|Region||Peloponnese, Crete, Rhodes, Sicily, Italy|
|Era||c. 800–100 BC; evolved into the Tsakonian language|
Doric, or Dorian (Ancient Greek: Δωρισμός, romanized: Dōrismós) was an Ancient Greek dialect. Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern Peloponnese as well as in Sicily, Epirus, Southern Italy, Crete, Rhodes, some islands in the southern Aegean Sea and some cities on the south east coast of Anatolia. Together with Northwest Greek, it forms the "Western group" of classical Greek dialects. By Hellenistic times, under the Achaean League, an Achaean-Doric koiné language appeared, exhibiting many peculiarities common to all Doric dialects, which delayed the spread of the Attic-based Koine Greek to the Peloponnese until the 2nd century BC.
It is widely accepted that Doric originated in the mountains of Epirus in northwestern Greece, the original seat of the Dorians. It was expanded to all other regions during the Dorian invasion (c. 1150 BC) and the colonisations that followed. The presence of a Doric state (Doris) in central Greece, north of the Gulf of Corinth, led to the theory that Doric had originated in northwest Greece or maybe beyond in the Balkans. The dialect's distribution towards the north extends to the Megarian colony of Byzantium and the Corinthian colonies of Potidaea, Epidamnos, Apollonia and Ambracia; there, it further added words to what would become the Albanian language, probably via traders from a now-extinct Illyrian intermediary. In the north, local epigraphical evidence includes the decrees of the Epirote League, the Pella curse tablet, three additional lesser known Macedonian inscriptions (all of them identifiable as Doric), numerous inscriptions from a number of Greek colonies, etc.. Furthermore, we also have plenty of local coins and names that assist us in our study of the northern Doric dialects. Southern dialects, in addition to numerous inscriptions, coins, and names, have also provided much more literary evidence through authors such as Alcman, Pindar, Archimedes of Syracuse, and many others, all of whom wrote in Doric. Last, we also have ancient dictionaries, such as the one from Hesychius of Alexandria, whose work preserved many dialectal words from throughout the Greek-speaking world.
Variants [ edit ]
Doric proper [ edit ]
Where the Doric dialect group fits in the overall classification of ancient Greek dialects depends to some extent on the classification. Several views are stated under Greek dialects. The prevalent theme of most views listed there is that Doric is a subgroup of West Greek. Some use the terms Northern Greek or Northwest Greek instead. The geographic distinction is only verbal and ostensibly is misnamed: all of Doric was spoken south of "Southern Greek" or "Southeastern Greek."
Be that as it may, "Northern Greek" is based on a presumption that Dorians came from the north and on the fact that Doric is closely related to Northwest Greek. When the distinction began is not known. All the "northerners" might have spoken one dialect at the time of the Dorian invasion; certainly, Doric could only have further differentiated into its classical dialects when the Dorians were in place in the south. Thus West Greek is the most accurate name for the classical dialects.
Tsakonian, a descendant of Laconian Doric (Spartan), is still spoken on the southern Argolid coast of the Peloponnese, in the modern prefectures of Arcadia and Laconia. Today it is a source of considerable interest to linguists, and an endangered dialect.
The dialects of the Doric Group are as follows:
Laconian [ edit ]
Laconian is attested in inscriptions on pottery and stone from the seventh century BC. A dedication to Helen dates from the second quarter of the seventh century. Taras was founded in 706 and its founders must already have spoken Laconic.
Many documents from the state of Sparta survive, whose citizens called themselves Lacedaemonians after the name of the valley in which they lived. Homer calls it "hollow Lacedaemon", though he refers to a pre-Dorian period. The seventh century Spartan poet Alcman used a dialect that some consider to be predominantly Laconian. Philoxenus of Alexandria wrote a treatise On the Laconian dialect.
Argolic [ edit ]
Argolic was spoken in the thickly settled northeast Peloponnese at, for example, Argos, Mycenae, Hermione, Troezen, Epidaurus, and as close to Athens as the island of Aegina. As Mycenaean Greek had been spoken in this dialect region in the Bronze Age, it is clear that the Dorians overran it but were unable to take Attica. The Dorians went on from Argos to Crete and Rhodes.
Ample inscriptional material of a legal, political and religious content exists from at least the sixth century BC.
Corinthian [ edit ]
Corinthian was spoken first in the isthmus region between the Peloponnesus and mainland Greece; that is, the Isthmus of Corinth. The cities and states of the Corinthian dialect region were Corinth, Sicyon, Archaies Kleones, Phlius, the colonies of Corinth in western Greece: Corcyra, Leucas, Anactorium, Ambracia and others, the colonies in and around Italy: Syracuse, Sicily and Ancona, and the colonies of Corcyra: Dyrrachium, and Apollonia. The earliest inscriptions[permanent dead link] at Corinth date from the early sixth century BC. They use a Corinthian epichoric alphabet. (See under Attic Greek.)
Corinth contradicts the prejudice that Dorians were rustic militarists, as some consider the speakers of Laconian to be. Positioned on an international trade route, Corinth played a leading part in the re-civilizing of Greece after the centuries of disorder and isolation following the collapse of Mycenaean Greece.
Northwest Doric [ edit ]
The Northwest Doric (or "Northwest Greek", with "Northwest Doric" now considered more accurate so as not to distance the group from Doric proper) group is closely related to Doric proper, while sometimes there is no distinction between Doric and the Northwest Doric. Whether it is to be considered a part of the Doric Group or the latter a part of it or the two considered subgroups of West Greek, the dialects and their grouping remain the same. West Thessalian and Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Doric influence.
While Northwest Doric is generally seen as a dialectal group, dissenting views exist, such as that of Méndez-Dosuna, who argues that Northwest Doric is not a proper dialectal group but rather merely a case of areal dialectal convergence. Throughout the Northwest Doric area, most internal differences did not hinder mutual understanding, though Filos, citing Bubenik, notes that there were certain cases where a bit of accommodation may have been necessary.
The earliest epigraphic texts for Northwest Doric date to the 6th-5th century BCE. These are thought to provide evidence for Northwest Doric features, especially the phonology and morphophonology, but most of the features thus attributed to Northwest Doric are not exclusive to it. The Northwest Doric dialects differ from the main Doric Group dialects in the below features:
- Dative plural of the third declension in -οις (-ois) (instead of -σι (-si)): Ἀκαρνάνοις ἱππέοις Akarnanois hippeois for Ἀκαρνᾶσιν ἱππεῦσιν Akarnasin hippeusin (to the Acarnanian knights).
- ἐν (en) + accusative (instead of εἰς (eis)): en Naupakton (into Naupactus).
- -στ (-st) for -σθ (-sth): γενέσται genestai for genesthai (to become), μίστωμα mistôma for misthôma (payment for hiring).
- ar for er: amara /Dor. amera/Att. hêmera (day), Elean wargon for Doric wergon and Attic ergon (work)
- Dative singular in -oi instead of -ôi: τοῖ Ἀσκλαπιοῖ, Doric τῷ Ἀσκλαπιῷ, Attic Ἀσκληπιῷ (to Asclepius)
- Middle participle in -eimenos instead of -oumenos
The dialects are as follows:
Phocian [ edit ]
This dialect was spoken in Phocis and in its main settlement, Delphi. Because of that it is also cited as Delphian. Plutarch says that Delphians pronounce b in the place of p (βικρὸν for πικρὸν)
- Ozolian Locris, along the northwest coast of the Gulf of Corinth around Amfissa (earliest c. 500 BC)
- Opuntian Locris, on the coast of mainland Greece opposite northwest Euboea, around Opus
Elean [ edit ]
Northwest Doric koina [ edit ]
The Northwest Doric koina refers to a supraregional North-West common variety that that emerged in the third and second centuries BCE, and was used in the official texts of the Aetolian League. Such texts have been found in W. Locris, Phocis, and Phtiotis, among other sites. It contained a mix a of native Northwest Doric dialectal elements and Attic forms. It was apparently based on the most general features of Northwest Doric, eschewing less common local traits.
Its rise was driven by both linguistic and non-linguistic factors, with non-linguistic motivating factors including the spread of the rival Attic-Ionic koine after it was recruited by the Macedonian state for administration, and the political unification of a vast territories by the Aetolian League and the state of Epirus. The Northwest Doric koina was thus both a linguistic and a political rival of the Attic-Ionic koina.
Epirotic [ edit ]
- Dodona oracle, firstly under control of Thesprotians (earliest c. 550-500 BC) - Epirote League (earliest c. 370 BC)
Ancient Macedonian [ edit ]
A school of thought maintains that the Ancient Macedonian language may have been a Greek dialect, possibly of the Northwestern group in particular, although other scholars would classify Macedonian as a separate marginal or "deviant Greek dialect" on its own.
Phonology [ edit ]
Vowels [ edit ]
Long a [ edit ]
- Doric gā mātēr ~ Attic gē mētēr 'earth mother'
Compensatory lengthening of e and o [ edit ]
- Severe Doric -ō ~ Attic -ou (second-declension genitive singular)
- -ōs ~ -ous (second-declension accusative plural)
- -ēn ~ -ein (present, second aorist infinitive active)
Contraction of a and e [ edit ]
Contraction: Proto-Greek *ae > Doric ē (eta) ~ Attic ā.
Synizesis [ edit ]
Proto-Greek *eo, *ea > some Doric dialects' io, ia.
Proto-Greek *a [ edit ]
Proto-Greek short *a > Doric short a ~ Attic e in certain words.
- Doric hiaros, Artamis ~ Attic hieros 'holy', Artemis
Consonants [ edit ]
Proto-Greek *-ti [ edit ]
Proto-Greek *-ti is retained (assibilated to -si in Attic).
- Doric phāti ~ Attic phēsi 'he says' (3rd sing. pres. of athematic verb)
- legonti ~ legousi 'they say' (3rd pl. pres. of thematic verb)
- wīkati ~ eikosi 'twenty'
- triākatioi ~ triākosioi 'three hundred'
Proto-Greek *ts [ edit ]
Proto-Greek *ts > -ss- between vowels. (Attic shares the same development, but further shortens the geminate to -s-.)
- Proto-Greek *métsos > Doric messos ~ Attic mesos 'middle' (from Proto-Indo-Europan *médʰyos, compare Latin medius)
Digamma [ edit ]
Initial *w (ϝ) is preserved in earlier Doric (lost in Attic).
- Doric woikos ~ Attic oikos 'house' (from Proto-Indo-European *weyḱ-, *woyḱ-, compare Latin vīcus 'village')
Literary texts in Doric and inscriptions from the Hellenistic age have no digamma.
Accentuation [ edit ]
For information on the peculiarities of Doric accentuation, see Ancient Greek accent#Dialect variation
Morphology [ edit ]
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Numeral tetores ~ Attic tettares, Ionic tesseres "four".
Ordinal prātos ~ Attic–Ionic prōtos "first".
Demonstrative pronoun tēnos "this" ~ Attic–Ionic (e)keinos
t for h (from Proto-Indo-European s) in article and demonstrative pronoun.
- Doric toi, tai; toutoi, tautai
- ~ Attic-Ionic hoi, hai; houtoi, hautai.
Third person plural, athematic or root aorist -n ~ Attic -san.
- Doric edon ~ Attic–Ionic edosan
First person plural active -mes ~ Attic–Ionic -men.
Future -se-ō ~ Attic -s-ō.
- prāxētai (prāk-se-etai) ~ Attic–Ionic prāxetai
Modal particle ka ~ Attic–Ionic an.
- Doric ai ka, ai de ka, ai tis ka ~ ean, ean de, ean tis
Temporal adverbs in -ka ~ Attic–Ionic -te.
- hoka, toka
Locative adverbs in -ei ~ Attic/Koine -ou.
- teide, pei.
Future tense [ edit ]
The aorist and future of verbs in -izō, -azō has x (versus Attic/Koine s).
- Doric agōnixato ~ Attic agōnisato "he contended"
Similarly k before suffixes beginning with t.
Glossary [ edit ]
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Common [ edit ]
- αἰγάδεςaigades (Attic αἶγες aiges) "goats"
- αἶγεςaiges (Attic κύματα kymata) "waves"
- ἁλίαhalia (Attic ἐκκλησία ekklēsia) "assembly" (Cf. Heliaia)
- βρύκαιναιbrykainai (Attic ἱέρειαι hiereiai) "priestesses"
- βρυκετόςbryketos (Attic βρυγμός brygmos, βρυκηθμός brykēthmos) "chewing, grinding, gnashing with the teeth"
- δαμιοργοίdamiorgoi (Attic ἄρχοντες archontes) "high officials". Cf. Attic δημιουργός dēmiourgos "public worker for the people (dēmos), craftsman, creator"; Hesychius δαμιουργοί· αἱ πόρναι "prostitutes". Zamiourgoi Elean.
- Ἐλωός Elôos Hephaestus Ἥφαιστος παρὰ Δωριεῦσιν
- κάρρωνkarrōn (Attic κρείττων kreittōn) "stronger" (Ionic kreissōn, Cretan kartōn )
- κορύγηςkorygēs (Attic κῆρυξ kēryx) "herald, messenger" (Aeolic karoux)
- λαιόςlaios (Homeric, Attic and Modern Greek ἀριστερός aristeros) "left".Cretan: λαία laia, Attic aspis shield, Hesych. λαῖφα laipha λαίβα laiba, because the shield was held with the left hand. Cf.Latin:laevus
- λαίαlaia (Attic, Modern Greek λεία leia) "prey"
- λέω (λείω)le(i)ō (Attic ἐθέλω ethelō) "will"
- οἴνωτροςoinōtros "vine pole" (: Greek οἶνος oinos "wine"). Cf. Oenotrus
- μογίοντιmogionti (Ionic πυρέσσουσι pyressousi) "they are on fire, have fever" (= Attic μογοῦσι mogousi "they suffer, take pains to")
- μυρμηδόνεςmyrmēdônes (Attic μύρμηκες myrmēkes) "ants". Cf. Myrmidons
- ὄπτιλλοςoptillos or optilos 'eye' (Attic ophthalmos) (Latin oculus) (Attic optikos of sight, Optics)
- πάομαιpaomai (Attic κτάομαι ktaomai) "acquire"
- ῥαπιδοποιόςrhapidopoios poet, broiderer, pattern-weaver, boot-maker (rhapis needle for Attic rhaphis)
- σκανάskana (Attic skênê) tent, stage, scene) (Homeric klisiê) (Doric skanama encampment)
- τανθαλύζεινtanthalyzein (Attic τρέμειν tremein) "to tremble"
- τύνηtunē or tounē 'you nominative' (Attic συ) dative τέειν teein (Attic σοί soi)
- χανάκτιονchanaktion (Attic μωρόν mōron)(chan goose)
Doric proper [ edit ]
- ΒαλλακράδεςBallacrades title of Argive athletes on a feast-day (Cf.achras wild pear-tree)
- ΔαυλὶςDaulis mimic festival at Argos (acc. Pausanias 10.4.9 daulis means thicket) (Hes.daulon fire log)
- δροόνdroon strong (Attic ischyron, dynaton)
- κέστερkester youngman (Attic neanias)
- κυλλάραβιςkyllarabisdiscus and gymnasium at Argos
- σεμαλίαsemalia ragged, tattered garments Attic rhakē, cf. himatia clothes)
- ὤβεαôbea eggs (Attic ὠά ôa )
- ἀγέλαagela "group of boys in the Cretan agōgē". Cf. Homeric Greek ἀγέλη agelē "herd" (Cretan apagelos not yet received in agelê, boy under 17)
- ἀδνόςadnosholy, pure (Attic ἁγνός hagnos) (Ariadne)
- ἀϝτὸςaWtos (Attic autos) Hsch. aus αὐς - αὐτός. Κρῆτες καὶ Λάκωνες
- ἄκαραakaralegs (Attic skelê)
- ἁμάκιςhamakis once (Attic hapax)
- ἄργετοςargetosjuniper, cedar (Attic arkeuthos)
- αὐκάauka power (Attic alkê)
- ἀφραττίαςaphrattias strong
- βαλικιῶταιbalikiôtai Koine synepheboi (Attic hêlikiotai 'age-peers' of the same age hêlikia)
- βριτύbritu sweet (Attic glyku)
- δαμιόωdamioô, Cretan and Boeotian. for Attic zêmioô to damage, punish, harm
- δαμπόνdamponfirst milk curdled by heating over embers (Attic puriephthon, puriatê)
- δῶλα dôla ears (Attic ôta) (Tarentine ata)
- ϜέλχανοςWelchanos for Cretan Zeus and Welchanios, Belchanios, Gelchanos (Elchanios Cnossian month)
- ϝεργάδδομαιwergaddomai I work (Attic ergazomai)
- ϝῆμαWêma garment (Attic heima) (Aeolic emma) (Koine (h)immation)(Cf.Attic amphi-ennumi I dress, amph-iesis clothing)
- ἰβῆνibên wine (Dialectal Ϝοἶνος Woînos Attic oinos) (accusative ἰβῆνα ibêna)
- ἴττονitton one (Attic hen ἕν)
- καρανώkaranô goat
- ϟόσμοςkosmos and kormos archontes in Crete, body of kosmoi (Attic κόσμος order, ornament, honour, world - kormos trunk of a tree)
- κύφερον, κυφήkypheron, kuphê head (Attic kephalê)
- λάκοςlakos rag, tattered garment (Attic rhakos) (Aeolic brakos long robe, lacks the sense 'ragged')
- μαλκενίςmalkenis (Attic parthenos) Hsch: malakinnês.
- ὄθρυνothrun mountain (Attic oros) (Cf.Othrys)
- ῥυστόνrhyston spear
- σεῖφαseipha darkness (Attic zophos, skotia) (Aeolic dnophos)
- σπεῦσδοςspeusdos title of Cretan officer (Cf.speudô speus- rush)
- τάγαναtagana (Attic tauta) these things
- τίροςtiros summer (Homeric, Attic theros)
- τρέtre you, accusative ( Attic se )
- ἀβήρabêr storeroom οἴκημα στοὰς ἔχον, ταμεῖον Λάκωνες
- ἀβώρabôr dawn (Attic ἠώς êôs) (Latin aurora)
- ἄδδαadda need, deficiency (Attic endeia) Aristophanes of Byzantium(fr. 33)
- ἀδδαυόν addauon dry (i.e. azauon) or addanon (Attic xêron)
- αἴκουδαaikouda (Attic aischunē) αἰσχύνη. Λάκωνες
- αἵματίαhaimatia blood-broth, Spartan Melas Zomos Black soup) (haima haimatos blood)
- ἀΐταςaïtas (Attic ἐρώμενος erōmenos) "beloved boy (in a pederastic relationship)"
- ἀκκόρakkor tube, bag (Attic askos)
- ἀκχαλίβαρakchalibar bed (Attic skimpous)(Koine krabbatos)
- ἀμβροτίξαςambrotixas having begun, past participle(amphi or ana..+ ?) (Attic aparxamenos, aparchomai) (Doric -ixas for Attic -isas)
- ἀμπέσσαιampesai (Attic amphiesai) to dress
- ἀπαβοίδωρapaboidôr out of tune (Attic ekmelôs) (Cf.Homeric singer Aoidos) / emmelôs, aboidôr in tune
- Ἀπέλλαapella (Attic ἐκκλησία ekklēsia) "assembly in Sparta" (verb apellazein)
- ἀρβυλίςarbylis (Attic ἀρύβαλλος aryballos) (Hesychius: ἀρβυλίδα λήκυθον. Λάκωνες)
- ἄττασιattasi wake up, get up (Attic anastêthi)
- βάβαλονbabalonimperative of cry aloud, shout (Attic kraugason)
- βάγαρονbagaron (Attic χλιαρόν chliaron 'warm') (Cf. Attic φώγω phōgō 'roast') (Laconian word)
- βαφάbapha broth (Attic zômos) (Attic βαφή baphê dipping of red-hot iron in water (Koine and Modern Greek βαφή vafi dyeing)
- βείκατιbeikati twenty (Attic εἴκοσι eikosi)
- βέλαbela sun and dawn Laconian (Attic helios Cretan abelios)
- βερνώμεθαbernômetha Attic klêrôsômetha we will cast or obtain by lot (inf. berreai) (Cf.Attic meiresthai receive portion, Doric bebramena for heimarmenê, allotted by Moirai)
- βέσκεροςbeskeros bread (Attic artos)
- βήλημαbêlêma hindrance, river dam (Laconian)
- βηρίχαλκονbêrichalkon fennel (Attic marathos) (chalkos bronze)
- βίβασιςbibasis Spartan dance for boys and girls
- βίδυοιbidyoibideoi, bidiaioi also "officers in charge of the ephebes at Sparta"
- βίὡρbiôr almost, maybe (Attic ἴσως isôs, σχεδόν schedon) wihôr (ϝίὡρ)
- βλαγίςblagis spot (Attic kêlis)
- βοῦαboua "group of boys in the Spartan agōgē"
- βο(υ)αγόςbo(u)agos "leader of a boua at Sparta"
- βυλλίχηςbullichês Laconian dancer (Attic orchêstês)
- βώνημαbônêma speech (Homeric, Ionic eirêma eireo) (Cf.Attic phônêma sound, speech)
- γαβεργόρgabergor labourer (ga earth wergon work) (Cf.geôrgos farmer)
- γαιάδαςgaiadas citizens, people (Attic dêmos)
- γονάρgonar mother Laconian (gonades children Eur. Med. 717)
- δαβελόςdabelos torch (Attic dalos)(Syracusan daelos, dawelos)(Modern Greek davlos) (Laconian δαβῇ dabêi (Attic kauthêi) it should be burnt)
- δίζαdiza goat (Attic aix) and Hera aigophagos Goat-eater in Sparta
- εἴρηνeirēn (Attic ἔφηβος ephēbos) "Spartan youth who has completed his 12th year"
- εἰσπνήλαςeispnēlas (Attic ἐραστής erastēs) one who inspires love, a lover (Attic eispneô inhale, breathe)
- ἐξωβάδιαexôbadia (Attic enôtia ; ôta ears)
- ἔφοροιephoroi (Attic ἔφοροι ἄρχοντες archontes) "high officials at Sparta". Cf. Attic ἔφορος ephoros "overseer, guardian"
- ΘοράτηςThoratêsApollonthoraios containing the semen, god of growth and increase
- θρῶναξthrônaxdrone (Attic kêphên)
- κάφαkapha washing, bathing-tub (Attic loutêr) (Cf.skaphê basin, bowl)
- κελοῖα keloia (kelya, kelea also) "contest for boys and youths at Sparta"
- κίραkirafox (Attic alôpêx) (Hsch kiraphos).
- μεσόδμα mesodma, messodoma woman and ἀνθρωπώanthrôpô (Attic gunê)
- μυρταλίςmyrtalisButcher's broom (Attic oxumursinê) (Myrtale real name of Olympias)
- πάσορpasor passion (Attic pathos)
- πόρpor leg, foot (Attic pous)
- πούρδαινpourdain restaurant (Koine mageirion) (Cf.purdalon, purodansion (from pyr fire hence pyre)
- σαλαβάρsalabar cook (Common Doric/Attic mageiros)
- σίκαsika 'pig' (Attic hus) and grôna female pig.
- σιρίαsiria safeness (Attic asphaleia)
- ψιθωμίαςpsithômias ill, sick (Attic asthenês) Λάκωνες τὸν ἀσθενῆ
- ψιλάκερpsilaker first dancer
- ὠβάôba (Attic κώμη kōmē) "village; one of five quarters of the city of Sparta"
- ἀστύξενοιastyxenoiMetics, Tarentine
- βάνναςbannas king basileus, wanax, anax
- βειλαρμοσταὶbeilarmostai cavalry officers Tarentine (Attic ilarchai) (ilē, squadron + Laconian harmost-)
- δόστορεdostore 'you make' Tarentine (Attic ποιεῖτε)
- ΘαύλιαThaulia "festival of Tarentum", θαυλακίζειν thaulakizein 'to demand sth with uproar' Tarentine, θαυλίζειν thaulizein "to celebrate like Dorians", Θαῦλος Thaulos "Macedonian Ares", Thessalian Ζεὺς Θαύλιος Zeus Thaulios, Athenian Ζεὺς Θαύλων Zeus Thaulon, Athenian family Θαυλωνίδαι Thaulonidai
- ῥάγανονrhaganon easy Thuriian (Attic rhaidion) (Aeolic braidion)
- σκύταςskytas 'back-side of neck' (Attic trachēlos)
- τήνηςtênês till Tarentine (Attic ἕως heôs)
- τρυφώματαtryphômata whatever are fed or nursed, children, cattle (Attic thremmata)
- ὑετίςhuetis jug, amphora Tarentine (Attic hydris, hydria)(huetos rain)
North-West [ edit ]
- ἀγρίδιονagridion 'village' Aetolian (Attic chôrion)(Hesychius text: *ἀγρίδιον κωμάριον, χωρίον vA [παρὰ Αἰτωλοῖς] dim. of agros countryside, field)
- ἀερίαaeria fog Aetolian (Attic omichlê, aêr air)(Hsch.ἀερία ὀμίχλη, παρὰ Αἰτωλοῖς.)
- κίββαkibba wallet, bag Aetolian (Attic πήρα pêra) (Cypr. kibisis) (Cf.Attic κιβωτός kibôtos ark kibôtion box Suid. cites kibos)
- πλήτομονplêtomonAcarnanian old, ancient (Attic palaion,palaiotaton very old)
- δείλομαιdeilomai will, want Locrian, Delphian(Attic boulomai) (Coan dêlomai) (Doric bôlomai) (Thessalian belloumai)
- ϝαργάναWargana female worker epithet for Athena (Delphic) (Attic Erganê) (Attic ergon work, Doric Wergon, Elean ϝάργον Wargon
- ϝέρρωWerrô go away Locrian (Attic errô) (Hsch. berrês fugitive, berreuô escape)
- Ϝεσπάριοι ΛοϟροὶWesparioi Lokroi Epizephyrian (Western) Locrians (Attic hesperios of evening, western, Doric wesperios) (cf. Latin Vesper)
- ὀπλίαιopliai places where the Locrians counted their cattle
- ἀϝλανέο̄ςaWlaneôs without fraud, honestly IvO7 (Attic adolôs)(Hsch.alanes true)(Tarentinian alaneôs absolutely)
- ἀμίλλυξamillux scythe (Attic drepanon) in accus. ἀμίλλυκα (Boeotian amillakas wine)
- ἀττάμιοςattamios unpunished (Attic azêmios) from an earliest addamios (cf.Cretan, Boeotian damioô punish)
- βάβακοιbabakoi cicadas Elean (Attic tettiges) (in Pontus babakoi frogs)
- βαίδειοςbaideios ready (Attic hetoimos) (heteos fitness)
- βενέοι beneoi Elean 
- βορσόςborsos cross (Attic stauros)
- βραbra brothers, brotherhood (Cf.Attic phratra)
- βρατάναbratanaladle (Attic torune) (Doric rhatana) (cf. Aeolic bradanizô brandish, shake off)
- δειρῆταιdeirêtai small birds (Macedonian δρῆες drêes or δρῆγες drêges) (Attic strouthoi) (Hsc. trikkos small bird and king by Eleans)
- ϝράτραWratra law, contract (Attic rhetra)
- σερόςseros yesterday (Attic chthes)
- στερχανάsterchana funeral feast (Attic perideipnon)
- φίλαξphilax young oak (Macedonian ilax, Latin ilex (Laconian dilax ariocarpus, sorbus)(Modern Cretan azilakas Holm Oak, Quercus ilex)
- φόρβυταphorbutagums (Attic oula) (Homeric pherbô feed, eat)
- ἀγχωρίξανταςanchôrixantas having transferred, postponed Chaonian (Attic metapherô, anaballô) (anchôrizo anchi near +horizô define and Doric x instead of Attic s) (Cf. Ionic anchouros neighbouring) not to be confused with Doric anchôreô Attic ana-chôreô go back, withdraw.
- ἀκαθαρτίαakathartia impurity (Attic/Doric akatharsia) (Lamelles Oraculaires 14)
- ἀποτράχωapotrachô run away (Attic/Doric apotrechô)
- ἄσπαλοιaspaloi fishes Athamanian (Attic ichthyes) (Ionic chlossoi) (Cf.LSJ aspalia angling, aspalieus fisherman, aspalieuomai I angle metaph. of a lover, aspalisai: halieusai, sagêneusai. (hals sea)
- ἌσπετοςAspetos divine epithet of Achilles in Epirus (Homeric aspetos 'unspeakable, unspeakably great, endless' (Aristotle F 563 Rose; Plutarch, Pyrrhus 1; SH 960,4)
- γνώσκωgnôskô know (Attic gignôskô) (Ionic/Koine ginôskô) (Latin nōsco)(Attic gnôsis, Latin notio knowledge) (ref.Orion p. 42.17)
- διαιτόςdiaitos (Hshc. judge kritês) (Attic diaitêtês arbitrator) Lamelles Oraculaires 16
- ἐσκιχρέμενeskichremen lend out πὲρ τοῖ ἀργύρροι (Lamelles Oraculaires 8 of Eubandros) (Attic eis + inf. kichranai from chraomai use)
- ϜεῖδυςWeidus knowing (Doric Ϝειδώς) weidôs) (Elean ϝειζός weizos) (Attic εἰδώς) eidôs) (PIE *weid- "to know, to see", Sanskrit veda I know) Cabanes, L'Épire 577,50
- κάστονkaston wood Athamanian (Attic xylon from xyô scrape, hence xyston); Sanskrit kāṣṭham ("wood, timber, firewood") (Dialectical kalon wood, traditionally derived from kaiô burn kauston sth that can be burnt, kausimon fuel)
- λῃτῆρεςlêïtêres Athamanian priests with garlands Hes.text ἱεροὶ στεφανοφόροι. Ἀθαμᾶνες(LSJ: lêitarchoi public priests ) (hence Leitourgia
- μανύmanu small Athamanian (Attic mikron, brachu) (Cf. manon rare) (PIE *men- small, thin) (Hsch. banon thin) ( manosporos thinly sown manophullos with small leaves Thphr.HP7.6.2-6.3)
- ΝάϊοςNaios or Naos epithet of Dodonaean Zeus (from the spring in the oracle) (cf. Naiades and Pan Naios in Pydna SEG 50:622 (Homeric naô flow, Attic nama spring) (PIE *sna-)
- παγάομαιpagaomai 'wash in the spring' (of Dodona) (Doric paga Attic pêgê running water, fountain)
- παμπασίαpampasia (to ask peri pampasias cliché phrase in the oracle) (Attic pampêsia full property) (Doric paomai obtain)
- ΠελιγᾶνεςPeliganes or Peligones (Epirotan, Macedonian senators)
- πρᾶμιprami do optative (Attic πράττοιμι prattoimi) Syncope (Lamelles Oraculaires 22)
- τίνεtine (Attic/Doric tini) to whom (Lamelles Oraculaires 7)
- τριθυτικόνtrithutikon triple sacrifice tri + thuo(Lamelles Oraculaires 138)
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Doric". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Roger D. Woodard (2008), "Greek dialects", in: The Ancient Languages of Europe, ed. R. D. Woodard, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 51.
- Buck, Carl Darling (1900). "The Source of the So-Called Achaean-Doric κοινη". American Journal of Philology. 21 (2): 193–196. doi:10.2307/287905.
- Çabej, E. (1961). "Die alteren Wohnsitze der Albaner auf der Balkanhalbinsel im Lichte der Sprache und der Ortsnamen". VII Congresso internaz. di sciense onomastiche: 241–251.; Albanian version BUShT 1962:1.219-227
- Eric Hamp. Birnbaum, Henrik; Puhvel, Jaan (eds.). The position of Albanian, Ancient IE dialects, Proceedings of the Conference on IE linguistics held at the University of California, Los Angeles, April 25–27, 1963.
- Huld, Martin E. (1986). "Accentual Stratification of Ancient Greek Loanwords in Albanian". Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung (99.2): 245–253.
- O’Neil, James. 26th Conference of the Australasian Society for Classical Studies, 2005.
Filos, Panagiotis (December 18, 2017). Giannakis, Georgios; Crespo, Emilio; Filos, Panagiotis (eds.). The Dialectal Variety of Epirus. Walter de Gruyter. p. 227.
The North-West group together with Doric (proper) formed the so-called 'West Greek' major dialectal group (or simply 'Doric...). However, the term 'North-West Doric' is considered more accurate nowadays... since there is more emphasis on the many features that are common to both groups rather than on their less numerous and largely secondary differences.
- Los dialectos dorios del Noroeste. Gramática y estudio dialectal (in Spanish). Salamanca. 1985. p. 508.
- Filos, Panagiotis (December 18, 2017). Giannakis, Georgios; Crespo, Emilio; Filos, Panagiotis (eds.). The Dialectal Variety of Epirus. Walter de Gruyter. p. 230.
- Mendez Dosuna -Doric dialects, p.452
- Goodwin, William Watson (1874). Plutarch's Morals, tr. by several hands. Corrected and revised by W.W. Goodwin.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)Greek questions 9
- IG IX,1² 3:609
- Sophie Minon, Les Inscriptions Éléennes Dialectale - Reviewed by Stephen Colvin 
- Die Inschriften von Olympia - IvO 1
- Filos, Panagiotis (December 18, 2017). Giannakis, Georgios; Crespo, Emilio; Filos, Panagiotis (eds.). The Dialectal Variety of Epirus. Walter de Gruyter. p. 230-233.
- Vit Bubenik (1989). Hellenistic and Roman Greece as a Sociolinguistic Area. Amsterdam. p. 193-213.
Wojciech Sowa (2018). "44. The dialectology of Greek". In Fritz, Matthias; Joseph, Brian; Klein, Jared (eds.). Handbook of Comparative and Historical Indo-European Linguistics. De Gruyter Mouton. p. 715. ISBN 978-3-11-054036-9.
In different regions of Greece, however, different sorts of koinai emerged, of which the best known was the Doric Koinē, preserving general Doric features, but without local differences, and with an admixture of Attic forms. As in the case of the Doric Koinē, the Northwest Koinē (connected with the so-called Aetolian League) displayed the same mixture of native dialectal elements with Attic elements.
- S. Minon (2014). "Diffusion de l'attique et expansion des koinai dans le Pélopponèse et en Grèce centrale". Actes de la journée internationale de dialectologie grecque du 18 mars 2011, université Paris-Ouest Nanterre. Geneva. pp. 1–18.
- Potter, John (1751). Archaeologia Graeca Or the Antiquities of Greece. C. Strahan. CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Lamelles Oraculaires 77
- Lewis, D. M.; Boardman, John (1994). The Cambridge Ancient History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-23348-4. CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Auroux, Sylvain (2000). Geschichte der Sprachwissenschaften. Bd. 2/1.: Ein internationales Handbuch zur Entwicklung der Sprachforschung von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-011103-3. CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Cabanes, L'Épire 534,1
- Masson, Olivier (2003) . "[Ancient] Macedonian language". In Hornblower, S.; Spawforth A. (eds.). The Oxford Classical Dictionary (revised 3rd ed.). USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 905–906. ISBN 0-19-860641-9.
- Hammond, N.G.L (1993) . The Macedonian State. Origins, Institutions and History (reprint ed.). USA: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-814927-1.
- Michael Meier-Brügger, Indo-European linguistics, Walter de Gruyter, 2003, p.28, on Google books
- Roisman, Worthington, 2010, "A Companion to Ancient Macedonia", Chapter 5: Johannes Engels, "Macedonians and Greeks", p. 95:"This (i.e. Pella curse tablet) has been judged to be the most important ancient testimony to substantiate that Macedonian was a north-western Greek and mainly a Doric dialect".
- "...but we may tentatively conclude that Macedonian is a dialect related to North-West Greek.", Olivier Masson, French linguist, “Oxford Classical Dictionary: Macedonian Language”, 1996.
- Masson & Dubois 2000, p. 292 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFMassonDubois2000 (help): "...<<Macedonian Language>> de l'Oxford Classical Dictionary, 1996, p. 906: <<Macedonian may be seen as a Greek dialect, characterized by its marginal position and by local pronunciation (like Βερενίκα for Φερενίκα etc.)>>."
- Brian Joseph sums up that "[t]he slender evidence is open to different interpretations, so that no definitive answer is really possible", but cautions that "most likely, Ancient Macedonian was not simply an Ancient Greek dialect on a par with Attic or Aeolic" (B. Joseph (2001): "Ancient Greek". In: J. Garry et al. (eds.) Facts about the world's major languages: an encyclopedia of the world's major languages, past and present. Online paper) In this sense, some authors also call it a "deviant Greek dialect."
- Plutarch Greek question 51
- Dionysism and Comedy  by Xavier Riu
- Raphael Kühner, Friedrich Blass, Ausführliche Grammatik der Griechischen Sprache 
- Elis — Olympia — bef. c. 500-450 BC IvO 7
- Epeiros — Dodona — 4th c. BC SEG 15:397
- The Oracles of Zeus: Dodona, Olympia, Ammon - Page 261  by Herbert William Parke
- Epeiros — Dodona — ~340 BC SEG 26.700 - Trans.
- Alexander the Great: A Reader  by Ian Worthing
- Greek Mythography in the Roman World  By Alan Cameron (Aspetides)
- (cf. Athenian secretary: Aspetos, son of Demostratos from Kytheros ~340 BC)
- Pokorny - aspetos
Further reading [ edit ]
- Bakker, Egbert J., ed. 2010. A companion to the Ancient Greek language. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
- Cassio, Albio Cesare. 2002. "The language of Doric comedy." In The language of Greek comedy. Edited by Anton Willi, 51–83. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Christidis, Anastasios-Phoivos, ed. 2007. A history of Ancient Greek: From the beginnings to Late Antiquity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
- Colvin, Stephen C. 2007. A historical Greek reader: Mycenaean to the koiné. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Horrocks, Geoffrey. 2010. Greek: A history of the language and its speakers. 2nd ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
- Palmer, Leonard R. 1980. The Greek language. London: Faber & Faber.
[ edit ]
|Library resources about
- "The Doric Dialects" by J. Méndez Dosuna in: A History of Ancient Greek: From the Beginnings to Late Antiquity, Cambridge University Press, 2007
- Doric Greek in Encyclopædia Britannica
- Grammar of the Greek Language (M1 Doric by Benjamin Franklin Fisk (1844)
- The Elements of Greek Grammar Doric by Richard Valpy, Charles Anthon (1834)
- New Pauly Online [permanent dead link]