Wikipedia

Frithjof Schuon

Frithjof Schuon
Frithjof Schuon.jpg
Born (1907-06-18)June 18, 1907

Died May 5, 1998(1998-05-05) (aged 90)

Era 20th-century philosophy
Region
School Perennial philosophy
Main interests
Philosophy, metaphysics, spirituality, religion, sacred studies

Frithjof Schuon (/ˈʃɒn/; German: [ˈfʀiːtˌjoːf ˈʃuː.ɔn]; 18 June 1907 – 5 May 1998), also known as ʿĪsā Nūr ad-Dīn ʾAḥmad (Arabic: عيسیٰ نور الـدّين أحمد‎) after his conversion to Islam,[1] was an author of German ancestry born in Basel, Switzerland. Schuon is widely recognized as one of the most influential scholars and teachers within the sphere of comparative religion. His religious worldview was influenced by his study of the Hindu philosophy of Advaita Vedanta and Islamic Sufism. He authored numerous books on religion and spirituality as well as being a poet and a painter.

In his prose and poetic writings, Schuon focuses on metaphysical doctrine and spiritual method. He is considered one of the main representatives and exponents of the religio perennis (perennial religion) and one of the chief representatives of the Traditionalist School. In his writings, Schuon expresses his faith in an absolute principle, God, who governs the universe. For Schuon, the great revelations are the link between this absolute principle—God—and humankind. He wrote the main bulk of his work in French. In the later years of his life, Schuon composed some volumes of poetry in his mother tongue, German. His articles in French were collected in about 20 titles in French which were later translated into English as well as many other languages. The main subjects of his prose and poetic compositions are spirituality and various essential realms of the human life coming from God and returning to God.[2]

Life and work [ edit ]

Schuon was born in Basel, Switzerland, on June 18, 1907. His father was a native of southern Germany, while his mother came from an Alsatian family. Schuon's father was a concert violinist and the household was one in which not only music but literary and spiritual culture were present.[3] Schuon lived in Basel and attended school there until the untimely death of his father in 1920, after which his mother returned with her two young sons to her family in nearby Mulhouse, France, where Schuon was obliged to become a French citizen. Having received his earliest training in German, he received his later education in French and thus mastered both languages early in life.[4]

From his youth, Schuon's search for metaphysical truth led him to read the Hindu scriptures such as Upanishads and the Bhagavad Gita. While still living in Mulhouse, he discovered the works of the French philosopher René Guénon, which served to confirm his intellectual intuitions and which provided support for the metaphysical principles he had begun to discover.[5]

Schuon journeyed to Paris after serving for a year and a half in the French army. There he worked as a textile designer and began to study Arabic in the local mosque school. Living in Paris also brought the opportunity to be exposed to various forms of traditional art to a much greater degree than before, especially the arts of Asia with which he had had a deep affinity since his youth. This period of growing intellectual and artistic familiarity with the traditional worlds was followed by Schuon's first visit to Algeria in 1932. It was then that he met Shaykh Ahmad al-Alawi and was initiated into his order.[1] Schuon has written about his deep affinity with the esoteric core of various traditions and hence appreciation for the Sufism in the Islamic tradition. His main reason for seeking the blessings of Shaykh Al-Alawi was the attachment to an orthodox master and saint.[6] On a second trip to North Africa, in 1935, he visited Algeria and Morocco; and in 1938 and 1939 he traveled to Egypt where he met Guénon, with whom he had been in correspondence for 7 years. In 1939, shortly after his arrival in Pie, India, World War II broke out, forcing him to return to Europe. After having served in the French army, and having been made a prisoner by the Germans, he sought asylum in Switzerland, which was to be his home for forty years. In 1949 he married, his wife being a German Swiss with a French education who, besides having interests in religion and metaphysics, was also a gifted painter.[5] Schuon received Swiss citizenship shortly after his marriage.[7]

Having received his education in France, Schuon has written all his major works in French, which began to appear in English translation in 1953. Of his first book, The Transcendent Unity of Religions (London, Faber & Faber) T. S. Eliot wrote: "I have met with no more impressive work in the comparative study of Oriental and Occidental religion."[5]

While always continuing to write, Schuon and his wife traveled widely. In 1959 and again in 1963, they journeyed to the American West at the invitation of friends among the Sioux and Crow American Indians. In the company of their Native American friends, they visited various Plains tribes and had the opportunity to witness many aspects of their sacred traditions. In 1959, Schuon and his wife were solemnly adopted into the Sioux family of James Red Cloud, grandson of Red Cloud. Years later they were similarly adopted by the Crow medicine man and Sun Dance chief, Thomas Yellowtail. Schuon's writings on the central rites of Native American religion and his paintings of their ways of life attest to his particular affinity with the spiritual universe of the Plains Indians. Other travels have included journeys to Andalusia, Morocco, and a visit in 1968 to the home of the Virgin Mary in Ephesus.

Through his many books and articles, Schuon became known as a spiritual teacher and leader of the Traditionalist School. During his years in Switzerland he regularly received visits from religious scholars and thinkers of the East.[5]

Schuon throughout his entire life had great respect for and devotion to the Virgin Mary which was expressed in his writings. As a result, his teachings and paintings show a particular Marian presence. His reverence for the Virgin Mary has been studied in detail by American professor James Cutsinger.[8] Hence the name, Maryamiya (in Arabic, "Marian"), of the Sufi order he founded as a branch of the Shadhiliya-Darqawiya-Alawiya. When asked by one of his disciples about the reason for this choice of name, Schuon replied: "It is not we who have chosen her; it is she who has chosen us."[9]

In 1980, Schuon and his wife emigrated to the United States, settling in Bloomington, Indiana, where a community of disciples from all over the world would gather around him for spiritual direction. The first years in Bloomington saw the publication of some of his most important late works: From the Divine to the Human, To Have a Center, Survey of Metaphysics and Esoterism and others.

Schuon was deeply attracted to the Native American traditions. It was American anthropologist Joseph Epes Brown who through letters and journeys to Lausanne would speak of the Native Americans to Schuon and would create possibilities of exchange between Schuon and that world, exchanges that were to play an important role in the last period of the Schuon’s' life. In the autumn of 1953, Schuon and his wife met with Thomas Yellowtail in Paris. The future Sun Dance Chief was making a dance tour. In his autobiography, Schuon explained how, after Yellowtail had performed a special rite, he had a visionary dream revealing to him certain aspects of the Plain Indian symbolism. Thomas Yellowtail remained his intimate friend till his death in 1993, visiting him every year after his settlement in Bloomington. During the visits of Yellowtail, Schuon and some of his followers organized what they called “Indian Days,” involving the performance of Native American dances[10] of which some have accused him of practising ritual nudity apart from regular strictly Islamic Sufi gatherings of invocation (majalis al-dhikr).[11] These gatherings were understood by disciples as a sharing in Schuon's personal insights and realization, not as part of the initiatic method he transmitted, centered on the invocation of a Divine Name.[12]

In 1991, one of Schuon's followers accused him of "fondling" three young girls during “primordial gatherings”. A preliminary investigation was begun, but the chief prosecutor eventually concluded that there was no proof, noting that the plaintiff was of extremely dubious character and had been previously condemned for making false statements in another similar affair in California.[13] The prosecutor declared that there were no grounds for prosecution, and the local press made amends.[14] Some articles and books, including Mark Sedgwick's Against the Modern World,[15] purporting to be scholarly documents,[16] discuss this event and the related "primordial" practices of the Bloomington community in Midwestern suburban America in the late twentieth century.[17] Schuon was greatly affected, but continued to write poetry in his native German, to receive visitors and maintain a busy correspondence with followers, scholars and readers until his death in 1998.[5][18]

Views based on his written works [ edit ]

Transcendent unity of religions [ edit ]

The traditionalist or perennialist perspective began to be enunciated in the 1920s by the French philosopher René Guénon and, in the 1930s, by Schuon himself. Orientalist Ananda Coomaraswamy and Swiss art historian Titus Burckhardt also became prominent advocates of this point of view. Fundamentally, this doctrine is the Sanatana Dharma – the "eternal religion" – of Hindu Neo-Vedanta. It was supposedly formulated in ancient Greece, in particular, by Plato and later Neoplatonists, and in Christendom by Meister Eckhart (in the West) and Gregory Palamas (in the East). Every religion has, besides its literal meaning, an esoteric dimension, which is essential, primordial and universal. This intellectual universality is one of the hallmarks of Schuon's works, and it gives rise to insights into not only the various spiritual traditions, but also history, science and art.[19]

The dominant theme or principle of Schuon's writings was foreshadowed in his early encounter with a Black marabout who had accompanied some members of his Senegalese village to Switzerland in order to demonstrate their culture. When the young Schuon talked with him, the venerable old man drew a circle with radii on the ground and explained: God is in the center; all paths lead to Him.[20]

Metaphysics [ edit ]

For Schuon, the quintessence of pure metaphysics can be summarized by the following vedantic statement, although the Advaita Vedanta's perspective finds its equivalent in the teachings of Ibn Arabi, Meister Eckhart or Plotinus: Brahma satyam jagan mithya jivo brahmaiva na'parah (Brahman is real, the world is illusory, the self is not different from Brahman).[21]

The metaphysics exposited by Schuon is based on the doctrine of the non-dual Absolute (Beyond-Being) and the degrees of reality. The distinction between the Absolute and the relative corresponds for Schuon to the couple Atma/Maya. Maya is not only the cosmic illusion: from a higher standpoint, Maya is also the Infinite, the Divine Relativity or else the feminine aspect (mahashakti) of the Supreme Principle.

Said differently, being the Absolute, Beyond-Being is also the Sovereign Good (Agathon), that by its nature desires to communicate itself through the projection of Maya. The whole manifestation from the first Being (Ishvara) to matter, the lower degree of reality, is indeed the projection of the Supreme Principle (Brahman). The personal God, considered as the creative cause of the world, is only relatively Absolute, a first determination of Beyond-Being, at the summit of Maya. The Supreme Principle is not only Beyond-Being, it is also the Supreme Self (Atman) and in its innermost essence, the Intellect (buddhi) that is the ray of Consciousness shining down, the axial refraction of Atma within Maya.[22]

Spiritual path [ edit ]

According to Schuon the spiritual path is essentially based on: 1) the discernment between the "Real" and the "unreal" (Atma/Maya); 2) concentration on the Real; and 3) the practice of virtues. Human beings must know the "Truth". Knowing the Truth, they must then will the "Good" and concentrate on it. These two aspects correspond to the metaphysical doctrine and the spiritual method. Knowing the Truth and willing the Good, human beings must finally love "Beauty" in their own soul through virtue, but also in "Nature". In this respect Schuon has insisted on the importance for the authentic spiritual seeker to be aware of what he called the "metaphysical transparency of phenomena".[23]

Schuon wrote about different aspects of spiritual life both on the doctrinal and on the practical levels. He explained the forms of the spiritual practices as they have been manifested in various traditional universes. In particular, he wrote on the invocation of the Divine Name (dhikr, Japa-Yoga, Prayer of the Heart), considered by Hindus as the best and most providential means of realization at the end of the Kali Yuga. As has been noted by the Hindu saint Ramakrishna, the secret of the invocatory path is that God and his Name are one.[24]

Quintessential esoterism [ edit ]

Guénon had pointed out at the beginning of the twentieth century that every religion comprises two main aspects, "esoterism" and "exoterism". Schuon explained that esoterism displays two aspects, one being an extension of exoterism and the other one independent of exoterism; for if it be true that the form "is" in a certain way the essence, the essence on the contrary is by no means totally expressed by a single form; the drop is water, but water is not the drop. This second aspect is called "quintessential esoterism" for it is not limited or expressed totally by one single form or theological school and, above all, by a particular religious form as such.[25]

Criticism of modernity [ edit ]

Guénon had based his Crisis of the Modern World on the Hindu doctrine of cyclic nature of time.[26] Schuon expanded on this concept and its consequences for humanity in many of his articles.[27] In his essay "The Contradictions of Relativism", Schuon wrote that the uncompromising relativism that underlies many modern philosophies had fallen into an intrinsic absurdity in declaring that there is no absolute truth and then attempting to put this forward as an absolute truth. Schuon notes that the essence of relativism is found in the idea that we never escape from human subjectivity whilst its expounders seem to remain unaware of the fact that relativism is therefore also deprived of any objectivity. Schuon further notes that the Freudian assertion that rationality is merely a hypocritical guise for a repressed animal drive results in the very assertion itself being devoid of worth as it is itself a rational judgment.[28]

Sacred art [ edit ]

Along with Ananda Coomaraswamy and Titus Burckhardt, Frithjof Schuon reminds us that "sacred art is first of all the visible and audible form of Revelation and then also its indispensable liturgical vesture".[29] This art communicates "on the one hand, spiritual truths and, on the other hand, a celestial presence".[30] James Cutsinger emphasizes that, for Schuon, an art is sacred "not through the personal aims of the artist, but through its content, its symbolism, and its style, that is, through objective elements", which must respect the canonical rules specific to the religion of its author.[31][32] The latter, according to Martyn Amugen quoting Schuon, must be "sanctified or in a state of grace" because the language of the sacred "cannot spring simply from profane tastes, nor from genius, but must proceed essentially out of religion",[33] which "cannot be replaced, far less can it be surpassed, by human resources".[34][a] Icon painters, for example, "were monks who, before setting to work, prepared themselves by fasting, prayer, confession, and communion",[35][36][b] in order to overcome the two pitfalls that threaten every artist: "a virtuosity tending towards the outward and the superficial, and a conventionalism without intelligence and without soul".[37]

Echoing Schuonian thought, Cutsinger notes that the various forms of sacred art have as their object the "transmission of intellectual intuitions", thus conferring "a direct aid to spirituality",[31] and he notes that this art "is able to transmit simultaneously metaphysical truths, archetypal values, historical facts, spiritual states, and psychological attitudes.[38]

Evoking the transition from the Middle Ages — with its Byzantine, Romanesque and primitive Gothic arts[39] — to the Renaissance, Schuon notes that "Christian art, which formerly was sacred, symbolical, spiritual", gave way to the advent of neo-classical art, with its naturalistic and sentimental character, which only responded "to collective psychic aspirations".[40][c][41] Having broken with tradition, reports Amugen, art became "human, individualistic, and therefore arbitrary", infallible signs of decline,[42] and any desire to restore its sacred caracter must necessarily involve abandoning individualistic relativism in order to go back to its sources, which lie in the timeless and the immutable.[43][44]

Works [ edit ]

Essays (translated from French) [ edit ]

  • The Eye of the Heart, foreword by Huston Smith, World Wisdom, 1950, 1997
  • The Transcendent Unity of Religions, Faber & Faber, 1953; revised edition, Harper & Row, 1975; introduction by Huston Smith, Quest Books, 1984, 1993
  • Spiritual Perspectives and Human Facts, Faber & Faber, 1954; Perennial Books, 1969; Sophia Perennis, 1987; new translation with selected letters, World Wisdom, 2007
  • Gnosis: Divine Wisdom, John Murray, 1959, 1978; Perennial Books 1990; new translation with selected letters, World Wisdom, 2006
  • Castes and Races, Perennial Books, 1959, 1982; now included in Language of the Self, World Wisdom, 1999
  • Stations of Wisdom, John Murray, 1961; Perennial Books, 1980; new translation, World Wisdom, 1995, 2003
  • Understanding Islam, Allen & Unwin, Penguin, Unwin Hyman, Routledge, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1972, 1976, 1979, 1981, 1986, 1989, 1993; new translation with selected letters, foreword by Annemarie Schimmel, World Wisdom, 1994, 1998, 2003, 2011
  • Treasures of Buddhism (formerly In the Tracks of Buddhism, Allen & Unwin, 1968; Unwin Hyman, 1989); new translation with selected letters, World Wisdom, 1993
  • Logic and Transcendence, Harper & Row, 1975; Perennial Books, 1984; new translation with selected letters, World Wisdom, 2009
  • Esoterism as Principle and as Way, Perennial Books, 1981, 1990; new translation with selected letters, World Wisdom, 2019
  • Sufism, Veil and Quintessence, World Wisdom, 1981; new translation with selected letters, foreword by Seyyed Hossein Nasr, 2006
  • From the Divine to the Human, World Wisdom, 1982; new translation, 2013
  • Light on the Ancient Worlds, Perennial Books, 1965; World Wisdom, 1984; new translation with selected letters, 2006
  • Christianity/Islam: Perspectives on Esoteric Ecumenism, World Wisdom, 1985; new translation with selected letters, 2008
  • Survey of Metaphysics and Esoterism, World Wisdom, 1986, 2000
  • In the Face of the Absolute, World Wisdom, 1989, 1994; new translation with selected letters, 2014
  • The Feathered Sun: Plain Indians in Art & Philosophy, introduction by Thomas Yellowtail, World Wisdom, 1990
  • Roots of the Human Condition, introduction by Patrick Laude, World Wisdom, 1991, 2002
  • The Play of Masks, World Wisdom, 1992
  • The Transfiguration of Man, World Wisdom, 1995
  • Language of the Self: Essays on the Perennial Philosophy, introduction by Venkataraman Raghavan, Ganesh Madras, 1959; revised and augmented, World Wisdom, 1999
  • Form and Substance in the Religions, World Wisdom, 2002
  • To Have a Center, World Wisdom, 1990; new translation with selected letters, 2015
  • Primordial Meditation: Contemplating the Real, The Matheson Trust, 2015

Poetry [ edit ]

written in English [ edit ]

  • Road to the Heart, World Wisdom, 1995

translated from German [ edit ]

  • Adastra & Stella Maris, foreword by William Stoddart, bilingual, World Wisdom, 2003
  • Songs Without Names, Vol. I-VI, introduction by William Stoddart, foreword by Annemarie Schimmel, World Wisdom, 2006
  • Songs Without Names, Vol. VII-XII, introduction by William Stoddart, foreword by Annemarie Schimmel, World Wisdom, 2006
  • World Wheel, Vol. I-III, introduction by William Stoddart, foreword by Annemarie Schimmel, World Wisdom, 2006
  • World Wheel, Vol. IV-VII, introduction by William Stoddart, foreword by Annemarie Schimmel, World Wisdom, 2006
  • Autumn Leaves & The Ring, bilingual, World Wisdom, 2010

written in German (no translation) [ edit ]

  • Sulamith, Urs Graf, 1947
  • Tage- und Nächtebuch, Urs Graf, 1947
  • Liebe / Leben / Glück / Sinn, 4 vol., Herder, 1997

Paintings [ edit ]

  • The Feathered Sun: Plain Indians in Art & Philosophy, introduction by Thomas Yellowtail, World Wisdom, 1990
  • Images of Primordial & Mystic Beauty: Paintings by Frithjof Schuon, Abodes/World Wisdom, 1992

Anthologies of Schuon’s writings [ edit ]

  • The Essential Frithjof Schuon, selected and edited by Seyyed Hossein Nasr (formerly The Essential Writings of Frithjof Schuon, Amity House, 1986; Element Books, 1991), World Wisdom, 2005
  • Echoes of Perennial Wisdom, World Wisdom, 1992, 2012
  • Songs for a Spiritual Traveler, selected poems, bilingual, World Wisdom, 2002
  • The Fullness of God: Frithjof Schuon on Christianity, edited by James Cutsinger, foreword by Antoine Faivre, World Wisdom, 2004
  • Prayer Fashions Man: Frithjof Schuon on the Spiritual Life, edited by James Cutsinger, World Wisdom, 2004
  • Art from the Sacred to the Profane: East and West, ed. Catherine Schuon, foreword by Keith Critchlow, World Wisdom, 2007
  • Splendor of the true: a Frithjof Schuon reader, edited by James S. Cutsinger, foreword by Huston Smith, State University of New York Press, 2013 [8]

Schuon was a frequent contributor to the quarterly journal Studies in Comparative Religion (along with Guénon, Coomaraswamy, Burckhardt, Nasr, Lings, and many others) which dealt with religious symbolism and the Traditionalist perspective.

Further reading [ edit ]

Books [ edit ]

  • Amugen, Martyn (2016). Schuon's Theory of the Transcendent Unity of Religion in Relation to the Decline of the Sacred: An Analysis from a Mystical Perspective, Bangkok, Lap Lambert, Academic Publishing [9]
  • Aymard, Jean-Baptiste & Laude, Patrick (2004). Frithjof Schuon: Life and Teachings, Albany/NY: State University of New York Press [10] [11]
  • Cutsinger, James S. (1997). Advice to the Serious Seeker: Meditations on the Teaching of Frithjof Schuon, Albany/NY: State University of New York Press, 2012
  • Fitzgerald, Michael O. (2010). Frithjof Schuon Messenger of the Perennial Philosophy, Bloomington/IN: World Wisdom
  • Laude, Patrick (2010). Pathways to an Inner Islam: Massignon, Corbin, Guénon, and Schuon, Albany/NY: State University of New York Press
  • Laude, Patrick (2020). Keys to the Beyond: Frithjof Schuon's Cross-Traditional Language of Transcendence, Albany/NY: State University of New York Press, presentation: [12]
  • Oldmeadow, Harry (2010). Frithjof Schuon and the Perennial Philosophy, Bloomington/IN: World Wisdom [13]
  • Religion of the Heart: Essays presented to Frithjof Schuon on his eightieth birthday, ed. Seyyed Hossein Nasr & William Stoddart, Washington D.C.: Foundation for Traditional Studies (1991). Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Biography of Frithjof SchuonBernard P. Kelly, Notes on the Light of the Eastern Religions, with Special Reference to the Writings of Ananda Coomaraswamy, René Guénon, and Frithjof Schuonet al.

Chapters in books [ edit ]

  • Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2005). "Introduction" in The Essential Frithjof Schuon, Bloomington/IN: World Wisdom, 2005 [14]
  • Oldmeadow, Harry (2004). "The Heart of the Religio Perennis: Frithjof Schuon on Esotericism" in Esotericism and the Control of Knowledge, The University of Sydney [15]
  • Oldmeadow, Harry (2012). "Frithjof Schuon on Culturism", in Touchstones of the Spirit, Bloomington/IN: World Wisdom, [16]
  • Oldmeadow, Harry (2019). "Gnosis: A Perennialist Perspective", in The Gnostic World, London & New York: Routledge [17]
  • Scott, Timothy (2004). "The Elect and the Predestination of Knowledge: ‘Esoterism’ and ‘Exclusivism’: A Schuonian Perspective" in Esotericism and the Control of Knowledge, The University of Sydney [18]
  • Stoddart, William (2008). "Frithjof Schuon and the Perennialist School" in Remembering in a World of Forgetting: Thoughts on Tradition and Postmodernism, Bloomington/IN: World Wisdom [19]
  • Versluis, Arthur (2014). "From Europe to America" in American Gurus: From American Transcendentalism to New Age Religion, Oxford/UK: Oxford University Press [20]

Articles in journals [ edit ]

Sacred Web (Vancouver, Canada) [21]

  • Vol. 1 (1998). Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Frithjof Schuon (1907-1998)
  • Vol. 4 (1999). Patrick Laude, Remarks on Esoterism in the works of Frithjof Schuon [22]
  • Vol. 5 (2000). Harry Oldmeadow, Formal Diversity, Essential Unity: Frithjof Schuon on the Convergence of Religions [23]
  • Vol. 6 (2000). Harry Oldmeadow, “Signposts to the suprasensible”: Notes on Frithjof Schuon’s understanding of “Nature” [24] ♦ William Stoddart, Lossky’s Palamitism in the Light of Schuon [25]
  • Vol. 8 (2001). Catherine Schuon, Frithjof Schuon: Memories and Anecdotes
  • Vol. 10 (2002). Mateus Soares de Azevedo, Frithjof Schuon and Sri Ramana Maharshi: A survey of the spiritual masters of the 20th century [26]
  • Vol. 19 (2007). Patrick Laude, "Nigra sum sed Formosa (I am Black but Beautiful)": Death and the Spiritual Life in Frithjof Schuon
  • Vol. 20 (2007) dedicated to Frithjof Schuon (1907-1998) on the Occasion of his Birth Centenary [27]. Ali Lakhani, "Standing Unshakably in the True": A Commentary on the Teachings of Frithjof Schuon [28] ♦ Michael O. Fitzgerald, Beauty and the Sense of the Sacred: Schuon's Antidote to the Modern World ♦ Patrick Laude, Quintessential Esoterism and the Wisdom of Forms: Reflections on Frithjof Schuon's Intellectual and Spiritual Legacy ♦ Timothy Scott, “Made in the Image”: Schuon’s theomorphic anthropology [29]et al.
  • Vol. 30 (2012) & 31 (2013). Bradshaw, Magnus. Conforming to the Real: Frithjof Schuon on Morality [30]

Sophia (Oakton/VA, U.S.A.)

  • Vol. 4, N° 1 (1998). Jean Biès, Frithjof Schuon: A Face of Eternal Wisdom [31]
  • Vol. 4, N° 2 (1998) In Memory: Frithjof Schuon. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, In Memoriam: Frithjof Schuon - A PreludeMartin Lings, Frithjof Schuon: An Autobiographical ApproachHuston Smith, Providence Perceived: In Memory of Frithjof SchuonTage Lindbom, Frithjof Schuon and Our Times [32] ♦ Harry Oldmeadow, A Sage for the Times: The Role and the Oeuvre of Frithjof Schuon [33]Reza Shah-Kazemi, Frithjof Schuon and Prayer [34] ♦ Michael O. Fitzgerald, Frithjof Schuon's Role in Preserving the Red Indian Spirit [35] ♦ William Stoddart, The German Poems of Frithjof Schuon [36]Brian Keeble, Some Thoughts on Reading Frithjof Schuon's Writings on Art [37]
  • Vol. 5, N° 2 (1999). Martin Lings, Frithjof Schuon and René Guénon
  • Vol. 6, N° 1 (2000). Mark Perry, Frithjof Schuon Seen through his Handwritting
  • Vol. 6, N° 2 (2000). James S. Cutsinger, Colorless Light and Pure Air: The Virgin in the Thought of Frithjof Schuon [38]

DVDs & Online videos [ edit ]

  • Casey, Jennifer (2012). DVD: Frithjof Schuon Messenger of the Perennial Philosophy, Bloomington/IN: World Wisdom
  • Coomaraswamy R., Cutsinger J., Laude P., Lings M., Nasr S.H., Oldmeadow H., Perry M., Smith H., Stoddart W. Video: Origins of the Perennial Philosophy School of Thought [39]
  • Laude, Patrick. Video: Who Was Frithjof Schuon? [40]
  • Lings, Martin. Guénon and Schuon. Videos: [41][42][43][44][45]
  • Schuon, Catherine. Video: Early influences on Frithjof Schuon’s understanding of the transcendent unity of religions [46]

Notes [ edit ]

  1. ^ "A sacred work of art has a fragrance of infinity, an imprint of the absolute. In it individual talent is disciplined; it blends with the creative function of the tradition as a whole; this cannot be replaced, far less can it be surpassed, by human resources."[34]
  2. ^ "... it even happened that the colours were mixed with holy water and the dust from relics, as would not have been possible had the icon not possessed a really sacramental character."[36]
  3. ^ "...it is thus as far removed as can be from intellectual contemplation and takes into consideration sentimentality only; on the other hand, sentimentality itself becomes degraded in proportion as it fulfils the needs of the masses, until it finishes up in a sickly sweet and pathetic vulgarity. It is strange that no one has understood to what a degree this barbarism of forms, which reached a zenith of empty and miserable boastfulness in the period of Louis XV, contributed — and still contributes — to driving many souls (and by no means the least) away from the Church; they feel literally suffocated in surroundings which do not allow their intelligence room to breathe."[40]

References [ edit ]

  1. ^ a b Harry Oldmeadow, Frithjof Schuon and the Perennial Philosophy, World Wisdom, 2010, p. 5
  2. ^ Frithjof Schuon, From the Divine to the Human, World Wisdom, 1982, p. 1
  3. ^ Michael Fitzgerald, Frithjof Schuon, Messenger of the Perennial Philosophy, World Wisdom 2010, p. 1-2
  4. ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, The Essential Frithjof Schuon, World Wisdom, 2005, p. 51
  5. ^ a b c d e Frithjof Schuon's life and work
  6. ^ Jean-Baptiste Aymard & Patrick Laude, Frithjof Schuon: Life and Teachings, SUNY, 2002
  7. ^ Pierre-Marie Sigaud, Dossiers H : René Guénon, L’Âge d’Homme, 1984, p. 321 [1]
  8. ^ James Cutsinger, "Colorless Light and Pure Air: The Virgin in the Thought of Frithjof Schuon" in Sophia Journal Vol. 6 N° 2, 2000 [2]
  9. ^ Martin Lings, A Return to the Spirit, Fons Vitae, 2005, p. 6
  10. ^ Renaud Fabbri, Frithjof Schuon: The Shining Realm of the Pure Intellect, MA diss., Miami University, 2007, p. 30.
  11. ^ Arthur Versluis, American Gurus, Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 170 [3]
  12. ^ Jean-Baptiste Aymard & Patrick Laude, Frithjof Schuon: Life and Teachings, SUNY, 2002
  13. ^ Renaud Fabbri, Frithjof Schuon: The Shining Realm of the Pure Intellect, MA diss., Miami University, 2007, p. 47
  14. ^ News articles on Schuon’s 1991 legal ordeal can be found on [4]
  15. ^ Mark Segdwick, Against the Modern World, Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 171ff
  16. ^ Book critique by Róbert Horváth and reviews by Michael O. Fitzgerald and Wilson E. Poindexter, "Articles" in Studies in Comparative Religion, 2009 [5]retrieved 2018-08-23
  17. ^ Arthur Versluis, American Gurus, Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 171 [6]
  18. ^ Jean-Baptiste Aymard, "Approche biographique" in Connaissance des Religions, Numéro Hors Série Frithjof Schuon, 1999
  19. ^ Frithjof Schuon, From the Divine to the Human, World Wisdom, 1982, p. i
  20. ^ Frithjof Schuon, From the Divine to the Human, World Wisdom, 1982, backcover
  21. ^ Frithjof Schuon, From the Divine to the Human, World Wisdom, 1982, p. 21
  22. ^ Frithjof Schuon, From the Divine to the Human, World Wisdom, 1982, p. 37
  23. ^ Frithjof Schuon, From the Divine to the Human, World Wisdom, 1982, p. 61
  24. ^ Frithjof Schuon, From the Divine to the Human, World Wisdom, 1982, p. 73
  25. ^ Frithjof Schuon, From the Divine to the Human, World Wisdom, 1982, p. 85
  26. ^ Harry Oldmeadow, Frithjof Schuon and the Perennial Philosophy, World Wisdom, 2010, p. 201-202
  27. ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, "Critic of the Modern World", in The Essential Frithjof Schuon, World Wisdom, 2005, p. 46-50 [7]
  28. ^ Frithjof Schuon, Logic and Transcendence, Perennial Books, 1975
  29. ^ Frithjof Schuon, Understanding Islam, Allen & Unwin, 1976, p. 134
  30. ^ Frithjof Schuon, Esoterism as Principle and as Way, Perennial Books, 1981, p. 183
  31. ^ a b James Cutsinger, Advice to the Serious Seeker: Meditations on the Teaching of Frithjof Schuon, SUNY Press, 1997, p. 126
  32. ^ Martyn Amugen, The Transcendental Unity of Religions and the Decline of the Sacred, Lap Lambert, 2016, p. 100
  33. ^ Martyn Amugen, The Transcendental Unity of Religions and the Decline of the Sacred, Lap Lambert, 2016, p. 99
  34. ^ a b Frithjof Schuon, Spiritual Perspectives and Human Facts, Perennial Books, 1987, p. 39
  35. ^ Martyn Amugen, The Transcendental Unity of Religions and the Decline of the Sacred, Lap Lambert, 2016, p. 84
  36. ^ a b Frithjof Schuon, The Transcendent Unity of Religions, Quest Books, 1993, p. 77
  37. ^ Frithjof Schuon, Esoterism as Principle and as Way, Perennial Books, 1981, p. 185
  38. ^ James Cutsinger, Advice to the Serious Seeker: Meditations on the Teaching of Frithjof Schuon, SUNY Press, 1997, p. 127
  39. ^ Frithjof Schuon, Spiritual Perspective and Human Facts, Perennial Books, 1987, p. 38
  40. ^ a b Frithjof Schuon, The Transcendent Unity of Religions, Quest Books, 1993, p. 63
  41. ^ Martyn Amugen, The Transcendental Unity of Religions and the Decline of the Sacred, Lap Lambert, 2016, p. 71
  42. ^ Martyn Amugen, The Transcendental Unity of Religions and the Decline of the Sacred, Lap Lambert, 2016, p. 70
  43. ^ Frithjof Schuon, Language of the Self, World Wisdom, 1999, p. 100
  44. ^ Martyn Amugen, The Transcendental Unity of Religions and the Decline of the Sacred, Lap Lambert, 2016, p. 88, 114

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