Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture
|Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture
|Etymology: Tai Nuea language (ᥖᥬᥲ ᥑᥨᥒᥰ), meaning "the lower reaches of the Nu River"|
hometown of peafowl
Dehong in Yunnan
|Coordinates (Dehong Prefecture government): Coordinates:|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Founded||24 July 1953|
|• Prefecture governor||Wei Gang (卫岗) (CPC)|
|• Secretary of CPC Prefecture Committee||Wang Junqiang (王俊强)|
|• Total||11,172.24 km2 (4,313.63 sq mi)|
|• Length||170 km (110 mi)|
|• Width||122 km (76 mi)|
|Elevation||920 m (3,020 ft)|
|Highest elevation||3,404.6 m (11,169.9 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||210 m (690 ft)|
| • Estimate
|• Density||110/km2 (280/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||9|
|• Han Chinese||704,000 - 52.24%|
|• Dai||368,100 - 28.45%|
|• Jingpo||141,200 - 10.91%|
|• Lisu||33,400 - 2.58%|
|• Achang||32,100 - 2.48%|
|• Palaung (De'ang)||15,200 - 1.17%|
|• male||624,774 - 51.57%|
|• female||586,666 - 48.43%|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-YN-31|
|Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture|
|Burmese||တယ်ဟုန် ရှမ်း နှင့် ဂျိမ်းဖော ကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရ စီရင်စု|
|Tai Nuea name|
|Tai Nuea||ᥟᥪᥒᥱ ᥙᥪᥴ ᥓᥝᥲ ᥙᥩᥒ ᥛᥥᥝᥰ ᥖᥭᥰ ᥓᥤᥒ ᥚᥨᥲ ᥖᥬᥲ ᥑᥨᥒᥰ|
|Jingpho||Sakhkung Sam Jinghpo Amyu Madu Uphkang Mungdo|
|Zaiwa||Sikung Sam Zaizo Byumyu Yumsing Upkang Mau|
The Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture is located in western Yunnan province, People's Republic of China, and is one of the eight autonomous prefectures of the province, bordering Baoshan to the east and Burma's Kachin State to the west.
Etymology [ edit ]
Tai Nuea is the origin language of the word "Dehong", in Tai Le script (the script used to write the Tai Nüa language by the Tai Nua people) is written as "ᥖᥬᥳ ᥑᥨᥒᥰ", which transliterates to Latin as "Taue Xoong". Dehong means the lower reaches of the Nu River.:38
However, the Mandarin characters for Dehong is "德宏. These two character are compound of 德 "moral, value" and 宏 "magnificent, great, macro". Thus, from Mandarin Chinese point of view, 德宏 (Dehong) means "moral" + "magnificent" thus it has means "magnificent (great) moral (value)"
History [ edit ]
Early history [ edit ]
Dianyue and Ailao were the ancient countries recorded in Chinese literature in Dehong area, and Guozhanbi (Kawsampi) was an ancient country established by Dai people and recorded in Dai legend.
Dianyue [ edit ]
In the history book Records of the Grand Historian written by Sima Qian during the Han dynasty, a paragraph in volume 123 describes Dianyue as when Zhang Qian visited Daxia in Central Asia, he found some merchandise was produced in Sichuan. And the Daxia merchant said it was purchased from Yuandu (India). There was a trade route, Shu-Yuandu Road (蜀身毒道) between Yuandu and Sichuan. The road passed a kingdom named "Dianyue" (滇越). The country is also called "Dianyue Chengxiang" (滇越乘象国) in modern books.:37Chinese historians generally said Tengyue is the center of Dianyue Chengxiang, and the territory included the Dehong area. But, some historians disagree with this opinion. Lou Zichang believes Dianyue Chengxiang was not a country in western Yunnan, even not a country established by Dai people.
Ailao [ edit ]
Ai Lao (哀牢) is an ancient tribal alliance country in west of Yunnan during Spring and Autumn to Eastern Han period, and modern historians said the area include Dehong. In Chronicles of Huayang, the record of Ailao mentions its territory "3,000 li from west to east, and 4,600 li from south to north", approximately equal to 1,300 km west to east and 1,994 km south to north in modern unit. It includes the southwest of Yunnan and most of Myanmar, in modern research, it is called the generalized area of Ailao.
In 69 AD, Liu Mao (柳貌), the king of Ailao, led the tribal alliance to surrender to the Han dynasty, and Han set "Ailao County" here. In Southern dynasty Qi period, the name was changed to "Xicheng County" (西城县).:1950 During the end of the Liang dynasty, Xicheng County was abolished.:933
Guozhanbi [ edit ]
Between 568 BC and 424 BC, during the Eastern Zhou dynasty in China, ancestors of Dai people had settled in Shweli River valley area and entered the tribal period. In 364 BC, grand chief Gelaba (葛拉叭) unified the tribes in Shweli basin. He became the chief of the tribal alliance and set the capital at Hansa (喊萨, in modern Ruili). It was the early stage of the kingdom "Guozhanbi"(果占璧), also called "Kawsampi" (憍赏弥).
In 364 AD, a descendant of Gelaba named Zhaowuding (召武定) inherited the throne. He became the famous deity, sovereign, and culture hero of Dai people.:5 In the 7th century, the Dai area was in chaos and the descendants of Zhaowuding could not effectively control the area. At the same time, the kingdom of Nanzhao was rising, and conquered the Dehong area. Piluoge, the king of Nanzhao canonized another Dai tribe chief Hundeng (混等) to be the "King of Mong Mao" and managed the whole Dai area in 762.:28–29
In 1995, Dehong historian Yang Yongsheng published research on ancient Dai civilization. He put forward a new opinion during the Dai legend research - The "Kingdom of Daguang" (达光) is the first country of Dai people which was established in 424 BC, and the country "Dianyue Chengxiang" is another name of "Daguang". In 233 BC, the capital of Daguang moved to Pagan, and finally perished in 586 AD. The research was countered by He Ping, a history professor at Yunnan University. He Ping says that the Kingdom of Daguang is the legendary kingdom of Tagaung in Burmese history and there was no kingdom of "Daguang" in the ancient Dai civilization. The Dai legend of Daguang is the story of pre-period of Pyu city-states. The story of Pyu city-states spread to Dehong Dai area, localized to a Dai legend and was recorded in Dai literature.
In Yang Yongsheng's research, the kingdom of "Guozhanbi" was the second kingdom established by Dai people after Daguang. Dai languages literatures were his sources of research. He said the kingdom of Guozhanbi was existence from 567 to 1488. According to the research of He Ping, "Guozhanbi" is the ancient state "Kawsampi" or Kosambi. There are many of legends about Kawsampi in Thai-Shan folks culture. The origin of the legend was a story in Buddhist texts. Therefore, He Ping thought the Kingdom of "Guozhanbi" or "Kawsampi" is untrustworthy history.
Medieval [ edit ]
Whether or not the early history of Dehong is controversial, it can be determined that Dehong belonged to Nanzhao and Dali in the medieval period of Yunnan. In Nanzhao, it was separated to "Yongchang Jiedu" (永昌节度, south of Dehong) and "Lishui Jiedu" (丽水节度, north of Dehong).:10 In Dali, it was under the division of "Zhenxi Zhen" (镇西镇).:115
In 1253, Kublai Khan conquered the Dali Kingdom, Dehong Dai people capitulated to the Mongol Empire. The Mongols set an administrative division named "Jinchi Anfu Si" (金齿安抚司) to manage west of Yunnan. In 1276, Yuan dynasty, the Anfu Si was upgraded to "Jinchi Xuanfu Si" (金齿宣抚司), and set an agency "6 Lu governor Fu" (六路总管府) to manage the Dehong area. The 6 Lu were: Luchuan Lu (麓川路, modern Ruili and Longchuan), Pingmian Lu (平缅路, modern southern Lianghe and northern Longchuan), Zhenxi Lu (镇西路, modern Yingjiang), Zhenkang Lu (镇康路, modern Zhenkang, out of Dehong), Mangshi Lu (茫施路, modern Mangshi) and Rouyuan Lu (柔远路, modern Lujiang, out of Dehong). In addition, a special division named "Nan Dan" (南赕) and Nandian Fu (南甸府, modern Lianghe) was set. The scope of "6 Lu general manager Fu" is closed to the modern Dehong territory.:11
In 1277, Narathihapate, the king of Burmese Pagan Kingdom, invaded modern Dehong area. The Battle of Ngasaunggyan occurred on the bank of Taping River, presently in the Yingjiang County. The Yuan army only had 700 soldiers but finally repelled Burmese military of 40,000 to 50,000 soldiers with 10,000 horses and 800 elephants.:104 It was the prelude to the First Mongol invasion of Burma.:26–27
Mong Mao [ edit ]
Local Dai chief was the leader of Luchuan Lu and they were the successors of "Guozhanbi". "Luchuan" is the name denoted by Yuan, and "Mong Mao" is self claim name.
Si Kefa enthroned the chieftain of Luchuan Lu in 1340 and sent troops to surrounding state such Hsenwi, Mongyang, Mongmit. After that, he attacked Mangshi, Zhenxi, Pingmian, and Nandian. Yuan dynasty initiated wars in 1342, 1345, 1346, and 1347 to counterattack Luchuan, but all attempts failed. Luchuan conquered the surrounding states successively. In 1355, Si Kefa requested Yuan dynasty to canonize him. Yuan central government admitted his local regime and canonized Si Kefa to be the first Mong Mao Tusi. The central government set a division of "Pingmian Xuanwei Si" (平缅宣慰司) at Mong Mao to legalize the regime, and Mong Mao Tusi is the leader of Xuanwei Si.:9–10
In 1382, the Ming dynasty military arrived at the Mong Mao Tusi and Si Lunfa surrendered. Ming granted him the title "Xuanwei Commissioner of Luchuan Pingmian" (麓川平缅宣慰使) and changed the division name "Luchuan Pingmian Xuanwei Si". In 1385, the leader of Jingdong renegaded the Mong Mao regime, and Si Lunfa sent troops to attack Jingdong. But, Mu Ying, the general of Yunnan was protecting Jingdong leader.
The wars between Mong Mao regime and Yunnan local government occurred in 1387 and 1388. Finally, Mong Mao failed. In order to maintain the relationship with Ming, Si Lunfa sent a mission to Kunming to make peace. Mong Mao consented to compensate for the losses, and peace was restored.
After Si Lunfa died in 1399, a minister of Mong Mao launched a rebellion. The Ming government felt threatened and separated 14 Tusi regions from the Luchuan territory.:11–13 During Si Xingfa's ruling in the 1410s, the Mong Mao territory decreased to include only modern Ruili, Mangshi and Namhkam.
After Si Xingfa, Si Renfa was enthroned in 1413, he tried to restore the kingdom to its former glory. In 1439, a conflict between Mong Mao and Ming reoccurred. This was the beginning of Luchuan–Pingmian campaigns. In 1441, Ming sent troops to Mong Mao, and Si Renfa fled to Mongyang. Several wars occurred between 1443 and 1449, finally Mong Mao lost Dehong. The imperial family continued to live in Mongyang until they were attacked in 1604 by the Toungoo dynasty.:13–16
Ming and Qing dynasties [ edit ]
|Mong Mao||1604:80||Mongmao Anfu Si
|Longchuan||1444:44||Longchuan Xuanfu Si
|Nandian||1444:73||Nandian Xuanfu Si
|Ganya||1403:91||Ganya Zhangguan Si
Ganya Xuanfu Si
|Mangshih||1443:21||Mangshi Yuyi Zhangguan Si
Mangshi Anfu Si
|Zhanda||Chongzhen period  :180||Zhanda Vice Xuanfu Si
|Zhefang||1584:21||Zhefang Vice Xuanfu Si
|Husa||1770:227||Husa Zhangguan Si
|Lasa||1653:240||Lasa Zhangguan Si
|Mengban||1899:21||Mengban Tu Qianzong
During the Ming dynasty, Sino-Burmese wars occurred twice in Dehong.:18–19 In 1594, Yunnan grand coordinator Chen Yongbin (陈用宾) built up 8 border defense military checkpoints to guard international border between Dehong and Burmese Toungoo dynasty; these checkpoints formed the early borders between China and Myanmar.
In 1658, the last emperor of Southern Ming dynasty , Zhu Youlang, passed the Nandian and Ganya Tusi and fled to Myanmar. He granted Ganya Tusi a marquess title. Ganya Tusi helped Youlang to flee but was completely annihilated in the tussle. Thereafter, all the Tusi in Dehong surrendered to the Qing dynasty in 1659. The war between Qing and Konbaung dynasty during 1765 to 1769 also extended to Dehong area.:19–21
In 1875, a British translator, Augustus Raymond Margary, and his four personal staffs were murdered in west of Yingjiang County. This was an important non-governmental crisis in Sino-British relations and came to be known as the "Margary Affair". This event was followed by the signing of the Yantai Treaty.:22
In 1894, during a Britain-China border convention,[Note 1] certain sections of the China–Myanmar border to the south of the "High Conical Peak"(尖高山) were delimited ,:192 and an agreement was reached that the Qing dynasty should open two border ports between Burma and China: Manyun (蛮允) and Zhanxi (盏西).:578 :23
In 1897, another agreement was signed,[Note 2] three parts of the area around Dehong were incorporated into Burma although the convention in 1894 had determined they were part of China,:190 and four of the border checkpoints which established by Chen Yongbin in Ming dynasty were also incorporated into Burma.:23 In this agreement, the British government leased the "Namwan Assigned Tract", also called "Meng-Mao triangular area" in southwest of Dehong with the rent of 1,000 Rupee a year.:194 Finally, China didn't receive back this region and used it to exchange another area in west of Cangyuan in 1960.
After Qing dynasty [ edit ]
After Wuchang Uprising occurred in October 1911, Ganya Tusi Dao Anren (刀安仁) launched an uprising at Tengyue on 27 October 1911. Under the Republic of China, the Yunnan government tried to perish Tusi system and replace Tusi with state-appointed officials, but the Tusi officials opposed the change. Therefore, special administrative divisions were formed to support the period of transition. The administrative titles include Suppress Committee (弹压委员) and Deputy County (县佐) between 1911 and 1917, District and Deputy County between 1917 and 1932, and Administrative Bureau (设治局) after 1932.
The Tusi system existed until the land reform movement in 1955. The Administrative Bureaus after 1932 included Luxi, Ruili, Longchuan, Yingjiang, Lianshan, and Lianghe - they were the predecessor of future counties.:24–25
During the World War II, Dehong was an important strategic location for China. By 1938, the Burma Road was built and it was an important international transit channel after Japanese army blocked the eastern coast of China. In 1939, Central Aircraft Manufacturing Company moved to Loiwing in south-west corner or Ruili, and it was the biggest aircraft manufacturing plant of China at that time.
After World War II [ edit ]
The area was declared an autonomous region in 1953. In May 1956, it became an autonomous prefecture. In 1960, when inter-provincial migration took place many farmers came to Yunnan to farm bananas. This was during the "Great Leap Forward" when a biologist working for Mao Zedong wrote an article about the weather in Yunnan being very suitable for bananas to be planted. Before this, many Chinese were scared of going there because of an illness that lurked about. It was later discovered that this was an identifiable tropical disease. The farmers helped to get rid of the disease. They made clearings, roads, and space for fields and plantations.
Geography [ edit ]
Dehong stretches 122 km (76 mi) from east to west and 170 km (110 mi) from north to south, and its area is 11,526 km2 (4,450 sq mi).
Demographics [ edit ]
Climate [ edit ]
|Record high °C (°F)||27.0
|Average high °C (°F)||22.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||12.6
|Average low °C (°F)||6.1
|Record low °C (°F)||−0.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||13.7
|Average relative humidity (%)||78||72||66||67||75||84||87||86||84||83||82||81||79|
|Source: China Meteorological Data Service Center|
Administration [ edit ]
|Name||Hanzi||Hanyu Pinyin||Population (2010)||Area (km²)||Density (/km²)|
|Mangshi City||芒市||Máng Shì||389,891||2,987||131|
|Ruili City||瑞丽市||Ruìlì Shì||180,627||1,020||177|
|Lianghe County||梁河县||Liánghé Xiàn||154,175||1,159||133|
|Yingjiang County||盈江县||Yíngjiāng Xiàn||305,167||4,429||69|
|Longchuan County||陇川县||Lǒngchuān Xiàn||181,580||1,931||94|
Economy [ edit ]
Dehong is one of the 3 primary regions for coffee cultivation in Yunnan. The main coffee planter and processor is Hogood Coffee, which operates a contracting scheme with local farmers. Hogood contracts farm land from smallholders on which it plants seedlings, and then re-contracts with farmers to purchase the coffee beans at harvest.
Further reading [ edit ]
- Luo, Yongxian. A Grammar of Dehong, Southwest China. Canberra, ACT: Pacific Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University, 1999. ISBN 0-85883-496-0
Notes [ edit ]
- The convention in English language named Convention between China and Great Britain giving effect to Article Ⅲ of the Convention of 24 July 1886 relative to Burmah and Thibet, and in Chinese language named 《续议滇缅界、商务条款》
- The agreement in English language named Agreement between China and Great Britain Modifying the Convention of 1 March 1894 relative to Burmah and Thibet, and in Chinese language named 《续议缅甸条约附款》
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