Four hills of Kowloon
History [ edit ]
At the end of the 18th century, Hakka settled into the Cha Kwo Ling area, and quarrying became their main occupation. By that time, the villages of Cha Kwo Ling, Ngau Tau Kok, Sai Tso Wan and Lei Yue Mun were collectively called Si Shan (四山, "Four Hills"). According to a missionary who visited the area in 1844, tens of quarries were in operation along the 2 miles stretch in eastern Kowloon. In the early 20th century, the were said to be more than 10 quarries in the Ngau Tau Kok section of the "Four Hills" alone, each employing 10 to 20 people, all Hakka with origins in the East River area of northeastern Guangdong.
The Qing government appointed a headman for each "hill", in charge of ruling the area and collecting tax. The four headmen were collectively referred to as the Si Shan Tau Yan (四山頭人, "Headmen of Four Hills"). The four villages also formed the Si Shan Kung So (四山公所, "Communal Hall of Four Hills"), managing the quarrying business. The headmen system ended before World War II.
The granite blocks extracted from the Four Hills were exported via sailboat, and several piers were built along the coast. The one at Sai Tso Wan was the biggest. Today, only parts of the Lei Yue Mun pier remain.
Conservation [ edit ]
See also [ edit ]
- Mining in Hong Kong
- Sacred Heart Cathedral (Guangzhou), built with granite from the Four hills of Kowloon.
- Choi Hei Road Park (彩禧路公園), Choi Fook Estate (彩福邨), Choi Tak Estate and Choi Ying Estate in Ngau Tau Kok, a granite theme park and a public housing estates built on the site of the former Ping Shan Quarry.
References [ edit ]
- Civil Engineering and Development Department, "Further Development of Tseung Kwan O. Feasibility Study. Environmental Impact Assessment. Chapter 13" July 2005
- Four hills of Kowloon at ProjecTerrae
- Hayes, James (June 15, 1994). "Chapter 3: San Po Tsai (Little Daughters-in-Law) and Child Betrothals in the New Territories of Hong Kong from the 1890s to the 1960s". In Jaschok, Maria; Miers, Suzanne (eds.). Women and Chinese patriarchy: submission, servitude, and escape. Zed Books. pp. 52–54. ISBN 978-1856491266.
- Antiquities Advisory Board. Historic Building Appraisal: Law Mansion, Nos. 50A, 51 & 51A, Cha Kwo Ling Road, Cha Kwo Ling
- Antiquities Advisory Board. List of new items for grading assessment with assessment results
- Film Services Offices. Choi Hei Road Park
Further reading [ edit ]
- Hayes, James (1977). The Hong Kong region, 1850-1911: institutions and leadership in town and countryside. Archon Books. pp. 151–162. ISBN 9780208016263.
[ edit ]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Four hills of Kowloon.|
- Antiquities Advisory Board. Historic Building Appraisal: Old Quarry Site Structures, Lei Yue Mun, Kwun Tong, KowloonPictures
- Planning Review on Development of Ex-Cha Kwo Ling Kaolin Mine Site (2013)
- Planning Review on Development of Ex-Cha Kwo Ling Kaolin Mine Site (final report)
- Four Hills Elementary School, Cha Kwo Ling at industrialhistoryhk.org
- Moving Mountains: the Life and Mines of Ko Ming-fan at industrialhistoryhk.org
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