Wikipedia

Foreign relations of Brazil

Coat of arms of Brazil.svg
This article is part of a series on the

politics and government of

Brazil
Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil portal

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is responsible for managing the foreign relations of Brazil. Brazil is a significant political and economic power in Latin America and a key player on the world stage.[1] Brazil's foreign policy reflects its role as a regional power and a potential world power and is designed to help protect the country's national interests, national security, ideological goals, and economic prosperity.

Between World War II and 1990, both democratic and military governments sought to expand Brazil's influence in the world by pursuing a state-led industrial policy and an independent foreign policy. Brazilian foreign policy has recently aimed to strengthen ties with other South American countries, engage in multilateral diplomacy through the United Nations and the Organization of American States, and act at times as a countervailing force to U.S. political and economic influence in Latin America.

Overview [ edit ]

Brazil's international relations are based on article 4 of the Federal Constitution, which establishes non-intervention, self-determination, international cooperation and the peaceful settlement of conflicts as the guiding principles of Brazil's relationship with other countries and multilateral organizations.[2] According to the Constitution, the President has ultimate authority over foreign policy, while Congress is tasked with reviewing and considering all diplomatic nominations and international treaties, as well as legislation relating to Brazilian foreign policy.[3]

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, also known as Itamaraty, is the government department responsible for advising the President and conducting Brazil's foreign relations with other countries and international bodies. Itamaraty's scope includes political, commercial, economic, financial, cultural and consular relations, areas in which it performs the classical tasks of diplomacy: represent, inform and negotiate. Foreign policy priorities are established by the President.

Foreign policy [ edit ]

Brazilian diplomacy under formerly left-wing governments (left) and currently right-wing government (right).

Brazil's foreign policy is a by-product of the country's unique position as a regional power in Latin America, a leader among developing countries, and an emerging world power.[4] Brazilian foreign policy has generally been based on the principles of multilateralism, peaceful dispute settlement, and non-intervention in the affairs of other countries.[5] Brazil engages in multilateral diplomacy through the Organization of American States and the United Nations, and has increased ties with developing countries in Africa and Asia. Brazil is currently commanding a multinational U.N. stabilization force in Haiti, the MINUSTAH. Instead of pursuing unilateral prerogatives, Brazilian foreign policy has tended to emphasize regional integration, first through the Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosul) and now the Union of South American Nations. Brazil is also committed to cooperation with other Portuguese-speaking nations[6] through joint-collaborations with the rest of the Portuguese-speaking world, in several domains which include military cooperation, financial aid, and cultural exchange. This is done in the framework of CPLP,[7] for instance. Lula da Silva recently visited to Africa included State visits to three Portuguese-speaking African nations (Angola, São Tomé and Príncipe, and Mozambique).[8] Finally, Brazil is also strongly committed in the development and restoration of peace in East Timor, where it has a very powerful influence.[9][10]

Brazil's political, business, and military ventures are complemented by the country's trade policy. In Brazil, the Ministry of Foreign Relations continues to dominate trade policy, causing the country's commercial interests to be (at times) subsumed by a larger foreign policy goal, namely, enhancing Brazil's influence in Latin America and the world.[11] For example, while concluding meaningful trade agreements with developed countries (such as the United States and the European Union) would probably be beneficial to Brazil's long-term economic self-interest, the Brazilian government has instead prioritized its leadership role within Mercosul and expanded trade ties with countries in Africa, Asia and the Middle East.

Brazil's soft power diplomacy involves institutional strategies such as the formation of diplomatic coalitions to constrain the power of the established great powers.[12] In recent years, it has given high priority in establishing political dialogue with other strategic actors such as India, Russia, China and South Africa through participation in international groupings such as BASIC, IBSA and BRICS. The BRICS states have been amongst the most powerful drivers of incremental change in world diplomacy and they benefit most from the connected global power shifts.[12]

Workers Party administration [ edit ]

The Brazilian foreign policy under the Lula da Silva administration focused on the following directives: to contribute toward the search for greater equilibrium and attenuate unilateralism; to strengthen bilateral and multilateral relations in order to increase the country's weight in political and economic negotiations on an international level; to deepen relations so as to benefit from greater economical, financial, technological and cultural interchange; to avoid agreements that could jeopardize development in the long term.[13]

These directives implied precise emphasis on: the search for political coordination with emerging and developing countries, namely India, South Africa, Russia and China; creation of the Union of South American Nations and its derivative bodies, such as the South American Security Council; strengthening of Mercosul; projection at the Doha Round and WTO; maintenance of relations with developed countries, including the United States; undertaking and narrowing of relations with African countries; campaign for the reform of the United Nations Security Council and for a permanent seat for Brazil; and defense of social objectives allowing for a greater equilibrium between the States and populations.[13]

The foreign policy of the Rousseff administration sought to deepen Brazil's regional commercial dominance and diplomacy, expand Brazil's presence in Africa, and play a major role in the G20 on global warming and in other multilateral settings.[14] At the United Nations, Brazil continues to oppose sanctions and foreign military intervention, while seeking to garner support for a permanent seat at the Security Council.[15] Cooperation with other emerging powers remain a top priority in Brazil's global diplomatic strategy. On the recent airstrike resolution supporting military action in Libya, Brazil joined fellow BRICS in the Council and abstained. On the draft resolution condemning violence in Syria, Brazil worked with India and South Africa to try to bridge the Western powers' divide with Russia and China.[16]

Post-Workers Party administration [ edit ]

After Rousseff's impeachment, Brazil started reconnecting with its western allies. When Jair Bolsonaro succeeded Michel Temer, the Brazilian foreign policy focused on a rapprochement with right-wing governments like the United States and Colombia in the Americas; Israel, Japan and South Korea in Asia; United Kingdom, Italy and Greece in Europe. The Brazil–Portugal relations were also strengthened, and despite disagreements over the crisis in Venezuela, Brazil remained close with the BRICS countries.

Regional policy [ edit ]

Mercosur, a regional trade bloc between Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

Over the past decade, Brazil has firmly established itself as a regional power.[17] It has traditionally, if controversially,[18] been a leader in the inter-American community and played an important role in collective security efforts, as well as in economic cooperation in the Western Hemisphere.[19] Brazilian foreign policy supports economic and political integration efforts in order to reinforce long-standing relationships with its neighbors.[17] It is a founding member of the Organization of American States (OAS) and the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (Rio Treaty).[19] It has given high priority to expanding relations with its South American neighbors and strengthening regional bodies such as the Latin American Integration Association (ALADI), the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) and Mercosur.[19] Although integration is the primary purpose of these organizations, they also serve as forums in which Brazil can exercise its leadership and develop consensus around its positions on regional and global issues.[17] Most scholars agree that by promoting integration through organizations like Mercosur and UNASUR, Brazil has been able to solidify its role as a regional power.[17] In addition to consolidating its power within South America, Brazil has sought to expand its influence in the broader region by increasing its engagement in the Caribbean and Central America.,[17] although some think this is still a fragile, ongoing process, that can be thwarted by secondary regional powers in South America.[3]

Brazil regularly extends export credits and university scholarships to its Latin American neighbors.[20] In recent years, the Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES) has provided US$5 billion worth of loans to countries in the region.[21] Brazil has also increasingly provided Latin American nations with financial aid and technical assistance.[17] Between 2005 and 2009, Cuba, Haiti, and Honduras were the top three recipients of Brazilian assistance, receiving over $50 million annually.[17][22]

Diplomatic relations [ edit ]

Diplomatic missions of Brazil

  Brazil
  Nations hosting a diplomatic mission of Brazil
  Nations with a non-resident mission of Brazil

Brazil has a large global network of diplomatic missions, and maintains diplomatic relations with every United Nations member state, in addition to UN observer states Palestine and the Holy See,[23] as well as the Cook Islands[24] and Niue.[25] As of 2019, Brazil's diplomatic network consisted of 194 overseas posts.[26]

Relations with non-U.N. member or observer states:

United Nations politics [ edit ]

Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations and participates in all of its specialized agencies. It has participated in 33 United Nations peacekeeping missions and contributed with over 27,000 soldiers.[29] Brazil has been a member of the United Nations Security Council ten times, most recently 2010–2011.[30] Along with Japan, Brazil has been elected more times to the Security Council than any other U.N. member state.[29]

Brazil is currently seeking a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council.[31] It is a member of the G4, an alliance among Brazil, Germany, India, and Japan for the purpose of supporting each other's bids for permanent seats on the Security Council.[31] They propose the Security Council be expanded beyond the current 15 members to include 25 members. The G4 countries argue that a reform would render the body "more representative, legitimate, effective and responsive" to the realities of the international community in the 21st century.[31]

Outstanding international issues [ edit ]

Foreign aid [ edit ]

Overseas aid has become an increasingly important tool for Brazil's foreign policy.[35] Brazil provides aid through the Brazilian Agency of Cooperation (Abbreviation: ABC; Portuguese: Agência Brasileira de Cooperação), in addition to offering scientific, economical, and technical support. More than half of Brazilian aid is provided to Africa, whereas Latin America receives around 20% of Brazilian aid. The share of aid allocated to the Asian continent is small.[36] Within Africa, more than 80% of Brazilian aid is received by Portuguese-speaking countries.[37] Brazil concentrates its aid for Portuguese-speaking countries in the education sector, specially in secondary and post-secondary education, but it is more committed to agricultural development in other countries.[38] Estimated to be around $1 billion annually, Brazil is on par with China and India and ahead of many more traditional donor countries.[35] The aid tends to consist of technical aid and expertise, alongside a quiet non-confrontational diplomacy to development results.[35] Brazil's aid demonstrates a developing pattern of South-South aid, which has been heralded as a 'global model in waiting'.[39] Some studies have suggested that, by giving aid, Brazil could be trying to get access to mineral and energy resources.[40]

Participation in international organizations [ edit ]

ACS(Observer)ACTOAfDBBISCAF-BDLA(Associate)Cairns GroupCAN(Associate)CDBCPLPFAOG4BASIC countriesG8+5G15G20G20+G24G77IADBIDBIAEAIBRDIBSAICAOICCICRMIDAIFADIFCIFRCSIHOILOIMFIMOInmarsatINSARAGIntelsatInterpolIOCIOMISOITULAESLAIAMercosulMINUSTAHNAM(Observer)NSGOASOEIOPANALOPCWPCARio GroupRio TreatyUNUNASURUNCTADUNESCOUNHCRUNIDOUNITARUNMILUNMISUNMOVICUNOCIUNTAETUNWTOUPUWCOWHOWIPOWMOWTOZPCAS

Bilateral relations [ edit ]

Africa [ edit ]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Algeria 1962 See Algeria–Brazil relations
  • Algeria has an embassy in Brasilia.
  • Brazil has an embassy in Algiers.
  Angola 1975 See Angola–Brazil relations
  • Angola has an embassy in Brasilia and consulates-general in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.
  • Brazil has an embassy in Luanda.
  Benin
  • Benin has an embassy in Brasília.
  • Brazil has an embassy in Cotonou.
  Botswana
  • Botswana has an embassy in Brasília.
  • Brazil has an embassy in Gaborone.
  Burkina Faso
  • Brazil has an embassy in Ouagadougou.
  • Burkina Faso has an embassy in Brasília.
  Cameroon 1960
  • Brazil has an embassy in Yaoundé.
  • Cameroon has an embassy in Brasília.
  Cape Verde 1975 See Brazil–Cape Verde relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Praia.
  • Cape Verde has an embassy in Brasilia.
  Central African Republic 2010

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 2010.[41]

  Chad 1996
  • Brazil is accredited to Chad from its embassy in Yaoundé, Cameroon.
  • Chad is accredited to Brazil from its embassy in Washington, D.C., USA.
  Côte d'Ivoire
  • Brazil has an embassy in Abidjan.
  • Côte d'Ivoire has an embassy in Brasília.
  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1968 See Brazil–Democratic Republic of the Congo relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Kinshasa.
  • DR Congo has an embassy in Brasília.
  Egypt 1924 See Brazil–Egypt relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Cairo.
  • Egypt has an embassy in Brasília.
  Equatorial Guinea
  • Brazil has an embassy in Malabo.
  • Equatorial Guinea has an embassy in Brasília.
  Ethiopia 1951 See Brazil–Ethiopia relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Addis Ababa.
  • Ethiopia has an embassy in Brasília.
  Gabon
  • Brazil has an embassy in Libreville.
  • Gabon has an embassy in Brasília.
  Ghana 1960
  • Ghana and Brazil share a historically close relationship.
  • Brazil has an embassy in Accra.
  • Ghana has an embassy in Brasília.
  Guinea
  • Brazil has an embassy in Conakry.
  • Guinea has an embassy in Brasília.
  Guinea-Bissau 1974 See Brazil–Guinea-Bissau relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Bissau.
  • Guinea-Bissau has an embassy in Brasília..
  Kenya 1964 See Brazil–Kenya relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Nairobi.
  • Kenya has an embassy in Brasília.
  Madagascar
  • Brazil is accredited to Madagascar from its embassy in Maputo, Mozambique.
  • Madagascar is accredited to Brazil from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
  Mali
  • Brazil has an embassy in Bamako.
  • Mali has an embassy in Brasília.
  Mauritania
  • Brazil has an embassy in Nouakchott.
  • Mauritania has an embassy in Brasília.
  Morocco 1906
  • Brazil has an embassy in Rabat.
  • Morocco has an embassy in Brasília.
  Mozambique 15 November 1975 See Brazil–Mozambique relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Maputo.
  • Mozambique has an embassy in Brasília.

Mozambique is the country that receives the highest amount of Brazilian aid in Africa. Almost 50% of Brazilian aid allocated to the African continent between 1998 and 2010 was allocated to Mozambique.[37]

  Namibia 1990 See Brazil–Namibia relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Windhoek.
  • Namibia has an embassy in Brasília.
  Nigeria 1961 See Brazil–Nigeria relations

Bilateral relations between Nigeria and Brazil focus primarily upon trade and culture. The largest country in Latin America by size, and the largest country in Africa by population are remotely bordered across from one another by the Atlantic Ocean. Brazil and Nigeria for centuries, have enjoyed a warmly, friendly, and strong relationship on the bases of culture (many Afro-Brazilians trace their ancestry to Nigeria) and commercial trade.

  • Brazil has an embassy in Abuja and a consulate-general in Lagos.
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Brasília.
  São Tomé and Príncipe 1975 See Brazil–São Tomé and Príncipe relations
  Senegal 1960
  • Brazil has an embassy in Dakar.
  • Senegal has an embassy in Brasília.
  South Africa 1948 See Brazil–South Africa relations

Brazil-South Africa relations have traditionally been close. Brazil has provided military assistance to South Africa in the form of warfare training and logistics. Bilateral relations between the countries have recently increased, as a result of Brazil's new South-South foreign policy aimed to strengthen integration between the major powers of the developing world. South Africa is part of the IBSA Dialogue Forum, alongside Brazil and India.

  • Brazil has an embassy in Pretoria and a consulate-general in Cape Town.
  • South Africa has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in São Paulo.
  Sudan
  • Brazil has an embassy in Khartoum.
  • Sudan has an embassy in Brasília.
  Tanzania
  • Brazil has an embassy in Dar es Salaam.
  • Tanzania has an embassy in Brasília.
  Togo
  • Brazil has an embassy in Lomé.
  • Togo has an embassy in Brasília.
  Tunisia
  • Brazil has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Brasília.
  Zimbabwe 1980
  • Brazil has an embassy in Harare.
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Brasília.

Americas [ edit ]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Antigua and Barbuda
  • Antigua and Barbuda is accredited to Brazil from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
  • Brazil has an embassy in St. John's.
  Argentina See Argentina–Brazil relations

After democratization, a strong integration and partnership began between the two countries. In 1985 they signed the basis for the MERCOSUL, a Regional Trade Agreement. In the field of science, the two regional giants had been rivals since the 1950s when both governments launched parallel nuclear and space programs, however, several agreements were signed since then such as the creation of the Brazilian–Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) to verify both countries' pledges to use nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes. National spaces agencies CONAE and the AEB had also begun working together since the 1990s. Brazil's decision to prevent a Royal Navy ship docking in Rio de Janeiro was seen as backing Argentina over the Falklands dispute.[42] Also on the military side there has been greater rapprochement. In accordance with the friendship policy, both armies dissolved or moved major units previously located at their common border (for example, Argentine's 7th Jungle and 3rd Motorized Infantry Brigades). Brazilian soldiers are embedded in the Argentine peacekeeping contingent at UNFICYP in Cyprus and they are working together at MINUSTAH in Haiti and, as another example of collaboration, Argentine Navy aircraft routinely operate from the Brazilian Navy carrier NAe São Paulo.

  • Argentina has an embassy in Brasília and maintains several consulates throughout the country.
  • Brazil has an embassy in Buenos Aires and maintains several consulates throughout the country.
  Bahamas
  • Bahamas does not have an embassy accredited to Brazil.
  • Brazil has an embassy in Nassau.
  Barbados 1971-11-26 See Barbados–Brazil relations
  • Barbados has an embassy in Brasília.
  • Brazil has an embassy in Bridgetown.
  Belize 1983-03-01

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 March 1983.

  • Belize does not have an embassy accredited to Brazil.
  • Brazil has an embassy in Belmopan.
  Bolivia
  • Bolivia has an embassy in Brasilia and maintains several consulates throughout the country.
  • Brazil has an embassy in La Paz and maintains several consulates throughout the country.
  Canada See Brazil–Canada relations

Brazil-Canada relations have been cordial but relatively limited, although the relationship between the two countries has been gradually evolving over time.

  • Brazil has an embassy in Ottawa and consulates-general in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver.
  • Canada has an embassy in Brasília, and consulates-general in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.
  Chile See Brazil–Chile relations

Chile and Brazil have acted numerous times as mediators in international conflicts, such as in the 1914 diplomatic impasse between the United States and Mexico, avoiding a possible state of war between those two countries. More recently, since the 2004 Haiti rebellion, Chile and Brazil have actively participated in the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti, which is led by the Brazilian Army. They are also two of the three most important economies in South America along with Argentina.

  Colombia
  • Brazil has an embassy in Bogotá and a vice-consulate in Leticia.
  • Colombia has an embassy in Brasilia and maintains several consulates throughout the country.
  Costa Rica See Brazil–Costa Rica relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in San José.
  • Costa Rica has an embassy in Brasilia.
  Cuba See Brazil–Cuba relations

Brazilian-Cuban relations were classified as "excellent" in May 2008 following a meeting of foreign ministers.[43] During a January 2008 state visit to Cuba by Brazilian President Lula da Silva, the Brazilian leader expressed desire for his country to be Cuba's "number one partner".[43] Bilateral trade increased by 58% between April 2007 and April 2008.[44]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Havana.
  • Cuba has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in São Paulo.
  Dominica 1986

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1986.[45]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Roseau.
  • Dominica is accredited to Brazil from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
  Dominican Republic
  • Brazil has an embassy in Santo Domingo.
  • Dominican Republic has an embassy in Brasilia.
  Ecuador
  • Brazil has an embassy in Quito.
  • Ecuador has an embassy in Brasilia.
  El Salvador
  • Brazil has an embassy in San Salvador.
  • El Salvador has an embassy in Brasilia.
  Grenada
  • Brazil has an embassy in St. George's.
  • Grenada is accredited to Brazil from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
  Guatemala
  • Brazil has an embassy in Guatemala City.
  • Guatemala has an embassy in Brasilia.
  Guyana See Brazil–Guyana relations

Brazil–Guyana relations have traditionally been close. Brazil has provided military assistance to Guyana in the form of warfare training and logistics. Bilateral relations between the countries have recently increased, as a result of Brazil's new South-South foreign policy aimed to strengthen South American integration.

  • Brazil has an embassy in Georgetown.
  • Guyana has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in Boa Vista.
  Haiti 1928 See Brazil–Haiti relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Port-au-Prince.
  • Haiti has an embassy in Brasília.
  Honduras
  • Brazil has an embassy in Tegucigalpa.
  • Honduras has an embassy in Brasilia.
  Jamaica 1962-10-14 See Brazil–Jamaica relations

Both countries are full members of the Group of 15.

  • Brazil has an embassy in Kingston.
  • Jamaica has an embassy in Brasília.
  Mexico 7 August 1824 See Brazil–Mexico relations

Brazil and Mexico have the two largest emerging economies in Latin-America and the global stage. Both nations are considered to be regional powers and highly influential within the American continent. Both nations have historically been friendly and they have both participated in and are members of several multilateral organizations such as the G20, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States, Rio Group and the United Nations. Several high-level diplomatic meeting have been held by presidents of both nations to enhance bilateral relations.

  Nicaragua
  • Brazil has an embassy in Managua.
  • Nicaragua has an embassy in Brasilia.
  Panama
  • Brazil has an embassy in Panama City.
  • Panama has an embassy in Brasilía and consulates-general in Rio de Janeiro, Santos and in São Paulo.
  Paraguay See Brazil–Paraguay relations

Paraguay–Brazil relations have improved greatly after Brazilian President Lula's decision in 2009 to triple its payments to Paraguay for energy from a massive hydro-electric dam on their border, ending a long-running dispute. Under the accord, Brazil will pay Paraguay $360m a year for energy from the jointly-operated Itaipu plant. Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva called it a "historic agreement" and the deal slated as a political victory for Paraguayan President Fernando Lugo.[46]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Asunción and maintains several consulates throughout the country.
  • Paraguay has an embassy in Brasília and maintains several consulates throughout the country.
  Peru
  • Brazil has an embassy in Lima and a consulate in Iquitos.
  • Peru has an embassy in Brasilía and maintains several consulates throughout the country.
  Saint Kitts and Nevis
  • Brazil has an embassy in Basseterre.
  • Saint Kitts and Nevis is accredited to Brazil from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
  Saint Lucia
  • Brazil has an embassy in Castries.
  • Grenada is accredited to Brazil from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  • Brazil has an embassy in Kingstown.
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is accredited to Brazil from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
  Suriname See Brazil–Suriname relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Paramaribo.
  • Suriname has an embassy in Brasilia and a consulate-general in Belém.
  Trinidad and Tobago 1965 See Brazil-Trinidad and Tobago relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Port of Spain.
  • Trinidad and Tobago has an embassy in Brasilia.
  United States 1824 See Brazil–United States relations

Brazil-United States relations has a long history, characterized by some moments of remarkable convergence of interests but also by sporadic and critical divergences on sensitive international issues.[47] The United States has increasingly regarded Brazil as a significant power, especially in its role as a stabilizing force and skillful interlocutor in Latin America.[48] As a significant political and economic power, Brazil has traditionally preferred to cooperate with the United States on specific issues rather than seeking to develop an all-encompassing, privileged relationship with the United States.[48]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Washington, D.C. and maintains several consulates throughout the country.
  • United States has an embassy in Brasília and maintains several consulates throughout the country.
  Uruguay 1828 See Brazil–Uruguay relations

Brazil and Uruguay are neighboring countries that share close historical, cultural and geographical ties. The singularity of the bilateral relationship between the two countries originates from the strong historical connection - marked by important events, such as the establishment of the Colônia do Sacramento in 1680, the annexation by Brazil and the subsequent creation of the Província Cisplatina in 1815, and Uruguay's independence from Brazil in 1828.[49]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Montevideo and maintains several consulates throughout the country.
  • Uruguay has an embassy in Brasília and maintains several consulates throughout the country.
  Venezuela See Brazil–Venezuela relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Caracas and maintains several consulates throughout the country.
  • Venezuela has an embassy in Brasilia and maintains several consulates throughout the country.

Asia [ edit ]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Armenia 17 February 1992 See Armenia–Brazil relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Brasília.[50]
  • Brazil has an embassy in Yerevan.[51]
  Azerbaijan 21 October 1993 See Azerbaijan–Brazil relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Brasília.[52]
  • Brazil has an embassy in Baku.[53]
  Bangladesh See Bangladesh-Brazil relations

Relations have been good. In 2013, Bangladesh has sought Brazil's support for its candidature at the Human Rights Council in 2015 and non-permanent seat of the UN Security Council for 2016–17 term. In 2014, Brazil assured its support to Bangladesh for the posts of United Nations Human Rights Commission and CEDAW (The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women). Bangladesh also supported Brazil's candidature for the post of Director General of World Trade Organization.

  • Bangladesh has an embassy in Brasília.
  • Brazil has an embassy in Dhaka.
  Bhutan 2009-09-21

Bhutan and Brazil established diplomatic relations on 21 September 2009.[54][55]

  China See Brazil–China relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Beijing and consulates-general in Guangzhou, Hong Kong and Shanghai.
  • China has an embassy in Brasília and consulates-general in Recife, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.
  East Timor See Brazil–East Timor relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Dili.
  • East Timor has an embassy in Brasilia.
  Georgia
  • Brazil has an embassy in Tbilisi.
  • Georgia has an embassy in Brasília.
  India See Brazil–India relations

The two countries share similar perceptions on issues of interest to developing countries and have cooperated in the multilateral level on issues such as reform to the UN and the UNSC expansion.[56]

  • Brazil has an embassy in New Delhi and a consulate-general in Mumbai.
  • India has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in São Paulo.
  Indonesia See Brazil–Indonesia relations

Both are large tropical country endowed with rich natural resources, Brazil and Indonesia possess the largest tropical rain forest of the world that contains the world's richest biodiversity, which gave them a vital role in global environment issues, such as ensuring tropical forests protection. Both countries leading the list of Megadiverse countries with Indonesia second only to Brazil.

  • Brazil has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Brasília.
  Iran See Brazil–Iran relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Tehran.
  • Iran has an embassy in Brasília.
  Iraq 1967 See Brazil–Iraq relations
  • Brazil maintains an embassy in Baghdad.
  • Iraq maintains an embassy in Brasília.

Both countries are full members of the Group of 77. Brazil was the first Latin American country to reopen its embassy in Iraq since the 1991 Gulf War.[57]

  Israel 1949-2-7[58] See Brazil–Israel relations

Brazil played a large role in the establishment of the State of Israel. Brazil held the Presidency office of the UN General Assembly in 1947, which proclaimed the Partition Plan for Palestine. The Brazilian delegation to the U.N., supported and heavily lobbied for the partition of Palestine toward the creation of the State of Israel. Brazil was also one of the first countries to recognize the State of Israel, on 7 February 1949, less than one year after Israeli Declaration of Independence. Nowadays, Brazil and Israel maintains close political, economic and military ties. Brazil is a full member state of Israel Allies Caucus,[59] a political advocacy organization that mobilizes pro-Israel parliamentarians in governments worldwide. The two nations enjoy a degree of arms cooperation as Brazil is a key buyer of Israeli weapons and military technology.[60] Also, Brazil is Israel's largest trading partner in Latin America.[61] Brazil has the 9th largest Jewish community in the world, about 107,329 by 2010, according to the IBGE census.[62] The Jewish Confederation of Brazil (CONIB) estimates to more than 120,000.[63]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Tel Aviv.
  • Israel has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in São Paulo.
  Japan 1895 See Brazil–Japan relations
  Jordan
  • Brazil has an embassy in Amman.
  • Jordan has an embassy in Brasília.
  Kazakhstan
  • Brazil has an embassy in Nur-Sultan.
  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in Brasilia.
  Kuwait
  • Brazil has an embassy in Kuwait City.
  • Kuwait has an embassy in Brasília.
  Lebanon November 1945 See Brazil–Lebanon relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Beirut.[66]
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Brasília and consulates-general in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.[67]
  Malaysia See Brazil–Malaysia relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.
  • Malaysia has an embassy in Brasília.
  North Korea 9 March 2001[68] See Brazil–North Korea relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Pyongyang.
  • North Korea has an embassy in Brasília.
  Pakistan See Brazil–Pakistan relations

Brazil-Pakistan relations are characterized as friendly and cooperative. In 2008, Brazil approved the sale of 100 MAR-1 anti-radiation missiles to Pakistan despite India's pressure on Brazil to avoid doing so.[69]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Islamabad.
  • Pakistan has an embassy in Brasília.
  Palestine See Brazil–Palestine relations
  • Brazil has a representative office in Ramallah.
  • Palestine has an embassy in Brasília.
  Philippines See Brazil–Philippines relations

In June 2009, Brazil and the Philippines made their pledges as they signed mutual cooperation agreements in the fields of bio-energy and agriculture.[70] The two countries committed themselves to take the necessary steps to implement the signed Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in Agriculture and the Memorandum of Understanding on Bioenergy Cooperation.[71] The Philippines and Brazil signed six memoranda of understanding and agreements on the development and production of renewable energy, and agriculture cooperation.[72] It intends to "facilitate technical cooperation... on the production and use of biofuels, particularly ethanol, and promote the expansion of bilateral trade and investment in biofuel,"[73]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Manila.
  • Philippines has an embassy in Brasília.
  Qatar 5 November 1974 See Brazil–Qatar relations
  • Qatar has an embassy in Brasília.
  • Brazil has an embassy in Doha.
  Saudi Arabia
  • Brazil has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Brasília.
  Singapore
  • Brazil has an embassy in Singapore.
  • Singapore has an embassy in Brasília.
  South Korea 31 October 1959[74] See Brazil–South Korea relations

The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Korea and the Federative Republic of Brazil started on 31 October 1959.

  • South Korea has an embassy in Brasília.[75]
  • Brazil has an embassy in Seoul.[76]
  Syria
  • Brazil has an embassy in Damascus.
  • Syria has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in São Paulo.
  Taiwan See Brazil–Taiwan relations
  • Brazil has a Commercial Office in Taipei.
  • Taiwan has an Economic and Cultural Office in Brasília and in São Paulo.
  Thailand 17 April 1959
  • Brazil has an embassy in Bangkok.
  • Thailand has an embassy in Brasília.

Brazil is the main trading partner of Thailand in Latin America.[77]

  Turkey 1927[78] See Brazil–Turkey relations
  United Arab Emirates
  • Brazil has an embassy in Abu Dhabi and a trade office in Dubai.
  • UAE has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in São Paulo.
  Vietnam 8 May 1989

The Brazilian Embassy in Hanoi was opened in 1994, being the first Latin American country to open an embassy in Hanoi. Vietnamese Presidents Lê Đức Anh and Trần Đức Lương have visited Brazil in October 1995 and November 2004, respectively.[83]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Brasília.

Europe [ edit ]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Albania See Albania–Brazil relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Brasília.
  • Brazil has an embassy in Tirana.
  Andorra 9 July 1996
  • Andorra does not have an accreditation to Brazil.
  • Brazil is accredited to Andorra from its embassy in Madrid, Spain and maintains an honorary consulate in Andorra la Vella.
  Austria See Austria–Brazil relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in São Paulo.
  • Brazil has an embassy in Vienna.
  Bulgaria
  • Brazil has an embassy in Sofia.
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Brasília.
  Cyprus July 21, 1964
  • Diplomatic relations were established on July 21, 1964.
  • Brazil has an embassy in Nicosia.
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Brasília.
  Czech Republic 1918 See Brazil–Czech Republic relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Prague.
  • Czech Republic has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in São Paulo.
  Denmark See Brazil–Denmark relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Copenhagen.
  • Denmark has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in São Paulo.
  Finland April 8, 1929 See Brazil–Finland relations

Brazil recognised the independence of Finland on December 26, 1919.

  • Brazil has an embassy in Helsinki.
  • Finland has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate in São Paulo.
  France See Brazil–France relations

France has recognized Brazil as its special partner in South America and as a global player in international affairs. The two countries are committed to strengthening their bilateral cooperation in the areas for which working groups have been created: nuclear power, renewable energies, defence technologies, technological innovation, joint cooperation in African countries and space technologies, medicines and the environment.[84] Recently, France announced its support to the Brazilian bid for a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council.[84]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Paris and consulates-general in Cayenne and Saint-Georges (both in French Guiana).
  • France has an embassy in Brasília and consulates-general in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo and a consulate in Recife.
  Germany See Brazil–Germany relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Frankfurt and Munich.
  • Germany has an embassy in Brasília and consulates-general in Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.
  Greece See Brazil–Greece relations

The countries have enjoyed "Bilateral relations [that] have always been good and are progressing smoothly," according to the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs.[85]

  • Brazil has an embassy in Athens.
  • Greece has an embassy in Brasília and consulates-general in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.
   Holy See See Brazil–Holy See relations
  Hungary 1927 See Brazil–Hungary relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in São Paulo.
  • The two countries signed the Brazil-Hungary Cultural Agreement in 1992.
  Iceland 1952
  • Brazil is accredited to Iceland from its embassy in Oslo, Norway and maintains an honorary consulate in Reykjavik.
  • Iceland is accredited to Brazil from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Reykjavik and maintains honorary consulates in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.
  Ireland 1975 See Brazil–Ireland relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Dublin.
  • Ireland has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in São Paulo.
  Italy 1834 See Brazil–Italy relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Rome and a consulate-general in Milan.
  • Italy has an embassy in Brasilia and consulates-general in Curitiba, Rio de Janeiro and in São Paulo and consulates in Belo Horizonte and Recife.
  Monaco
  • Brazil is accredited to Monaco from its embassy Paris, France and maintains an honorary consulate in Monaco.
  • Monaco has an honorary consulate in São Paulo.
  Netherlands See Brazil–Netherlands relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in The Hague and a consulate-general in Rotterdam.[86]
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Brasilia and two consulates-general in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.[87]
  Norway See Brazil–Norway relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Oslo.
  • Norway has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in Rio de Janeiro.
  Poland 27 May 1920 See Brazil–Poland relations
  • Poland has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in Curitiba.
  • Brazil has an embassy in Warsaw.
  Portugal See Brazil–Portugal relations

Portugal and Brazil have countless bilateral agreements in areas such as culture, language, R&D, immigration, defence, tourism, economy, environment, among others.[88][89] Portugal and Brazil hold regular Summits to discuss bilateral and multilateral agreements and current topics (last one in Bahia in 2008, before that one in Porto in 2005).[90] One rather controversial topic was the spelling reform that aims at homogenising spelling in lusophone countries. Both countries share a common heritage and are committed in its preservation, be it through bilateral agreements or involving other nations, such as in the framework of CPLP.[91] Both countries lobby within the UN to upgrade Portuguese to a working language in that Organisation.[92] Portugal has also lobbied for Brazil to become a permanent member of the UN Security Council.[93] Finally, Portugal hosted the 1st EU-Brazil summit, in 2007.

  Romania
  • Brazil has an embassy in Bucharest.
  • Romania has an embassy in Brasília and two consulates-general in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.
  Russia See Brazil–Russia relations

Brazil–Russia relations have seen a significant improvement in recent years, characterized by an increasing commercial trade and cooperation in military and technology segments. Today, Brazil shares an important alliance with the Russian Federation, with partnerships in areas such as space and military technologies, and telecommunications.

  Serbia 1946 See Brazil–Serbia relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Belgrade.
  • Serbia has an embassy in Brasília.
  Spain 1834 See Brazil–Spain relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Madrid and a consulate-general in Barcelona.
  • Spain has an embassy in Brasilia and consulates-general in Porto Alegre, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador and in São Paulo.
  Sweden 1826 See Brazil–Sweden relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Brasília.
   Switzerland
  • Brazil has an embassy in Bern and consulates-general in Geneva and Zürich.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Brasília.
  Ukraine See Brazil–Ukraine relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Kyiv.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Brasilia, a consulate-general in Rio de Janeiro and a consulate in Curitiba.
  United Kingdom See Brazil–United Kingdom relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in London.
  • United Kingdom has an embassy in Brasilia.

Oceania [ edit ]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Australia See Australia–Brazil relations
  • Australia has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in São Paulo.
  • Brazil has an embassy in Canberra and a consulate-general in Sydney.
  Fiji
  • Brazil is accredited to Fiji from its embassy in Canberra, Australia.
  • Fiji does not have an accreditation to Brazil.
  Nauru 2 November 2005

Both countries established diplomatic relations on November 2, 2005.[94]

  New Zealand 1964 See Brazil–New Zealand relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Wellington.
  • New Zealand has an embassy in Brasilia and a consulate-general in São Paulo.
  Samoa 2005

Both countries established diplomatic relations on February 1, 2005.[95][96]

  • Brazil is accredited to Samoa from its embassy in Wellington, New Zealand.
  • Samoa does not have an accreditation to Brazil.

See also [ edit ]

References [ edit ]

  1. ^ Country Profile: BrazilArchived 2011-05-24 at the Wayback Machine UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Retrieved on 2009-01-05.
  2. ^ Article 4 of the Federal Constitution of Brazil V-Brazil. Retrieved on 2011-09-20.
  3. ^ Article 84 of the Federal Constitution of Brazil V-Brazil. Retrieved on 2011-09-20.
  4. ^ U.S. Congressional Report on BrazilArchived 2009-07-10 at the Wayback Machine United States Congress. Retrieved on 2009-06-23.
  5. ^ Georges D. Landau, "The Decision-making Process in Foreign Policy: The Case of Brazil," Center for Strategic and International Studies: Washington DC: March 2003
  6. ^ "Brasilemb.org". www.brasilemb.org.
  7. ^ http://www.cplp.org/Default.aspx
  8. ^ "Brazil's president visits Angola". BBC News. 2003-11-03. Retrieved 2010-04-02.
  9. ^ Pepe, Leandro Leone (2005). "O envolvimento do Brasil na questão timorense" (PDF). Revue Lusotopie XIII. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
  10. ^ "Brazil sends observers to East Timor elections". Embassy of Brazil in London. June 2007. Archived from the original on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
  11. ^ CRS Report RL33258, Brazilian Trade Policy and the United States, by J. F. Hornbeck
  12. ^ a b Brazil in the BRIC initiative: soft balancing in the shifting world order? Revista Brasileira de Política Internacional. Retrieved on 2011-09-30.
  13. ^ a b Lula da Silva’s Foreign Policy: The Autonomy through Diversification StrategyArchived 2009-08-30 at the Wayback Machine Vigevani, Tullo; Cepaluni, Gabriel. Retrieved on 2009-07-11.
  14. ^ Brazil's Rousseff: Continuity and TestsArchived 2011-11-05 at the Wayback Machine Sweig, Julia E. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved on 2011-09-19.
  15. ^ Rousseff Tweaks Brazil's Foreign Policy at the UN Council of the Americas. Retrieved on 2011-09-19.
  16. ^ Rousseff's foreign policy has limited room for changeArchived 2012-04-02 at the Wayback Machine Brazil Politics. Retrieved on 2011-09-19.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g Congressional Research Report on Brazil-U.S. Relations: Regional Policy (p.12) U.S. Congress. Retrieved on 2011-09-30.
  18. ^ Malamud, Andrés (2011). "A Leader Without Followers? The Growing Divergence Between the Regional and Global Performance of Brazilian Foreign Policy". Latin American Politics and Society, 53 (3): 1–24. doi:10.1111/j.1548-2456.2011.00123.x.
  19. ^ a b c Background Note: Brazil – Foreign relations U.S. Department of State. Retrieved on 2011-09-30.
  20. ^ Library of Congress Country Studies - Foreign relations of Brazil: Latin America Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2011-09-30.
  21. ^ Brazil and the Difficult Path to Multilateralism: Brazil's Financial Clout Funders Network on Transforming The Global Economy. Retrieved on 2011-09-30.
  22. ^ Cooperação Sul-Sul (South-South Cooperation) Agência Brasileira de Cooperação. Retrieved on 2011-09-30. (in Portuguese).
  23. ^ a b c Entrance Visas to Brazil, Ministry of External Relations of Brazil, August 6, 2019.
  24. ^ Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between Brazil and the Cook Islands, Embassy of Brazil in Wellington, 21 August 2015.
  25. ^ Signing of the Joint Communiqué on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between Brazil and Niue, Embassy of Brazil in Wellington, 2 September 2016.
  26. ^ Consular network of Brazil, Ministry of External Relations of Brazil. (in Portuguese)
  27. ^ Brasil não reconhece Kosovo sem acordo com SérviaArchived 2008-04-12 at the Wayback Machine Clic RBS. Retrieved on 2008-02-22. (in Portuguese)
  28. ^ NoticeArchived 2010-01-05 at the Wayback Machine Brazilian Commercial Office in Taipei. Retrieved on 2011-09-20.
  29. ^ a b Brazil in the Security CouncilArchived 2011-09-21 at the Wayback Machine Permanent Mission of Brazil to the United Nations. Retrieved on 2011-09-20.
  30. ^ Permanent Mission of Brazil to the United Nations Retrieved on 2011-09-20.
  31. ^ a b c Joint Press Statement of the G4 countriesArchived 2011-09-20 at the Wayback Machine Permanent Mission of Brazil to the United Nations. Retrieved on 2011-09-20.
  32. ^ Borders and Limits of Brazil: Ilha BrasileiraArchived March 3, 2008, at the Wayback Machine Wilson R.M. Krukoski, LNCC. Retrieved on 2009-06-23. (in Portuguese)
  33. ^ .Brazilian Antarctica World Statesmen.org. Retrieved on 2009-06-23.
  34. ^ UN Continental Shelf and UNCLOS Article 76: Brazilian SubmissionUnited Nations. Retrieved on 2009-06-23.
  35. ^ a b c Cabral and Weinstock 2010. Brazil: an emerging aid player. London: Overseas Development Institute
  36. ^ Abellán & Alonso 2017, p. 7.
  37. ^ a b Abellán & Alonso 2017, p. 9.
  38. ^ Abellán & Alonso 2017, p. 11.
  39. ^ Cabral, Lidia 2010. Brazil’s development cooperation with the South: a global model in waiting Archived 2011-04-30 at the Wayback Machine. London: Overseas Development Institute
  40. ^ Abellán & Alonso 2017, pp. 12-13.
  41. ^ "Central African Republic". www.itamaraty.gov.br. Archived from the original on 2018-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-21.
  42. ^ Yapp, by Robin (22 May 2018). "Britain's isolation on Falklands grows with 'anti-colonial' Brazil snub" – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
  43. ^ a b Cuba-Brazil Relations Get New ImpulseArchived August 30, 2009, at the Wayback Machine Juventuderebelde.co.cu. Retrieved on 2008-05-31.
  44. ^ Brazil Wants to Be Cuba's Number-One Trade Partner CubaNews.cu. Retrieved on 2008-05-30.
  45. ^ [1]
  46. ^ "Brazil and Paraguay in power deal". BBC News. 2009-07-25. Retrieved 2010-04-02.
  47. ^ Developing a partnership with Brazil - An emerging power Bassoli, Douglas. U.S. Army War College. 2004-04-03.
  48. ^ a b US Congress Report on Brazil-U.S. RelationsArchived 2009-07-10 at the Wayback Machine United States Congress. Retrieved on 2009-06-23
  49. ^ Embaixada do Brasil em Montevideo: Relações BilateraisArchived 2012-07-31 at Archive.today Embassy of Brazil in Montevideo. Retrieved on 2009-06-23. (in Portuguese)
  50. ^ LLC, Helix Consulting. "Embassy of Armenia to Brazil". brazil.mfa.am.
  51. ^ "HOME PAGE". ierevan.itamaraty.gov.br.
  52. ^ FS. "Azərbaycan Respublikasının Braziliya Federativ Respublikasndakı Səfirliyi". brasilia.mfa.gov.az.
  53. ^ "Apresentação". baku.itamaraty.gov.br.
  54. ^ Comunicado Conjunto sobre o estabelecimento de relações diplomáticas entre o Brasil e o Butão - Nova York, 21 de setembro de 2009Archived 2012-08-03 at Archive.today Itamaraty.gov.br. Retrieved on 2012-01-23.
  55. ^ Bhutan establishes diplomatic relations with BrazilArchived 2012-02-27 at the Wayback Machine www.mfa.gov.bt. Retrieved on 2012-01-23.
  56. ^ Indian Embassy in Brazil: Bilateral RelationsArchived August 2, 2009, at the Wayback Machine Embassy of India in Brasília. Retrieved on 2009-06-23.
  57. ^ "Brazil to Resume Relations with Iraq". voanews.com. Archived from the original on 2009-08-26. Retrieved 2009-01-24.
  58. ^ Israel International Relations: International Recognition of Israel Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved on 2013-11-13.
  59. ^ Member NationsArchived 2014-01-04 at the Wayback Machine. Israel Allies Fondation. Retrieved 2013-12-01.
  60. ^ "Briefing: Brazil's economic and military relationship with Israel"(PDF). stopthewall.org.
  61. ^ "Commercial Relations: Brazil and Israel". thebrazilbusiness.com.
  62. ^ 2010 Brazilian census Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Retrieved on 2013-11-13
  63. ^ U.S. Department of State. Brazil, Retrieved on 2013-12-18
  64. ^ "Página Inicial". toquio.itamaraty.gov.br.
  65. ^ "Embaixada do Japão no Brasil". www.br.emb-japan.go.jp.
  66. ^ "Embassy of Brazil in Lebanon". itamaraty.gov.br.
  67. ^ "Embaixada do Líbano no Brasil - Página Inicial". www.brasilia.mfa.gov.lb.
  68. ^ http://search.naver.com/search.naver?where=nexearch&query=%EB%B6%81%ED%95%9C+%EB%B8%8C%EB%9D%BC%EC%A7%88+%EC%88%98%EA%B5%90&sm=top_hty&fbm=0&ie=utf8
  69. ^ Brazil to Sell MAR-1 SEAD Missiles to Pakistan Defense Industry Daily. Retrieved on 2009-01-05.
  70. ^ "Philippines, Brazil unite on energy, agriculture"
  71. ^ "PGMA, Brazilian President Lula agree to further strengthen RP-Brazil relations"[permanent dead link], ISRIA
  72. ^ "Bioenergy deals top 6 RP, Brazil agreements"Archived June 27, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  73. ^ "RP, Brazil ink 5 accords "Archived July 3, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  74. ^ http://www.mofa.go.kr/ENG/countries/latinamerica/countries/20070803/1_24583.jsp?menu=m_30_30 [permanent dead link]
  75. ^ http://bra-brasilia.mofa.go.kr/worldlanguage/america/bra-brasilia/main/index.jsp
  76. ^ "Home". seul.itamaraty.gov.br.
  77. ^ http://www.itamaraty.gov.br/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5483&Itemid=478&cod_pais=THA&tipo=ficha_pais&lang=pt-BR
  78. ^ "Relations between Turkey and Brazil".
  79. ^ "Relations between Turkey and Brazil".
  80. ^ "Relations between Turkey and Brazil".
  81. ^ "Relations between Turkey and Brazil".
  82. ^ "Relations between Turkey and Brazil".
  83. ^ Vietnam-Brazil Relations Vietnamese Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved on 2009-06-23.
  84. ^ a b "France and Brazil - Political relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of France. Archived from the original on 2007-10-18. Retrieved 2008-02-18.
  85. ^ Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Brazil. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Greece. Accessed on 2009-05-04.
  86. ^ Embassy of Brazil in The Hague (in English and Portuguese)
  87. ^ "Embaixada do Reino dos Países Baixos em Brasília, Brasil". Archived from the original on February 20, 2015. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  88. ^ "Berita Teknologi Handphone dan Komputer Unik". www.embaixada-portugal-brasil.blogspot.com.
  89. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-09-27. Retrieved 2009-08-24. CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  90. ^ "Berita Teknologi Handphone dan Komputer Unik". embaixada-portugal-brasil.blogspot.com.
  91. ^ Ministério das relações exteriores - CPLP http://www.mre.gov.br/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1185
  92. ^ SAPO. "SAPO 24". SAPO 24. [permanent dead link]
  93. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-26. Retrieved 2010-11-18. CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  94. ^ "Republic of Nauru". www.itamaraty.gov.br. Archived from the original on 2018-03-13. Retrieved 2018-03-13.
  95. ^ "Independent State of Samoa". www.itamaraty.gov.br. Archived from the original on 2018-02-21. Retrieved 2018-02-21.
  96. ^ [2]

Bibliography [ edit ]

External links [ edit ]

What is this?