitable to manufacture it did not take long before other provinces started making machine-struck cash coins too, and soon 20 bureaus were opened across China.[5] As these coins became more common they eventually replaced the old cast coins as the main medium of exchange for small purchases among the Chinese people. The first of these provincial machine-struck copper-alloy coins had the inscription Guangxu Yuanbao (光緒元寶) and a weight of 7.46 grams. These early Cantonese milled coinage were inspired by copper coins from British Hong Kong. Due to the success of these Cantonese milled coins, the government of the province of Fujian started minting their own version of this coin in August of 1900.

From the year 1901 the provinces of Jiangsu, Hubei, Anhui, Zhejiang, Fengtian, Hunan, Beiyang Zhili, Sichuan, Jiangxi, Jilin, Shandong, Henan, Guangxi, and Yunnan had all begun to manufacture milled copper-alloy coins and distributed them nationwide. They became so became so popular that by the 31st year of the Guangxu Emperor (1906) they were being produced at 15 different bureaus in 12 provinces.

The government of the Qing dynasty established a modern coin factory at the Ministry of Revenue Mint (formerly the "Tianjin Silver Money General Mint") in Tianjin in the year 1903, the mint began to produce milled copper-alloy coins in 1905.[6] At the same time, the government of the Qing dynasty ordered the entire country to produce the Da-Qing Tongbi coins to replace the former "Guangxu Yuanbao" and unified and standardised national currency system.[7] The government of the Qing dynasty hoped to regain control of its currency system in order to also get more control over its own internal affairs.[6] In the year 1906, the Ministry of Revenue had issued the "Regulations on the Rectification Law" (整頓圜法章程), and had merged 24 mints around China into only 9.[8]

The Da-Qing Tongbi coins were initially issued in the denominations of 2 wén, 5 wén, 10 wén, and 20 wén with each of these denominations being based on their nominal value in traditional cash coins.[9] The government of the Qing dynasty had produced an excessive amount of 10 wén Da-Qing Tongbi coins. In the year 1909, the government of the Qing dynasty had ordered the mints to suspend the production of the 10 wén copper coins and produce a smaller denomination brass coin to ease the pressure of the 10 wén Da-Qing Tongbi coins, but only the provincial mints of Hubei, Jiangning, and Henan complied. The government of the Qing dynasty had issued a new law on currency known as the "Currency Regulations" (幣制則例) in the year 1910 to regulate and standardise the entire Chinese national currency system.[10][11] In the year 1911, the government of the Qing dynasty had issued the "Xuantong third year" series of copper-alloy coins, but these did not comply with the earlier set national regulations for coinages in China.[12]

Design [ edit ]

The designs of the Da-Qing Tongbi coins is similar to that of the Guangxu Yuanbao coins, the inscription Da-Qing Tongbi written in large Traditional Chinese characters occupied the centre part of the obverse side of the coin.[9] In the very centre of the coin, between the Da-Qing Tongbi characters, was one or two small Chinese characters indicating the provincial mint where the coin was manufactured.[9]

Near the top of the rim of the coin, the inscription Da-Qing Tongbi was again written down, but this time it was written using the Manchu script, as Manchu was the language of the ruling class of the Qing dynasty.[9] Near the right and left sides of the outer rim were two characters representing the "Ministry of the Interior and Finance",[9] which was later replaced by the "Ministry of Revenue and Expenditure" (戶部).[9] At the bottom the 10 wén Da-Qing Tongbi coins contained the inscription "文十錢制當" ("Worth 10 wén in standard cash coins") written from right to left indicating its nominal value.[13]

The reverse side of the Da-Qing Tongbi coin, like the Guangxu Yuanbao provincial coinages, also had the design of a Chinese dragon on it, but these dragons have much fewer variations in comparison to those on the Guangxu Yuanbao milled coins because of the imperial governments efforts in standardising designs.[9] Near the upper part of the outer rim were the Traditional Chinese characters Guangxu Nianzao (造年緒光) written from right to left,[13] which could be translated into English as "minted during the Guangxu years".[9] Near the lower part of the outer rim was the text, written in English, "Tai-Ching-Ti-Kuo Copper Coin".[9] Machine-struck Da-Qing Tongbi coins would continue to be produced during the reign of the Xuantong Emperor.[9] The Da-Qing Tongbi coins of this period had the text Xuantong Nianzao (造年統宣) written from right to left,[14] meaning "minted during the Xuantong years", inscribed near the upper part of the outer rim on the reverse side of the coins to indicate the era of mintage.[9]

Mint marks [ edit ]

Mint marks of the Da-Qing Tongbi coins
Mint mark Province Image
[15] Anhui 10 Cash - 大清銅幣 (Anhui Mint) - Scott Semans 09.jpg
[16] Fujian 10 Cash - 大清銅幣 (Fuzhou Mint) - Scott Semans 01.jpg
[17] Guangdong 10 Cash - 大清銅幣 (Guangdong Mint) - Scott Semans 05.jpg
[18] Henan 10 Cash - 大清銅幣 (Henan Mint) - Scott Semans 01.jpg
[19] Hubei Dà Qīng Tóng Bì (大清銅幣) - scanned image.png
[20] Hunan 10 Cash - 大清銅幣 (Hunan Mint) - Scott Semans 07.jpg
[21] Jiangnan 10 Cash - 大清銅幣 (Jiangnan Mint) - Scott Semans 04.jpg
[22] Jiangsu 10 Cash - 大清銅幣 (Jiangsu Mint) - Scott Semans 01.jpg
[23] Jiangxi 10 Cash - 大清銅幣 (Jiangxi Mint) - Scott Semans 01.jpg
Jilin 10 Cash - 大清銅幣 (Jilin Mint) - Scott Semans 03.jpg
[24] Fengtian 10 Cash - 大清銅幣 (Fengtian Mint) - Scott Semans 01.jpg
[25] Qingjiang 10 Cash - 大清銅幣 (Qingjiang Mint) - Scott Semans 05.jpg
[26] Shandong 10 Cash - 大清銅幣 (Shandong Mint) - Scott Semans 03.jpg
[27][28] Sichuan 10 Cash - 大清銅幣 (Sichuan Mint) - Scott Semans 06.jpg
[29] Yunnan
[29] Yunnan 10 Cash - 大清銅幣 (Yunnan Mint) - Scott Semans 01.jpg
滇川[30] Yunnan-Sichuan 大清銅幣 - 20 Cash (Yunnan and Sichuan Mints) - Scott Semana.jpg
[31] Zhejiang 大清銅幣 - 20 Cash (Zhejiang Mint) - Scott Semans.jpg
[32] Zhili 10 Cash - 大清銅幣 (Zhili Mint) - Scott Semans 03.jpg

Years [ edit ]

Years on the Da-Qing Tongbi coins
Chinese calendar [a] Gregorian calendar
巳乙[13] 1906
午丙[13] 1907
未丁[13] 1908
申戊 1909
酉己 1910
戌庚 1911

Denominations [ edit ]

Denominations of the Da-Qing Tongbi coins
Denomination Traditional Chinese Image
1 wén 一文 大清銅幣 - 一文 (戶部) - Scott Semans.jpg
2 wén 二文 大清銅幣 - 2 Cash (Shandong Mint) - Scott Semans.jpg
5 wén 五文 大清銅幣 - 5 Cash (Zhili Mint) - Scott Semans.jpg
10 wén 十文 10 Cash - 大清銅幣 (Anhui Mint) - Scott Semans 11.jpg
20 wén 二十文 大清銅幣 - 20 Cash (Board of Revenue Mint) - Scott Semans 08.jpg

Contemporary counterfeit Da-Qing Tongbi coins [ edit ]

Not long after these new copper coins were introduced, black market counterfeit versions of the 10 wén appeared, illegal mints or "private mints" (局私) opened all over China and started producing more coins than the Qing government's set quotas allowed there to be circulating on the market. Both Chinese and foreigners soon started producing struck cash coins of inferior quality often with traces of the Korean 5 fun coins they were overstruck on, or with characters and symbols not found on official government issued coins. Joseon began minting modern-style machine-struck copper-alloy coins in 1892, which was 8 years before the Qing dynasty did so in China. These coins were often minted by Korean businessmen and former Japanese Samurai (specifically Rōnin) looking to make a profit on exchanging the low value copper coins into silver dollars as a single Chinese silver dollar had the purchasing power of 1000 Korean fun. The majority of the counterfeit coins bear the inscription that they were minted in either Zhejiang province or Shandong province, but they circulated all over the coastal regions of China. Because the hand-operated presses used by the counterfeiters did not exert enough pressure on the coins to sufficiently obliterate the inscriptions and symbols on the Korean 5 fun coins, the counterfeit Qing dynasty 10 wén coins made using this method would usually exhibit a combination of both the Chinese Da-Qing Tongbi and Korean 5 fun designs. For example there can still be traces of a wreath surrounding the dragon or minor traces of the original Korean inscription.[33][34]

Notes [ edit ]

  1. ^ Written from right to left.

References [ edit ]

  1. ^ Niv Horesh (2019). The Monetary System of China under the Qing Dynasty. Springer Link. pp. 1–22. doi:10.1007/978-981-10-0622-7_54-1. ISBN 978-981-10-0622-7.
  2. ^ 平景賢; 王金谷. 中國錢幣珍品系列紀念章介紹 (一). 中國錢幣. 1991, (2): 79. (in Mandarin Chinese).
  3. ^ "光绪丙午年造大清金币库平壹两一枚" (in Chinese). 北京保利国际拍卖有限公司. Retrieved 2018-02-03.
  4. ^ "光绪丙午年造大清金币库平一两金质样币". 西泠印社 (in Chinese). Retrieved 2018-02-05.
  5. ^ G.X. Series "Chinese Provinces that issued machine struck coins, from 1900s to 1950s". Last updated: 10 June 2012. Retrieved: 29 June 2017.
  6. ^ a b 广州轩宇艺术 (16 May 2019). "轩宇艺术:石先生出手一枚罕见户部造鄂字版大清铜币" (in Chinese). 中经在线网 (Zhongjin News). Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  7. ^ 博华文化传媒 (19 December 2019). "广州博华文化传媒有限公司:张先生出手一组两枚价值不菲的户部造大清铜币" (in Chinese). 中经在线网 (Zhongjin News). Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  8. ^ 博华文化 (15 September 2019). "广州博华文化传媒:刘先生出手一枚价值不菲的户部造大清铜币" (in Chinese). The Hua Bei. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Chinese coins – 中國錢幣 - Qing (Ch'ing) Dynasty (1644-1911)". Gary Ashkenazy / גארי אשכנזי (Primaltrek – a journey through Chinese culture). 16 November 2016. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  10. ^ 互联网 (13 January 2019). "集艺术经济和历史于一身的古钱币——大清银币宣统三年壹圆" (in Chinese). 中经在线网 (Zhongjin News). Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  11. ^ 钱藏说钱 (31 March 2019). "从"两"到"圆"—大清银币计值币制改革揭秘" (in Chinese). Sohu. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  12. ^ 『体系金融大辞典』(東洋経済新報社、1971年) ISBN 978-4-492-01005-1 第XII 貨幣金融制度(各国) 7.中国 a通貨制度 (執筆者:宮下忠雄). (in Mandarin Chinese).
  13. ^ a b c d e Numista (28 December 2019). "10 Cash - Guangxu no mintmark". Numista. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  14. ^ Numista (28 December 2019). "10 Cash - Xuantong". Numista. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  15. ^ Numista (28 December 2019). "10 Cash - Guangxu (Anhui, 皖)". Numista. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  16. ^ Numista (28 December 2019). "10 Cash - Guangxu (Fujian, 閩)". Numista. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  17. ^ Numista (28 December 2019). "10 Cash - Guangxu (Guangdong, 粵)". Numista. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  18. ^ Numista (28 December 2019). "10 Cash - Guangxu (Henan, 汴)". Numista. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  19. ^ Numista (28 December 2019). "10 Cash - Guangxu (Hubei, 鄂)". Numista. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  20. ^ Numista (28 December 2019). "10 Cash - Guangxu (Hunan, 湘)". Numista. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  21. ^ Numista (28 December 2019). "10 Cash - Guangxu (Jiangnan, 甯)". Numista. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  22. ^ Numista (28 December 2019). "10 Cash - Guangxu (Jiangsu, 蘇)". Numista. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  23. ^ Numista (28 December 2019). "10 Cash - Guangxu (Jiangsi, 贛)". Numista. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  24. ^ Numista (28 December 2019). "10 Cash - Guangxu (Fengtian, 奉)". Numista. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  25. ^ Numista (28 December 2019). "10 Cash - Guangxu (Qingjiang, 镇)". Numista. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  26. ^ Numista (28 December 2019). "10 Cash - Guangxu (Shandong, 東)". Numista. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  27. ^ Numista (28 December 2019). "10 Cash - Guangxu (Sichuan, 川)". Numista. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  28. ^ Numista (28 December 2019). "10 Cash - Xuantong (Sichuan, 川)". Numista. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  29. ^ a b Numista (28 December 2019). "10 Cash - Guangxu (Yunnan, 雲 or 滇)". Numista. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  30. ^ Numista (28 December 2019). "10 Cash - Guangxu (Yunnan-Sichuan, 滇川)". Numista. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  31. ^ Numista (28 December 2019). "10 Cash - Guangxu (Zhejiang, 浙)". Numista. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  32. ^ Numista (28 December 2019). "10 Cash - Guangxu (Zhili, 直)". Numista. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  33. ^ "Chinese "10 Cash" Coins Overstruck on Korean "5 Fun" Coins". Gary Ashkenazy / גארי אשכנזי (Primaltrek – a journey through Chinese culture). 30 April 2012. Retrieved 3 July 2017.
  34. ^ Ye Zhenming (叶真铭) for qianbi (钱币) 揭秘"韩改版"铜元(叶真铭)。 Published: 发布日期:12-01-18 08:15:49 泉友社区 新闻来源:www.jibi.net 作者:叶真铭。 Retrieved: 3 July 2017. (in Mandarin Chinese using Simplified Chinese characters)

Sources [ edit ]

  • Dai Zhiqiang (戴志強), ed. (2008). Zhongguo qianbi shoucang jianshang quanji (中國錢幣收藏鑒賞全集) (Changchun: Jilin chuban jituan). (in Mandarin Chinese).
  • Nei Menggu qianbi yanjiu hui (內蒙古錢幣研究會), Zhongguo qianbi bianjibu (《中國錢幣》編輯部), ed. (1992); Cai Mingxin 蔡明信 (transl.). Zhongguo guchao tuji (Beijing: Zhongguo jinrong chubanshe). (in Mandarin Chinese).
  • Peng Xinwei (彭信威) (1954 [2007]). Zhongguo huobi shi (中國貨幣史) (Shanghai: Qunlian chubanshe), 580-581, 597-605. (in Mandarin Chinese).
  • Xie Tianyu (謝天宇), ed. (2005). Zhongguo qianbi shoucang yu jianshang quanshu (中國錢幣收藏與鑒賞全書) (Tianjin: Tianjin guji chubanshe), Vol. 2, 508. (in Mandarin Chinese).
  • Zhou Fazeng (周發增), Chen Longtao (陳隆濤), Qi Jixiang (齊吉祥), ed. (1998). Zhongguo gudai zhengzhi zhidu shi cidian (中國古代政治制度史辭典) (Beijing: Shoudu shifan daxue chubanshe), 372, 375, 380, 381, 382. (in Mandarin Chinese).

External links [ edit ]

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