Wikipedia

Foreign relations of Lebanon

The foreign policy of Lebanon reflects its geographic location, the composition of its population, and its reliance on commerce and trade. Until 2005, Lebanon's foreign policy had been heavily influenced by Syria. The framework for relations was first codified in May 1991, when Lebanon and Syria signed a treaty of mutual cooperation. This treaty came out of the Taif Agreement, which stipulated that "Lebanon is linked to Syria by distinctive ties deriving strength from kinship, history, and common interests." The Lebanese-Syria treaty calls for "coordination and cooperation between the two countries" that would serve the "interests of the two countries within the framework of sovereignty and independence of each." Numerous agreements on political, economic, security, and judicial affairs have followed over the years.

After Syria's military withdrawal in 2005, Lebanon's foreign policy charted a more independent course.

Bilateral relations [ edit ]

Africa [ edit ]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Algeria
  • Algeria has an embassy in Beirut.
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Algiers.
  Côte d'Ivoire

Approximately 100,000 people of Lebanese origin reside in Côte d'Ivoire.

  Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Kinshasa.
  • The Democratic Republic of Congo has an consulate in Beirut.
  Egypt
  • Egypt has an embassy in Beirut.
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Cairo and a consulate-general in Alexandria.
  Ethiopia
  • Ethiopia has a consulate-general in Beirut.
  Ghana
  • Ghana is accredited to Lebanon from its embassy in Cairo, Egypt.
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Accra.
  Guinea
  • Guinea is accredited to Lebanon from its embassy in Cairo, Egypt.
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Conakry.
  Morocco
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Rabat.
  • Morocco has an embassy in Beirut.
  Nigeria
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Abuja.
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Beirut.
  Senegal

Approximately 30,000 people of Lebanese origin reside in Senegal.

  Sierra Leone

Approximately 30,000 people of Lebanese origin reside in Sierra Leone.

  South Africa
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Pretoria.
  • South Africa is accredited to Lebanon from its embassy in Damascus, Syria.
  Sudan
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Khartoum.
  • Sudan has an embassy in Beirut.
  Tunisia
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Beirut.

Americas [ edit ]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Argentina 1945 See Argentina–Lebanon relations
  Brazil November 1945 See Brazil–Lebanon relations
  Canada 1954 See Canada–Lebanon relations

Canada established diplomatic relations with Lebanon in 1954, when Canada deployed "Envoy Extraordinaire" to Beirut. In 1958, Canada sent its first Ambassador. The Embassy was closed in 1985 and reopened in January 1995. Lebanon opened a consulate in Canada in 1946. A Consulate-General replaced the Consulate in 1949, and an embassy was opened in Ottawa in 1958.

  Chile 1945 See Chile–Lebanon relations
  Colombia
  Cuba
  • Cuba has an embassy in Beirut.
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Havana.
  El Salvador
  • El Salvador is accredited to Lebanon from its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York City.
  • Lebanon is accredited to El Salvador from its embassy in Mexico City.
  Mexico June 12, 1945 See Lebanon–Mexico relations
  • Mexico was among the first nations to recognize Lebanon's independence in 1943.
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Mexico City.[7]
  • Mexico has an embassy in Beirut.[8]
  • The Centro Libanés and "Club Deportivo Libanés" in Mexico City are important symbols representing the historically cultural and social ties between both countries.
  • See also Lebanese Mexicans.
  Panama
  • Panama has a consulate-general in Beirut.
  Paraguay
  United States See Lebanon–United States relations

The United States' interaction with Lebanon extends back to events such as the 1958 Lebanon crisis, which it sent in troops to fortify the government's position. Lebanon's southern neighbor, Israel, has also sent troops on several occasions, and attacked into Lebanon in response to Hezbollah kidnapping two Israeli soldiers. A possible source of friction between the U.S. and Lebanon is that most of Israel's weaponry is US-made, arguing possible US complicity in Israel's attacks.

  • Lebanon has an embassy in Washington, D.C. and consulates-general in Detroit, Los Angeles and New York City.[9]
  • United States has an embassy in Beirut.[10]
  • See also Lebanese Americans
  Uruguay October 25, 1945 See Lebanon–Uruguay relations
  • Uruguay recognized Lebanon's independence on November 22, 1943.
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Montevideo.
  • Uruguay has an embassy in Beirut.[11]
  • See also Lebanese Uruguayans
  Venezuela

Asia [ edit ]

Lebanon also has bilateral trade agreements with several Arab states and is in the process of accession to the World Trade Organization. Lebanon traditionally enjoys warm relations with other pro-Western Arab states. At various times, however, it has seen tension with Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Palestine, and Libya. In March 2002, in honor of the withdrawal of Israeli troops from the South of the country, the Arab League met in Lebanon for the first time since 1967. Lebanon also is a member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. Hezbollah maintains a close relationship with Iran, largely centered on Shi'a Muslim links and animosity towards Israel.

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Armenia 1992-03-04 See Armenia–Lebanon relations

Lebanon is host to the eighth largest Armenian population in the world. During the 2006 Lebanon War, Armenia announced that it would send humanitarian aid to Lebanon. According to the Armenian government, an unspecified amount of medicines, tents and fire-fighting equipment was allocated to Lebanese authorities on July 27, 2006.[12][13] On May 11, 2000, the Lebanese parliament voted to recognize the Armenian genocide.[14] Lebanon is the first Arab country and one of the few countries of the world to have done so.

  Azerbaijan See Azerbaijan–Lebanon relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Beirut.
  Bahrain
  • Bahrain has an embassy in Beirut.
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Manama.
  China
  • China has an embassy in Beirut.
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Beijing.

In June 2020, Lebanon was one of 53 countries that backed the Hong Kong national security law at the United Nations.[15]

China opened the first Confucius Institute in the Middle East in Lebanon in 2006.[16]

  India See India-Lebanon relations
  • India has an embassy in Beirut.
  • Lebanon has an embassy in New Delhi.
  Indonesia 1950 See Indonesia–Lebanon relations
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Beirut.
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Jakarta.
  Iran See Iran–Lebanon relations
  • Iran has an embassy in Beirut.
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Tehran.
  Iraq See Iraq–Lebanon relations

Lebanon and Iraq share the same language and mutual support for each other in conflicts, Lebanon's relations with Iraq have at most times been cold. Issues include the Lebanese Government's strong material and political assistance of Hezbollah and ongoing clashes in Iraq between the Sunnis and Shias.

  • Iraq has an embassy in Beirut.
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Baghdad.
  Israel See Israel–Lebanon relations
  Japan
  • Japan has an embassy in Beirut.
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Tokyo.
  Jordan See Jordan–Lebanon relations
  • Jordan has an embassy in Beirut.
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Amman.
  Kazakhstan
  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in Beirut.
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Nur-Sultan.
  Kuwait
  • Kuwait has an embassy in Beirut.
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Kuwait City.
  Malaysia See Lebanon–Malaysia relations
  Pakistan See Lebanon–Pakistan relations
  • Pakistan does not recognize Israel, which has hostile relations with Lebanon, as a legitimate country.[19]
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Islamabad.
  • Pakistan has an embassy in Beirut.
  Palestine
  • Palestine has an embassy in Beirut.
  Qatar
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Beirut.
  Saudi Arabia

In 2008, the Saudi Foreign Minister, prince Saud Al Faisal secretly proposed setting up an Arab military force to fight Hezbollah in Lebanon with the help of the United States, UN and NATO. According to leaked diplomatic memos, Faisal has accused the UN troops in Lebanon of "sitting doing nothing", and voiced concerns that Iran will use Hezbollah to take over Lebanon.[20]

In 2017, Saudi Arabia stated that Lebanon had declared war on them, due to the alleged aggression of Hezbollah.[21][22][23]

  • Lebanon has an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate-general in Jeddah.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Beirut.
  South Korea February 12, 1981
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Seoul.
  • South Korea has an embassy in Beirut.
  Syria See Lebanon–Syria relations

The relationship between these two neighboring countries in Western Asia is complex: Syria has had troops stationed in Lebanon and has exerted political influence in the nation for many years.[24] However, Syria has only officially recognised Lebanon's sovereignty recently.[25]

  • Lebanon has an embassy in Damascus.
  • Syria has an embassy in Beirut.
  Turkey See Lebanon–Turkey relations
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate-general in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Beirut.
  United Arab Emirates See Lebanon–United Arab Emirates relations
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Abu Dhabi and a consulate-general in Dubai.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Beirut.

Europe [ edit ]

Lebanon concluded negotiations on an association agreement with the European Union in late 2001, and both sides initialed the accord in January 2002, the accord becoming known as the EU-Lebanon Association Agreement. The EU-Lebanon Action Plan from January 19, 2007, gave a new impetus to bilateral relations in the framework of the European Neighborhood Policy.

Lebanon is one of the main Mediterranean beneficiaries of community assistance and the EU through its various instruments is Lebanon's leading donor. Starting from 2007 financial support is channeled through the European Neighborhood Policy Instrument. A Lebanon Country Strategy Paper 2007–2013 and a National Indicative Program 2007–2010 have been adopted by the EU. The assistance provided was refocused after the Second Lebanon War to engage in real help for the government and the society in reconstruction and reform of the country.[26]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Bulgaria 1966-09-19
  Denmark
  • Denmark has an embassy in Beirut.[29]
  • Lebanon is accredited to Denmark from its embassy in Stockholm, Sweden.[30]
  France See France–Lebanon relations

In 2007, French President Nicolas Sarkozy ordered ties with Syria to be suspended until proof Damascus was not interfering in the Lebanese political crisis was established.[31] A week after Sarkozy's statement in Cairo, Syrian Foreign Minister Walid al Muallem announced Syria was ceasing their ties with France.[32] "Syria has decided to cease cooperation with France on the Lebanese crisis" said Mouallem. In July 2008, France and Syria decided to open embassies in each other's countries.[33] In April 2009, French and Lebanese officials approved the framework of a security agreement that besides improving bilateral relations include drugs and arms trafficking, illegal immigration and cyber-crime.[34]

  • France has an embassy in Beirut.
  • Lebanon as an embassy in Paris and a consulate-general in Marseille.
  Germany
  • Germany has an embassy in Beirut.
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Berlin.
  Greece See Greece–Lebanon relations

The relation between both people dates back to early antiquity, with the early trading activities between the ancient Greeks and the Phoenicians. In modern times, Greek-Lebanese bilateral relations are very good at all levels. Greece has an embassy in Beirut and Lebanon has an embassy in Athens. Both countries are members of the Union for the Mediterranean and the Francophonie.

  • Greece has an embassy in Beirut.
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Athens.
   Holy See 1947 See Holy See–Lebanon relations

The Holy See has played a major role in the peace negotiations of Lebanon. It has sought to unify Christian factions that were separated after the Lebanese civil war. At the same time, it sought to reduce Christian-Muslim tensions and to preserve Christian communities that have been declining in many parts of Lebanon and elsewhere in the Middle East.

  • Holy See has a nunciature in Harissa.
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Rome accredited to the Holy See.
  Ireland
  • Ireland is accredited to Lebanon from its embassy in Cairo, Egypt.
  • Lebanon is accredited to Ireland from its embassy in London, UK.
  Italy See Italy–Lebanon relations

Lebanon opened a legation in 1946, which was transformed into an embassy in 1955.[citation needed] Both countries signed a Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Navigation in 1949.[citation needed] Rome supported the reconstruction of Lebanon after the Taef Agreement.[citation needed] Also, Italian companies, from almost all sectors, operate in Lebanon.[citation needed]

  • Italy has an embassy in Beirut.
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Rome.
  Netherlands
  • Lebanon has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Beirut.
  Poland
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Beirut.
  Romania January 6, 1965 See Lebanon–Romania relations
  Russia See Lebanon–Russia relations
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Moscow.
  • Russia has an embassy in Beirut.
  Spain See Lebanon–Spain relations
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Beirut.
  Sweden 2016
  • Lebanon has an Embassy in Stockholm
  • Sweden has an Embassy in Beirut
  United Kingdom
  • Lebanon has an embassy in London.
  • United Kingdom has an embassy in Beirut.

Oceania [ edit ]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Australia
  • 74,000 Lebanese-born people live in Australia, mainly in Sydney, and there are more people of Lebanese descent including Marie Bashir, Steve Bracks and Hazem El Masri.
  • Australia has a modest trade relationship with Lebanon and has also given foreign aid in the aftermath of the Lebanese civil war of 1975–1990.
  • Australia has an embassy in Beirut.
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Canberra and consulates-general in Melbourne and Sydney.
  New Zealand
  • Lebanon is accredited to New Zealand from its embassy in Canberra, Australia.
  • New Zealand is accredited to Lebanon from its embassy in Cairo, Egypt.

See also [ edit ]

References and footnotes [ edit ]

  • Eisenberg, Laura Zittrain; Caplan, Neil (1998). Negotiating Arab-Israeli Peace: Patterns, Problems, Possibilities. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-21159-X.
  • Schiff, Ze'ev; Ya'ari, Ehud (1984). Israel's Lebanon War. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-47991-1.
  • Shlaim, Avi (2001). The Iron Wall: Israel and the Arab World. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-32112-6.
  1. ^ Embassy of Argentina in Lebanon
  2. ^ Embassy of Lebanon in Argentina
  3. ^ Embassy of Brazil in Lebanon
  4. ^ Embassy of Lebanon in Brazil
  5. ^ "Embassy of Canada in Lebanon". Archived from the original on November 19, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
  6. ^ Embassy of Lebanon in Canada
  7. ^ Embassy of Lebanon in Mexico City (in Arabic and Spanish)
  8. ^ Embassy of Mexico in Beirut (in Spanish)
  9. ^ "Embassy of Lebanon in the United States". Archived from the original on May 17, 2012. Retrieved December 18, 2019.
  10. ^ Embassy of the United States in Lebanon
  11. ^ Embassy of Uruguay in Lebanon
  12. ^ Armenia To Provide Relief To Lebanon, Armenialiberty.org
  13. ^ Armenia Sent Humanitarian Assistance To Lebanon, PanArmenian.Net
  14. ^ International Affirmation of the Armenian Genocide, Armenia Foreign Ministry
  15. ^ Lawler, Dave (July 2, 2020). "The 53 countries supporting China's crackdown on Hong Kong". Axios. Retrieved July 3, 2020.
  16. ^ Yellinek, Roie; Mann, Yossi; Lebel, Udi (November 1, 2020). "Chinese Soft-Power in the Arab world – China's Confucius Institutes as a central tool of influence". Comparative Strategy. 39 (6): 517–534. doi:10.1080/01495933.2020.1826843. ISSN 0149-5933.
  17. ^ "Lebanese Embassies, Missions, Consulates, Honorary Consulates abroad"(PDF). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Emigrants of the Republic of Lebanon. p. 13. Retrieved May 4, 2014.
  18. ^ "Official Website of Embassy of Malaysia, Beirut". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Malaysia. Retrieved May 4, 2014.
  19. ^ Messages to Lebanon Pakistan MOFA
  20. ^ Saudi plan for anti-Hezbollah force revealed, AFP and Ynet, August 12, 2010
  21. ^ "Saudi Arabia says Lebanon 'declaring war' against it". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved November 7, 2017.
  22. ^ "Saudi Arabia says Lebanon declares war, deepening crisis". Reuters. November 7, 2017. Retrieved November 7, 2017.
  23. ^ "Saudi Arabia: Lebanon declared war on us". Israel National News. Retrieved November 7, 2017.
  24. ^ "BBC NEWS – Middle East – Q&: Syria and Lebanon". Retrieved February 21, 2015.
  25. ^ Ten steps to Syria-Lebanon ties BBC News
  26. ^ Republic of LebanonArchived December 2, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. European Commission: External Relations
  27. ^ Bulgarian embassy in Beirut
  28. ^ Bulgarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: direction of the Lebanese embassy in Sofia
  29. ^ Libanon Danske kontaktoplysninger
  30. ^ "Lebanon Embassy in Stockholm". Retrieved February 21, 2015.
  31. ^ "France to cut Syria ties over Lebanon presidential crisis". Haaretz. December 30, 2007. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
  32. ^ "France and Syria divorce over Lebanon crises". Ya Libnan. LB. January 2, 2008. Archived from the original on March 8, 2008. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
  33. ^ "International News". ABC news. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
  34. ^ "Naharnet — Lebanon's leading news destination". Naharnet. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
  35. ^ a b "Republica Libaneză" (in Romanian). Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved August 10, 2020.

External links [ edit ]

Representations of foreign nations in Lebanon

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