Wikipedia

Farebox recovery ratio

The farebox recovery ratio (also called fare recovery ratio, fare recovery rate or other terms) of a passenger transportation system is the fraction of operating expenses which are met by the fares paid by passengers. It is computed by dividing the system's total fare revenue by its total operating expenses.[1]

Fare structures [ edit ]

There are generally two types of fare structures: a simple, flat rate fare structure (pay a fixed fare regardless of time of day and/or travel distance) or a complex, variable rate fare structure (pay a variable fare depending on time of day and/or travel distance). A variable fare structure is typically associated with a higher recovery ratio, though it may simply be the case that such systems are implemented only on more profitable networks or modes such as commuter rail. Variable-rate fares require a higher initial investment in fare ticketing technologies such as the use of contactless smart cards, turnstiles or fare gates, automated ticket machines, as well as IT infrastructure.[2]

Farebox ratios around the world [ edit ]

The farebox recovery ratio is the ratio of fare revenue to total transport expenses for a given system.[1] These two figures can be found in the financial statements of the operators. Oftentimes the operator runs multiple modes of transport (e.g. subway and bus), and there is no data for individual modes (segment analysis). In this case the operator is considered as one system, or a group of modes are collectively considered one system.

Fare revenue is not the same as "transport" or "operational" revenue, as there are often secondary sources of revenue such as lockers and paid restrooms. Fare revenue is a subset of transport revenue, which is in turn part of total revenue along with "non-transport" or "non-operational" revenue.

Total "transport" or "operational" expenses are a part of total expenses along with "non-transport" or "non-operational" expenses. Total transport expenses may include expansion projects if they are paid for by the operator.

Ratio of fares to operating costs for public transport systems (%)
Continent Country or Region System Ratio Fare system Fare rate Year
Asia Hong Kong MTR (Hong Kong) 124%[3] Distance based HK$3.5+ (cash)

HK$3.5+ (Octopus card)

2016
Asia Japan Hankyu Railway (Osaka) 123% Distance based ¥150+ 1991[4]
Asia Japan Osaka Municipal Transportation Bureau 137% Distance based ¥200+ 1991[4]
Asia Japan JR East 84%[5] Distance based 2016
Asia Japan Tokyo Metro 119%[6] Distance based ¥160+ 2016
Asia Japan Tokyo Toei rail services 74%[7] Distance based 2015
Asia Pakistan Lahore Metrobus 37.2% [8] Flat rate PKR 20 2014
Asia Taiwan Taipei Rapid Transit System 100%[9] Distance based NT$20+ (cash)

NT$16+ (EasyCard or other cards)

2015
Asia Taiwan Kaohsiung Mass Rapid Transit 83%[10] Distance based NT$20+ (cash)

NT$17+ (iPASS or other cards)

2015
Asia Singapore SMRT Corporation (Singapore) 101% Distance based SGD 1.40+ (cash)

SGD 0.83+ (EZ-Link Card)

2018[11]
Asia China Beijing Subway 60%[citation needed] Distance based CNY 3.00+ 2012[12]
Europe Netherlands Gemeentelijk Vervoerbedrijf (Amsterdam) 88% Distance based 2018[13]
Europe Netherlands Rotterdamse Elektrische Tram (Rotterdam) 99% Distance based 2018[14]
Europe Germany Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (Berlin) 70% Zone based EUR 2.60+ 2010[15]
Europe Belgium Brussels Intercommunal Transport Company 35% 2007[16]
Europe Denmark Copenhagen Metro 52% Zone based 1991[17]
Europe UK Transport for London (TfL) 63% Zone based 2015/2016[18]
Europe Spain Metropolitan lines of Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya (Catalonia) 93% Zone based 2014[19]
Europe Spain Madrid Metro 41% 2007[16]
Europe Italy Milan Transportation System 28% 1991[17]
Europe Germany Munich Transport and Tariff Association 70% Zone based 2010[20]
Europe Czech Republic DPP (Prague) 53% Flat rate CZK 24+ 2013[21]
Europe France Syndicat des transports d'Île-de-France (Paris) 30% Zone based for passes

Distance based for tickets
€1.80 2014[22]
Europe Sweden Storstockholms Lokaltrafik (Stockholm) 37% Zone based SEK 44-88 (conductor)

SEK 25-50 (SL Access card)

Note: Tickets are not sold on buses.
2007[16]
Europe Italy Rome Metro 36% 2007[16]
Europe Austria Vienna U-Bahn 49% Flat rate EUR 2.00 2008[23]
Europe Finland Helsinki 49%[24] Zone based €2.80-6.40 (app, travel card, ticket machine & sales points)

€4.00-9.00 (from driver)
2019
Europe Switzerland Zürich S-Bahn 60% Zone based CHF 4.30+ 2014[17]
North America US Amtrak 95% Distance & demand based 2017[25]
North America Canada VIA Rail 51% Distance & demand based 2016[26]
North America US Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority 30% Flat rate US$2.5 2016[27]
North America US Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Austin) 11% Flat rate US$1.25-US$3.5, depending on modality 2016[27]
North America Canada Brampton Transit 50% Flat rate C$4.00 (cash)

C$3.00 (Presto Card)

2019[28]
North America US Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (Boston) 30% Flat rate US$2.65 (cash) / US$2.1 (CharlieCard) 2016/17[29]
North America Canada Calgary Transit 50% Flat rate C$3.00 2012[30]
North America US Chicago Transit Authority 55% Flat rate US$2.5 (cash and Ventra) 2016[31]
North America US Metra (Chicago) 43% Zone based US$4-$11 2016[27]
North America US Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority 18% Flat rate US$2.5 2016[27]
North America US Dallas Area Rapid Transit 14% Flat rate US$2.5 2016[32]
North America US Detroit Department of Transportation 20% Flat rate US$1.5 2016[27]
North America Canada Edmonton Transit System 39% Flat rate C$3.00 2007[33]
North America US Capital Area Transit (Harrisburg) 17% Flat rate US$1.75 2015[34]
North America US Las Vegas Monorail 56% Flat rate US$5 2016[35]
North America US Long Island Rail Road 51% Zone based US$5+ 2014[36]
North America US Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority 23% Flat rate US$1.75, with discounts for seniors, disabled, students 2016[27]
North America US Maryland Transit Administration 23% Variable US$1.6-US$11, depending on distance & modality 2012[37]
North America US Miami-Dade Transit 21% Flat rate US$2.25 2016[27]
North America US Metro Transit (Minneapolis-St. Paul) 25% Flat rate with rush hour and express surcharges US$2 to US$3.25 2016[27]
North America Canada MiWay (Mississauga) 46% Flat rate C$3.25 2011[38]
North America US RTD Bus & Rail 18% Zone Based US$3 to US$10.5 2018[39]
North America Canada Société de transport de Montréal 46% Flat rate C$3.25 2016[40]
North America US New York City Transit Authority 47%[41] Flat rate US$2.75 2016[27]
North America US NYC Ferry (New York City) 29% Flat Rate US$2.75 2017[42]
North America US Metro-North Railroad (New York and Connecticut) 60% Distance based US$2.25+ 2016[27]
North America US Port Authority Trans-Hudson (New York and New Jersey) 44% Flat rate US$2.75 2016[27]
North America US New Jersey Transit 45% Zone based on most Buses and all commuter trains

Flat Rate on some buses and all light rails
US$2.25 (Hudson–Bergen Light Rail)

US$1.6 (Newark Light Rail and River line)

Fare varies on Trains and Buses
2016[27]
North America US Lynx (Orlando) 24% Flat rate US$2 2016[27]
North America Canada OC Transpo (Ottawa) 45% Flat rate C$3.60 (Cash)

C$3.55 (Presto Card)

2019[43]
North America US Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (Philadelphia) 39% Flat rate US$2.5 / US$1 (Transfer) 2016[27]
North America US Pierce County Public Transportation Benefit Area Corporation 30% Flat rate US$2 2015[34]
North America US Port Authority Transit Corporation (New Jersey and Philadelphia) 49% Distance based US$1.4+ 2015[34]
North America US Trimet (Portland Metro Area) 30% Flat rate US$2.5 2016[27]
North America US King County Metro 35% Zone and peak based US$2.5+[44] 2016[45]
North America US Sound Transit (Puget Sound region) 42% Zone & distance based US$2.75+ (Bus)[46]

US$2.25+ (Light Rail)[46]

US$1.75+ (Commuter Rail)[46]

2017[47]
North America Canada Réseau de transport de la Capitale (Quebec City) 39% Flat rate C$3.00 2011[38]
North America US VIA Metropolitan Transit (San Antonio) 12% Flat rate US$1.2 2016[27]
North America US San Diego Metropolitan Transit System 39% Flat rate US$2.5 2016[27]
North America US Bay Area Rapid Transit (San Francisco Bay Area) 70% Distance based US$2+ 2017[35]
North America US Oakland Airport Connector 96% Flat rate US$6 2015/2016[48]
North America US Caltrain (San Francisco Bay Area) 63% Zone based US$3.75+ 2015[49]
North America US San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency (San Francisco Bay Area) 35% Flat rate US$2.25 2016[50]
North America US Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority 10% Express surcharges US$1.25 to US$12 2016[51]
North America US Southern California Regional Rail Authority 41% Distance based US$2.5 to US$27.5 2017[52]
North America US Staten Island Railway 15% Flat rate US$2.75 2015[53]
North America Canada Toronto Transit Commission 72.8% Flat rate C$3.00 (tokens/electronic fare card) $3.25 (cash)[54] 2017[55]
North America Canada GO Transit (Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area) 77% Distance based C$5.30+ 2015/16[56]
North America Canada TransLink (Metro Vancouver) 55.8% Zone based; transition to distance based upcoming C$2.95+ 2017[57]
North America US Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (Washington, D.C.) 42%[58] Distance and time of day based US$2(Bus)

US$2+ (Off-peak Rail)

US$2.25+ (Peak Rail)

2016[58]
North America Canada Winnipeg Transit 60% Flat rate C$2.50 2011[38]
North America Canada York Region Transit 40% Flat rate C$3.88 (Presto card or YRT pay app)

C$$4.25 (cash payment)
2015[59]
Oceania New Zealand Auckland 44% Zone Based 2012/13[60]
Oceania Australia ACTION (Canberra) 21% Flat rate A$4.20 2007[61]
Oceania Australia CityRail (Sydney) 27% Distance based A$0.15 / km 2014[62]
Oceania Australia Melbourne 30% Zone and time based From A$3.76 / hour / zone 2014[63]
Oceania New Zealand Christchurch 35% Zone Based 2012/13[60]
Oceania New Zealand Dunedin 60% Zone Based 2015/16[60]
Oceania New Zealand Hamilton 34% Flat rate 2012/13[60]
Oceania New Zealand Wellington 57% Zone Based 2012/13[60]

References [ edit ]

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