Foreign relations of Somaliland
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Foreign relations of the Republic of Somaliland are the responsibility of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Republic of Somaliland. The region's self-declaration of independence (from Somali on 18 May 1991, after the start of ongoing Somali Civil War) remains unrecognised by the international community.
Due to its status, the Republic of Somaliland currently has official contacts with few nations, which include Ethiopia, which has signed a strategic and infrastructure agreement, and United Arab Emirates, which has signed a concession agreement to manage the Port of Berbera. International recognition as a sovereign state remains at the forefront of the government's current foreign policy. Other key priorities are encouraging international aid and foreign direct investment.
The position of multilateral organisations and countries in the international community is to support during the ongoing civil war the territorial integrity (i.e. territorial unity) of Somalia and its central government, the Federal Government of Somalia.
Overview [ edit ]
Somaliland has political contacts with its neighbours Ethiopia and Djibouti, as well as with Belgium, France, Ghana, Russia, South Africa, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
In 2007, a delegation led by President Kahin was present at the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in Kampala, Uganda. Although Somaliland has applied to join the Commonwealth under observer status, its application is still pending.
In 2002, Germany refused to recognize Somaliland as a precursor in establishing a military base in the region. It instead established a naval base in Djibouti. German naval ships already operated from Berbera. In September 2012, at the mini-summit on Somalia on the margins of the United Nations General Assembly, the German government also re-affirmed its continued support for Somalia's government, territorial integrity and sovereignty.
In February 2010, there were rumours that Israel might recognise Somaliland, and Israel is still interested in maintaining a diplomatic relationship with Somaliland. Somaliland is a Muslim nation and continues to support the rights of the Palestinian people. The rumours turned out to be wrong. In November 2009, a Pakistani delegation of three visited Somaliland: Mr. Sheikh Mansoor Ahmed, Secretary General of PPP of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan ruling government; Mr. Shafiq Ahmed Qureshi, Peace Rep., former diplomat and Sr. Consular Officer; and Mr. Abdul Razak Dinnaari. Ambassador. There was a proposal to open a trade office of Somaliland in Pakistan.
In 2011, the foreign ministers of South Africa and Tanzania said that they were not ready to recognise Somaliland and that they preferred to see Somalia remain as a single country.Although Somaliland is recognized as a de-facto state, it doesn't currently enjoy de-jure recognition. In 2012, South Africa and Ethiopia also re-affirmed their continued support for Somalia's government, territorial integrity and sovereignty at the mini-summit on Somalia in New York on the margins of the United Nations General Assembly.
In April 2014, the Sheffield City Council in the United Kingdom voted to recognize the right to self-determination of Somaliland, the second to do so. Bristol was the first city council to do so. The gesture was purely ceremonial and carried no legal weight. On 26 March 2015, Cardiff City Council followed suit. On 18 May 2015, the UK independence Party announced support for international recognition. Nevertheless, the Conservative UK government officially opened a British Office In Hargeisa, similar to the British Office in Taipei, Taiwan.
In February 2017, both houses of parliament of Somaliland accepted the bid from the government from the United Arab Emirates for Union Defence Force (UAE) to establish a military base in Berbera, which has been completed along with the redevelopment of the Berbera Airport. In January 2018, Somaliland gained attention from the Philippines, and later Timor-Leste, after it passed its first ever anti-rape law. The Philippines has minimal relations with Somalia as the country views Somalia as a 'failed state'. Somaliland currently has no diplomatic contacts with any non-Middle Eastern Asian country, except for minor talks with Taiwan.In JulyLate 2019, Somaliland President Muse Bihi Abdi led a delegation to the Republic of Guinea-Conakry at the invitation of President Alpha Conde. 
Foreign Minister [ edit ]
Diplomatic Representative Offices [ edit ]
Somaliland maintains representative (liaison) offices in several countries, but these missions do not have formal diplomatic status under the provisions of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations.
Such offices exist in the following cities:
- Addis Ababa 
- Dubai, UAE
- Pretoria 
- Stockholm 
- Turin 
- Washington D.C. 
- Nairobi 
The following foreign governments have diplomatic offices in Hargeisa:
- Ethiopia – consulate; headed by a diplomat with the rank of ambassador. It has an embassy in Mogadishu, Somalia's capital.
Border disputes [ edit ]
Somaliland is in dispute over control of the Sool, Sanaag and Cayn (SSC) regions with the autonomous Puntland and Khatumo State regional administrations (formerly HBM-SSC or Hoggaanka Badbaadada iyo Mideynta SSC). The inhabitants of these areas predominantly belong to the same Harti clan that constitutes a majority of Puntland's residents.
Somaliland's leaders have also distanced themselves from the Federal Government of Somalia, which they see as a threat to their self-declared independence.
Passports [ edit ]
Somaliland issues its own passports, recognized by certain nations. Once Somaliland achieves its goal of recognition, a number countries have stated that they will allow Somalilanders to travel to their countries, subject to visa regulations.
Organisational membership [ edit ]
See also [ edit ]
- List of diplomatic missions of Somaliland
- List of diplomatic missions in Somaliland
- Foreign relations of Somalia
References [ edit ]
- Council of Ministers. Government of Somaliland.
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- Stevis, Matina; Fitch, Asa (30 May 2016). "Dubai's DP World Agrees to Manage Port in Somaliland for 30 Years". Retrieved 12 January 2018 – via www.WSJ.com.
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- Mosalski, Ruth (26 March 2015). "Cardiff becomes the third UK council to recognise the Republic of Somaliland". walesonline.co.uk. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
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- "Somaliland MPs adopt first ever rape law".
- "Somaliland President Arrives in Guinea-Conakry for State Visit".
- Center, Africa. "Somaliland's Foreign Minister Discusses Trade and Recognition". Atlantic Council. Retrieved 2019-07-03.
- Contacts and addresses of the Somaliland Representative Offices around the worldArchived 2010-03-27 at the Wayback Machine. Government of Somaliland.
- Wiren, Robert (8 April 2008). France recognizes de facto Somaliland Archived 2010-07-15 at the Wayback Machine. Les Nouvelles d'Addis. Versailles. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
- Somaliland Trade Liaison Office, Pretoria. Visit of Somaliland’s UCID Foreign affairs spokesperson to south Africa. Qaran News (1 May 2010). Retrieved 2010-05-25.
- Somaliland Diplomatic Mission in SwedenArchived 2009-05-10 at the Wayback Machine. Somaliland Embassy in Sweden.
- Ethiopia’s New Representative to Somaliland. Qarannews (30 October 2009). Retrieved 2010-05-25.
- Section II: Somaliland
- "SOMALIA: Ethiopia opens consulate in Puntland". Horseedmedia.net. 2010-05-29. Archived from the original on 2010-06-19. Retrieved 2012-05-29.
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- &catid=34:2010-01-06-16-26-06&Itemid=57 Somaliland: Yemen To Open Diplomatic Office in Somaliland. Aden Press (19 February 2010). Retrieved 2010-05-25.
- "Yemen and Puntland to further cooperation". Garoweonline.com. 2010-10-12. Archived from the original on 2012-03-28. Retrieved 2012-05-29.
- Somaliland’s Quest for International Recognition and the HBM-SSC FactorArchived May 28, 2012, at the Wayback Machine