Federal Republic of Germany
Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German)
"Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" (de facto)
(English: "Unity and Justice and Freedom")
and largest city
and national language
Germany (German: Deutschland, German pronunciation: [ˈdɔʏtʃlant]), constitutionally the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland, listen (help·info)),[f] is a country in Central and Western Europe. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands to the west.
Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres (137,988 sq mi), and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying entirely in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a very decentralised country. Its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport.
Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity. A region named Germania was documented before AD 100. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815. The German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic. The Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, World War II, and the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, two new German states were founded: West Germany and East Germany. Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990.
Today, Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor. It is a great power with a strong economy; it has the world's fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and the fifth-largest by PPP. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods. As a highly developed country with a very high standard of living, it offers social security and a universal health care system, environmental protections, and a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993. It is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is also a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, and the OECD. Known for its long and rich cultural history, Germany has continuously been the home of influential people in the arts, sciences and humanities. Germany has many World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world.
The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. The German term Deutschland, originally diutisciu land ("the German lands") is derived from deutsch (compare Dutch), descended from Old High German diutisc "of the people" (from diot or diota "people"), originally used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "of the people" (see also the Latinised form Theodiscus), derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons also originates.
The discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m (5.97 to 7.38 ft) length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first ever non-modern human fossil was discovered; the new species of human was called the Neanderthal. The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans, similarly dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm. The finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments ever found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man which is the oldest uncontested figurative art ever discovered, and the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels which is the oldest uncontested human figurative art ever discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt. It is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme.
Germanic tribes and Frankish Empire
The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Nordic Bronze Age or the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south, east and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well as Iranian, Baltic, and Slavic tribes in Central and Eastern Europe. Under Augustus, Rome began to invade Germania. In 9 AD, three Roman legions led by Varus were defeated by the Cheruscan leader Arminius. By 100 AD, when Tacitus wrote Germania, Germanic tribes had settled along the Rhine and the Danube (the Limes Germanicus), occupying most of the area of modern Germany. However, Baden Württemberg, southern Bavaria, southern Hessen and the western Rhineland had been conquered and incorporated into Roman provinces: Raetia, Germania Superior, and Germania Inferior.
In the 3rd century a number of large West Germanic tribes emerged: Alemanni, Franks, Chatti, Saxons, Frisii, Sicambri, and Thuringii. Around 260, the Germanic peoples broke into Roman-controlled lands. After the invasion of the Huns in 375, and with the decline of Rome from 395, Germanic tribes moved farther southwest. Simultaneously several large tribes formed in what is now Germany and displaced or absorbed smaller Germanic tribes. Large areas known since the Merovingian period as Austrasia, Neustria, and Aquitaine were conquered by the Franks who established the Frankish Kingdom, and pushed farther east to subjugate Saxony and Bavaria. Areas of what is today the eastern part of Germany were inhabited by Western Slavic tribes of Sorbs, Veleti and the Obotritic confederation.
East Francia and Holy Roman Empire
In 800, the Frankish king Charlemagne was crowned emperor and founded the Carolingian Empire, which was later divided in 843 among his heirs. Following the break up of the Frankish Realm, for 900 years, the history of Germany was intertwined with the history of the Holy Roman Empire, which subsequently emerged from the eastern portion of Charlemagne's original empire. The territory initially known as East Francia stretched from the Rhine in the west to the Elbe River in the east and from the North Sea to the Alps. The Ottonian rulers (919–1024) consolidated several major duchies and the German king Otto I was crowned Holy Roman Emperor of these regions in 962. In 996 Gregory V became the first German Pope, appointed by his cousin Otto III, whom he shortly after crowned Holy Roman Emperor. The Holy Roman Empire absorbed northern Italy and Burgundy under the reign of the Salian emperors (1024–1125), although the emperors lost power through the Investiture controversy.
In the 12th century, under the Hohenstaufen emperors (1138–1254), German princes increased their influence further south and east into territories inhabited by Slavs; they encouraged German settlement in these areas, called the eastern settlement movement (Ostsiedlung). Members of the Hanseatic League, which included mostly north German cities and towns, prospered in the expansion of trade. In the south, the Greater Ravensburg Trade Corporation (Große Ravensburger Handelsgesellschaft) served a similar function. The edict of the Golden Bull issued in 1356 by Emperor Charles IV provided the basic constitutional structure of the Empire and codified the election of the emperor by seven prince-electors who ruled some of the most powerful principalities and archbishoprics.
Population declined in the first half of the 14th century, starting with the Great Famine in 1315, followed by the Black Death of 1348–50. Despite the decline, however, German artists, engineers, and scientists developed a wide array of techniques similar to those used by the Italian artists and designers of the time who flourished in such merchant city-states as Venice, Florence and Genoa. Artistic and cultural centres throughout the German states produced such artists as the Augsburg painters Hans Holbein and his son, and Albrecht Dürer. Johannes Gutenberg introduced moveable-type printing to Europe, a development that laid the basis for the spread of learning to the masses.
In 1517, the Wittenberg priest Martin Luther nailed the Ninety-five Theses to the church door, challenging the practice of selling of indulgences. He was subsequently excommunicated in 1520, and his followers were condemned in the 1521 Diet of Worms, which divided Western Christianity. In 1555, the Peace of Augsburg tolerated the "Evangelical" faith (now called Lutheranism) as an acceptable alternative to Catholicism, but also decreed that the faith of the prince was to be the faith of his subjects, a principle called cuius regio, eius religio. The agreement at Augsburg failed to address other religious creeds: for example, the Reformed faith was still considered a heresy and the principle did not address the possible conversion of an ecclesiastic ruler, such as happened in the Electorate of Cologne in 1583. However, in practice Calvinists were given protection under the Augsburg Confession Variata modified upon request by Philip Melanchthon. From the Cologne War until the end of the Thirty Years' Wars (1618–1648), religious conflict devastated German lands. The latter reduced the overall population of the German states by about 30 per cent, and in some places, up to 80 per cent. The Peace of Westphalia ended religious warfare among the Imperial Estates of the Holy Roman Empire. Their mostly German-speaking rulers were able to choose either Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism, or the Reformed faith as their official religion after 1648.
In the 18th century, the Holy Roman Empire consisted of approximately 1,800 territories. The elaborate legal system initiated by a series of Imperial Reforms (approximately 1450–1555) created the Imperial Estates and provided for considerable local autonomy among ecclesiastical, secular, and hereditary states, reflected in the Imperial Diet. The House of Habsburg held the imperial crown from 1438 until the death of Charles VI in 1740. Having no male heirs, he had convinced the Electors to retain Habsburg hegemony in the office of the emperor by agreeing to the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713. This was finally settled through the War of Austrian Succession; in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, Charles VI's daughter Maria Theresa ruled the Empire as Empress Consort when her husband, Francis I, became Holy Roman Emperor. From 1740, the dualism between the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and the Kingdom of Prussia dominated German history.
In 1772, then again in 1793 and 1795, the two dominant German states of Prussia and Austria, along with the Russian Empire, agreed to the Partitions of Poland; dividing among themselves the lands of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. As a result of the partitions, millions of Polish speaking inhabitants fell under the rule of the two German monarchies. However, the annexed territories though incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia and the Habsburg Realm, were not legally considered as a part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the period of the French Revolutionary Wars, along with the arrival of the Napoleonic era and the subsequent final meeting of the Imperial Diet, most of the secular Free Imperial Cities were annexed by dynastic territories; the ecclesiastical territories were secularised and annexed. In 1806 the Imperium was dissolved; many German states, particularly the Rhineland states, fell under the influence of France. Until 1815, France, Russia, Prussia and the Habsburgs (Austria) competed for hegemony in the German states during the Napoleonic Wars.
German Confederation and Empire
Following the fall of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna (convened in 1814) founded the German Confederation (Deutscher Bund), a loose league of 39 sovereign states. The appointment of the Emperor of Austria as the permanent president of the Confederation reflected the Congress's failure to accept Prussia's rising influence among the German states, and acerbated the long-standing competition between the Hohenzollern and Habsburg interests. Disagreement within restoration politics partly led to the rise of liberal movements, followed by new measures of repression by Austrian statesman Metternich. The Zollverein, a tariff union, furthered economic unity in the German states.
National and liberal ideals of the French Revolution gained increasing support among many, especially young, Germans. The Hambach Festival in May 1832 was a main event in support of German unity, freedom and democracy. In the light of a series of revolutionary movements in Europe, which established a republic in France, intellectuals and commoners started the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states. King Frederick William IV of Prussia was offered the title of Emperor, but with a loss of power; he rejected the crown and the proposed constitution, leading to a temporary setback for the movement.
King William I appointed Otto von Bismarck as the new Minister President of Prussia in 1862. Bismarck successfully concluded war on Denmark in 1864, which promoted German over Danish interests in the Jutland peninsula. The subsequent (and decisive) Prussian victory in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 enabled him to create the North German Confederation (Norddeutscher Bund) which excluded Austria from the federation's affairs. After the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, the German princes proclaimed the founding of the German Empire in 1871 at Versailles. Prussia was the dominant constituent state of the new empire; the Hohenzollern King of Prussia ruled as its concurrent Emperor, and Berlin became its capital.
In the Gründerzeit period following the unification of Germany, Bismarck's foreign policy as Chancellor of Germany under Emperor William I secured Germany's position as a great nation by forging alliances, isolating France by diplomatic means, and avoiding war. Under Wilhelm II, Germany, like other European powers, took an imperialistic course, leading to friction with neighbouring countries. Most alliances in which Germany had previously been involved were not renewed. This resulted in the creation of a dual alliance with the multinational realm of Austria-Hungary, promoting at least benevolent neutrality if not outright military support. Subsequently, the Triple Alliance of 1882 included Italy, completing a Central European geographic alliance that illustrated German, Austrian and Italian fears of incursions against them by France and/or Russia. Similarly, Britain, France and Russia also concluded alliances that would protect them against Habsburg interference with Russian interests in the Balkans or German interference against France.
At the Berlin Conference in 1884, Germany claimed several colonies including German East Africa, German South West Africa, Togoland, and Kamerun. Later, Germany further expanded its colonial empire to include German New Guinea, German Micronesia and German Samoa in the Pacific, and Kiautschou Bay in China. In what became known as the "First Genocide of the Twentieth-Century", between 1904 and 1907, the German colonial government in South West Africa (present-day Namibia) ordered the annihilation of the local Herero and Namaqua peoples, as a punitive measure for an uprising against German colonial rule. In total, around 100,000 people—80% of the Herero and 50% of the Namaqua—perished from imprisonment in concentration camps, where the majority died of disease, abuse, and exhaustion, or from dehydration and starvation in the countryside after being deprived of food and water.
The assassination of Austria's crown prince on 28 June 1914 provided the pretext for the Austrian Empire to attack Serbia and trigger World War I. After four years of warfare, in which approximately two million German soldiers were killed, a general armistice ended the fighting on 11 November, and German troops returned home. In the German Revolution (November 1918), Emperor Wilhelm II and all German ruling princes abdicated their positions and responsibilities. Germany's new political leadership signed the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. In this treaty, Germany, as part of the Central Powers, accepted defeat by the Allies in one of the bloodiest conflicts of all time. Germans perceived the treaty as humiliating and unjust and it was later seen by historians as influential in the rise of Adolf Hitler. After the defeat in the First World War, Germany lost around 13% of its European territory; areas which were predominantly inhabited by ethnic Polish, French and Danish populations that were lost following the Greater Poland Uprising, the return of Alsace-Lorraine and the Schleswig plebiscites. Also, Germany ceded all of its colonial possessions in Africa and the South Sea.
Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany
Germany was declared a federal republic at the beginning of the German Revolution in November 1918, with 18 federated states in 1925. On 11 August 1919 President Friedrich Ebert signed the democratic Weimar Constitution. In the subsequent struggle for power, the radical-left Communists seized power in Bavaria, but conservative elements in other parts of Germany attempted to overthrow the Republic in the Kapp Putsch. It was supported by parts of the Reichswehr (military) and other conservative, nationalistic and monarchist factions. After a tumultuous period of bloody street fighting in the major industrial centres, the occupation of the Ruhr by Belgian and French troops and the rise of inflation culminating in the hyperinflation of 1922–23, a debt restructuring plan and the creation of a new currency in 1924 ushered in the Golden Twenties, an era of increasing artistic innovation and liberal cultural life. Historians describe the period between 1924 and 1929 as one of "partial stabilisation."
The worldwide Great Depression hit Germany in 1929. After the federal election of 1930, Chancellor Heinrich Brüning's government was enabled by President Paul von Hindenburg to act without parliamentary approval. Brüning's government pursued a policy of fiscal austerity and deflation which caused high unemployment of nearly 30% by 1932. The Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler won the special federal election of 1932. After a series of unsuccessful cabinets, Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor of Germany on 30 January 1933. After the Reichstag fire, a decree abrogated basic civil rights and within weeks the first Nazi concentration camp at Dachau opened. The Enabling Act of 1933 gave Hitler unrestricted legislative power; subsequently, his government established a centralised totalitarian state, withdrew from the League of Nations following a national referendum, and dramatically increased the country's military rearmament.
Using deficit spending, a government-sponsored programme for economic renewal focused on public works projects. The most famous of the projects was the high speed roadway, the Reichsautobahn, known as the German autobahns. In 1935, the regime withdrew from the Treaty of Versailles and introduced the Nuremberg Laws which targeted Jews and other minorities. Germany also reacquired control of the Saar in 1935, remilitarised the Rhineland in 1936, annexed Austria in 1938, annexed the Sudetenland in 1938 with the Munich Agreement and in direct violation of the agreement occupied Czechoslovakia with the proclamation of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia in March 1939.
Kristallnacht, or the "Night of Broken Glass", saw the burning of hundreds of synagogues, the destruction of thousands of Jewish businesses, and the arrest of around 30,000 Jewish men by Nazi forces inside Germany. Many Jewish women were arrested and placed in jails and a curfew was placed on the Jewish people in Germany.
In August 1939, Hitler's government negotiated and signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop pact that divided Eastern Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence. Following the agreement, on 1 September 1939, Germany invaded Poland, marking the beginning of World War II in Europe. In response to Hitler's actions, two days later, on 3 September, after a British ultimatum to Germany to cease military operations was ignored, Britain and France declared war on Germany. In the spring of 1940, Germany conquered Denmark and Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France forcing the French government to sign an armistice after German troops occupied most of the country. The British repelled German air attacks in the Battle of Britain in the same year. In 1941, German troops invaded Yugoslavia, Greece and the Soviet Union. By 1942, Germany and other Axis powers controlled most of continental Europe and North Africa, but following the Soviet Union's victory at the Battle of Stalingrad, the allies' reconquest of North Africa and invasion of Italy in 1943, German forces suffered repeated military defeats. In June 1944, the Western allies landed in France and the Soviets pushed into Eastern Europe. By late 1944, the Western allies had entered Germany despite one final German counter offensive in the Ardennes Forest. Following Hitler's suicide during the Battle of Berlin, German armed forces surrendered on 8 May 1945, ending World War II in Europe. After World War II, high-ranking officials of the Nazi regime were tried for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials.
In what later became known as The Holocaust, the German government persecuted minorities and used a network of concentration and death camps across Europe to conduct a genocide of what they considered to be inferior peoples. In total 17 million were systematically murdered, including 6 million Jews, at least 130,000 Romani, 275,000 persons with disabilities, thousands of Jehovah's Witnesses, thousands of homosexuals, and hundreds of thousands of members of the political and religious opposition from Germany and occupied countries. Nazi policies in German occupied countries resulted in the deaths of 2.7 million Poles, 1.3 million Ukrainians, 1 million Belarusians and an estimated 3.5 million Soviet war prisoners. German military war casualties have been estimated at 5.3 million, and around 900,000 German civilians died; 400,000 from Allied bombing, and 500,000 in the course of the Soviet invasion from the east. Strategic bombing and land warfare destroyed many German cities and towns. Around 12 million ethnic Germans were expelled from across Eastern Europe, and Germany lost roughly one-quarter of its pre-war territory.
East and West Germany
After Nazi Germany surrendered, the Allies partitioned Berlin and Germany's remaining territory into four military occupation zones. The western sectors, controlled by France, the United Kingdom, and the United States, were merged on 23 May 1949 to form the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland (BRD)); on 7 October 1949, the Soviet Zone became the German Democratic Republic (Deutsche Demokratische Republik (DDR)). They were informally known as West Germany and East Germany. East Germany selected East Berlin as its capital, while West Germany chose Bonn as a provisional capital, to emphasise its stance that the two-state solution was an artificial and temporary status quo.
West Germany was established as a federal parliamentary republic with a "social market economy". Starting in 1948 West Germany became a major recipient of reconstruction aid under the Marshall Plan and used this to rebuild its industry. Konrad Adenauer was elected the first Federal Chancellor (Bundeskanzler) of Germany in 1949 and remained in office until 1963. Under his and Ludwig Erhard's leadership, the country enjoyed prolonged economic growth beginning in the early 1950s, that became known as an "economic miracle" (Wirtschaftswunder). The Federal Republic of Germany joined NATO in 1955 and was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957.
East Germany was an Eastern Bloc state under political and military control by the USSR via occupation forces and the Warsaw Pact. Although East Germany claimed to be a democracy, political power was exercised solely by leading members (Politbüro) of the communist-controlled Socialist Unity Party of Germany, supported by the Stasi, an immense secret service controlling many aspects of the society. While East German propaganda was based on the benefits of the GDR's social programmes and the alleged constant threat of a West German invasion, many of its citizens looked to the West for freedom and prosperity.
The Berlin Wall, rapidly built on 13 August 1961 prevented East German citizens from escaping to West Germany, eventually becoming a symbol of the Cold War. Ronald Reagan's "Tear down this wall!" speech at the Wall on 12 June 1987 echoed John F. Kennedy's Ich bin ein Berliner speech of 26 June 1963. The fall of the Wall in 1989 became a symbol of the Fall of Communism, the Dissolution of the Soviet Union, German Reunification and Die Wende.
Tensions between East and West Germany were reduced in the early 1970s by Chancellor Willy Brandt's Ostpolitik. In the summer of 1989, Hungary decided to dismantle the Iron Curtain and open its border with Austria, causing the emigration of thousands of East Germans to West Germany via Hungary and Austria. This had devastating effects on the GDR, where regular mass demonstrations received increasing support. The East German authorities eased the border restrictions, allowing East German citizens to travel to the West; originally intended to help retain East Germany as a state, the opening of the border actually led to an acceleration of the Wende reform process. This culminated in the Two Plus Four Treaty a year later on 12 September 1990, under which the four occupying powers renounced their rights under the Instrument of Surrender, and Germany regained full sovereignty. This permitted German reunification on 3 October 1990, with the accession of the five re-established states of the former GDR.
Reunified Germany and the European Union
The united Germany is considered to be the enlarged continuation of West Germany and not a successor state. As such, it retained all of West Germany's memberships in international organisations. Based on the Berlin/Bonn Act, adopted in 1994, Berlin once again became the capital of the reunified Germany, while Bonn obtained the unique status of a Bundesstadt (federal city) retaining some federal ministries. The relocation of the government was completed in 1999. Following the 1998 elections, SPD politician Gerhard Schröder became the first Chancellor of a red–green coalition with the Alliance '90/The Greens party. Among the major projects of the two Schröder legislatures was the Agenda 2010 to reform the labour market to become more flexible and reduce unemployment.
The modernisation and integration of the eastern German economy is a long-term process that was scheduled to last until 2019, with annual transfers from west to east amounting to roughly $80 billion.
Since reunification, Germany has taken a more active role in the European Union. Together with its European partners Germany signed the Maastricht Treaty in 1992, established the Eurozone in 1999, and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007. Germany sent a peacekeeping force to secure stability in the Balkans and sent a force of German troops to Afghanistan as part of a NATO effort to provide security in that country after the ousting of the Taliban. These deployments were controversial since Germany is bound by domestic law only to deploy troops for defence roles.
In the 2005 elections, Angela Merkel became the first female chancellor of Germany as the leader of a grand coalition. In 2009 the German government approved a €50 billion economic stimulus plan to protect several sectors from a downturn. Also in 2009, a liberal-conservative coalition under Merkel assumed leadership of the country. In 2013, a grand coalition was established in a Third Merkel cabinet. Among the major German political projects of the early 21st century are the advancement of European integration, the energy transition (Energiewende) for a sustainable energy supply, the "Debt Brake" for balanced budgets, measures to increase the fertility rate significantly (pronatalism), and high-tech strategies for the future transition of the German economy, summarised as Industry 4.0.
Germany was affected by the European migrant crisis in 2015 as it became the final destination of choice for many asylum seekers from Africa and the Middle East entering the EU. The country took in over a million refugees and migrants and developed a quota system which redistributed migrants around its federal states based on their tax income and existing population density.
Germany is in Western and Central Europe, bordering Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria to the southeast, and Switzerland to the south-southwest. France, Luxembourg and Belgium are situated to the west, with the Netherlands to the northwest. It lies mostly between latitudes 47° and 55° N and longitudes 5° and 16° E. Germany is also bordered by the North Sea and, at the north-northeast, by the Baltic Sea. German territory covers 357,021 km2 (137,847 sq mi), consisting of 349,223 km2 (134,836 sq mi) of land and 7,798 km2 (3,011 sq mi) of water. It is the seventh largest country by area in Europe and the 64th largest in the world.
Elevation ranges from the mountains of the Alps (highest point: the Zugspitze at 2,962 metres or 9,718 feet) in the south to the shores of the North Sea (Nordsee) in the northwest and the Baltic Sea (Ostsee) in the northeast. The forested uplands of central Germany and the lowlands of northern Germany (lowest point: Wilstermarsch at 3.54 metres or 11.6 feet below sea level) are traversed by such major rivers as the Rhine, Danube and Elbe. Germany's alpine glaciers are experiencing deglaciation. Significant natural resources include iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, nickel, arable land and water. Germany has a number of large cities. There are 11 officially recognised metropolitan regions.
Largest cities or towns in Germany
Statistical offices in Germany (31 December 2018)
|7||Düsseldorf||North Rhine-Westphalia||619,294||17||Wuppertal||North Rhine-Westphalia||354,382|
|9||Dortmund||North Rhine-Westphalia||587,010||19||Bonn||North Rhine-Westphalia||327,258|
|10||Essen||North Rhine-Westphalia||583,109||20||Münster||North Rhine-Westphalia||314,319|
Most of Germany has a temperate seasonal climate dominated by humid westerly winds. The country is situated in between the oceanic Western European and the continental Eastern European climate. The climate is moderated by the North Atlantic Drift, the northern extension of the Gulf Stream. This warmer water affects the areas bordering the North Sea; consequently in the northwest and the north the climate is oceanic. Germany gets an average of 789 mm (31 in) of precipitation per year; there is no consistent dry season. Winters are cool and summers tend to be warm: temperatures can exceed 30 °C (86 °F).
The east has a more continental climate: winters can be very cold and summers very warm, and longer dry periods can occur. Central and southern Germany are transition regions which vary from moderately oceanic to continental. In addition to the maritime and continental climates are predominant in most of the country, the alpine regions in the extreme south and, to a lesser degree, some areas of the Central German Uplands have a mountain climate, with lower temperatures and more precipitation.
The territory of Germany can be divided into two ecoregions: European-Mediterranean montane mixed forests and Northeast-Atlantic shelf marine. As of 2016[update] 51% of Germany's land area is devoted to agriculture, while 30% is forested and 14% is covered by settlements or infrastructure.
Plants and animals include those generally common to Central Europe. Beeches, oaks, and other deciduous trees constitute one-third of the forests; conifers are increasing as a result of reforestation. Spruce and fir trees predominate in the upper mountains, while pine and larch are found in sandy soil. There are many species of ferns, flowers, fungi, and mosses. Wild animals include roe deer, wild boar, mouflon (a subspecies of wild sheep), fox, badger, hare, and small numbers of the Eurasian beaver. The blue cornflower was once a German national symbol.
The 16 national parks in Germany include the Jasmund National Park, the Vorpommern Lagoon Area National Park, the Müritz National Park, the Wadden Sea National Parks, the Harz National Park, the Hainich National Park, the Black Forest National Park, the Saxon Switzerland National Park, the Bavarian Forest National Park and the Berchtesgaden National Park. In addition, there are 15 Biosphere Reserves and 98 nature parks. More than 400 zoos and animal parks operate in Germany. The Berlin Zoo, which opened in 1844, is the oldest in Germany, and claims the most comprehensive collection of species in the world.
President since 2017
Chancellor since 2005
Germany is a federal, parliamentary, representative democratic republic. Federal legislative power is vested in the parliament consisting of the Bundestag (Federal Diet) and Bundesrat (Federal Council), which together form the legislative body. The Bundestag is elected through direct elections, by proportional representation (mixed-member). The members of the Bundesrat represent the governments of the sixteen federated states and are members of the state cabinets.
The German political system operates under a framework laid out in the 1949 constitution known as the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority of both the Bundestag and the Bundesrat; the fundamental principles of the constitution, as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the federal structure, and the rule of law, are valid in perpetuity. The president, Frank-Walter Steinmeier (19 March 2017–present), is the head of state and invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers. He is elected by the Bundesversammlung (federal convention), an institution consisting of the members of the Bundestag and an equal number of state delegates. The second-highest official in the German order of precedence is the Bundestagspräsident (president of the Bundestag), who is elected by the Bundestag and responsible for overseeing the daily sessions of the body. The third-highest official and the head of government is the chancellor, who is appointed by the Bundespräsident after being elected by the Bundestag. The chancellor, Angela Merkel (2005–present), is the head of government and exercises executive power through their Cabinet, similar to the role of a prime minister in other parliamentary democracies.
Since 1949, the party system has been dominated by the Christian Democratic Union and the Social Democratic Party of Germany. So far every chancellor has been a member of one of these parties. However, the smaller liberal Free Democratic Party (in parliament from 1949 to 2013 and again since 2017) and the Alliance '90/The Greens (in parliament since 1983) have also played important roles. Since 2005, the left-wing populist party The Left has been a staple in the German Bundestag, though they have never been part of the federal government. In the 2017 German federal election, the right-wing populist Alternative for Germany gained enough votes to attain representation in the parliament for the first time.
The debt-to-GDP ratio of Germany had its peak in 2010 when it stood at 80.3% and has decreased since then. According to Eurostat, the government gross debt of Germany amounted to €2,152.0 billion or 71.9% of its GDP in 2015. By 2019, public debt had fallen further to under 60% of GDP. The federal government achieved a budget surplus of €12.1 billion ($13.1 billion) in 2015 and continued to produce budget surpluses in 2016, 2017 and 2018. Germany's credit rating by credit rating agencies Standard & Poor's, Moody's and Fitch Ratings stands at the highest possible rating AAA with a stable outlook in 2016.
Germany comprises sixteen federal states which are collectively referred to as Bundesländer. Each state has its own state constitution, and is largely autonomous in regard to its internal organisation. Two of the states are city-states consisting of just one city: the national capital of Berlin, and Hamburg. The state of Bremen consists of two cities that are separated from each other by the state of Lower Saxony: Bremen and Bremerhaven.
Because of the differences in size and population, the subdivisions of the states vary. For regional administrative purposes four states, namely Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Hesse and North Rhine-Westphalia, consist of a total of 19 Government Districts (Regierungsbezirke). As of 2017[update] Germany is divided into 401 districts (Kreise) at a municipal level; these consist of 294 rural districts and 107 urban districts.
Germany has a civil law system based on Roman law with some references to Germanic law. The Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court) is the German Supreme Court responsible for constitutional matters, with power of judicial review. Germany's supreme court system, called Oberste Gerichtshöfe des Bundes, is specialised: for civil and criminal cases, the highest court of appeal is the inquisitorial Federal Court of Justice, and for other affairs the courts are the Federal Labour Court, the Federal Social Court, the Federal Finance Court and the Federal Administrative Court.
Criminal and private laws are codified on the national level in the Strafgesetzbuch and the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch respectively. The German penal system seeks the rehabilitation of the criminal and the protection of the public. Except for petty crimes, which are tried before a single professional judge, and serious political crimes, all charges are tried before mixed tribunals on which lay judges (Schöffen) sit side by side with professional judges. Many of the fundamental matters of administrative law remain in the jurisdiction of the states.
Germany has a network of 227 diplomatic missions abroad and maintains relations with more than 190 countries. Germany is a member of NATO, the OECD, the G8, the G20, the World Bank and the IMF. It has played an influential role in the European Union since its inception and has maintained a strong alliance with France and all neighbouring countries since 1990. Germany promotes the creation of a more unified European political, economic and security apparatus. The governments of Germany and the United States are close political allies. Cultural ties and economic interests have crafted a bond between the two countries resulting in Atlanticism.
The development policy of Germany is an independent area of foreign policy. It is formulated by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and carried out by the implementing organisations. The German government sees development policy as a joint responsibility of the international community. It was the world's third biggest aid donor in 2009 after the United States and France.
Germany's military, the Bundeswehr, is organised into Heer (Army and special forces KSK), Marine (Navy), Luftwaffe (Air Force), Bundeswehr Joint Medical Service and Streitkräftebasis (Joint Support Service) branches. In absolute terms, German military expenditure is the 8th highest in the world. In 2018, military spending was at $49.5 billion, about 1.2% of the country's GDP, well below the NATO target of 2%.
As of 2017[update] the Bundeswehr employed roughly 178,000 service members, including about 9,000 volunteers. Reservists are available to the Armed Forces and participate in defence exercises and deployments abroad. Since 2001 women may serve in all functions of service without restriction. According to SIPRI, Germany was the fourth largest exporter of major arms in the world from 2014 to 2018.
The role of the Bundeswehr is described in the Constitution of Germany as defensive only. But after a ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court in 1994 the term "defence" has been defined to not only include protection of the borders of Germany, but also crisis reaction and conflict prevention, or more broadly as guarding the security of Germany anywhere in the world. As of 2017[update], the German military has about 3,600 troops stationed in foreign countries as part of international peacekeeping forces, including about 1,200 supporting operations against Daesh, 980 in the NATO-led Resolute Support Mission in Afghanistan, and 800 in Kosovo.
Until 2011, military service was compulsory for men at age 18, and conscripts served six-month tours of duty; conscientious objectors could instead opt for an equal length of Zivildienst (civilian service), or a six-year commitment to (voluntary) emergency services like a fire department or the Red Cross. In 2011 conscription was officially suspended and replaced with a voluntary service.
Germany has a social market economy with a highly skilled labour force, a large capital stock, a low level of corruption, and a high level of innovation. It is the world's third largest exporter of goods, and has the largest national economy in Europe which is also the world's fourth largest by nominal GDP and the fifth one by PPP.
The service sector contributes approximately 71% of the total GDP (including information technology), industry 28%, and agriculture 1%. The unemployment rate published by Eurostat amounts to 4.7% in January 2015, which is the lowest rate of all 27 EU member states. With 7.1% Germany also has the lowest youth unemployment rate of all EU member states. According to the OECD Germany has one of the highest labour productivity levels in the world.
Germany is part of the European single market which represents more than 508 million consumers. Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union (EU) members and by EU legislation. Germany introduced the common European currency, the Euro in 2002. It is a member of the Eurozone which represents around 340 million citizens. Its monetary policy is set by the European Central Bank, which is headquartered in Frankfurt.
Being home to the modern car, the automotive industry in Germany is regarded as one of the most competitive and innovative in the world, and is the fourth largest by production. The top 10 exports of Germany are vehicles, machinery, chemical goods, electronic products, electrical equipments, pharmaceuticals, transport equipments, basic metals, food products, and rubber and plastics.
Of the world's 500 largest stock-market-listed companies measured by revenue in 2014, the Fortune Global 500, 28 are headquartered in Germany. 30 major Germany-based companies are included in the DAX, the prime German stock market index which is operated by Frankfurt Stock Exchange of Deutsche Börse. Well-known international brands include Mercedes-Benz, BMW, SAP, Volkswagen, Audi, Siemens, Allianz, Adidas, Porsche, Deutsche Bahn, Deutsche Bank, Bosch and Babelsberg. Germany is recognised for its large portion of specialised small and medium enterprises, known as the Mittelstand model. More than 1,000 of these companies are global market leaders in their segment and are labelled Hidden Champions. Berlin developed a thriving, cosmopolitan hub for startup companies and became the leading location for venture capital funded firms in the European Union.
The list includes the largest German companies by revenue in 2015:
With its central position in Europe, Germany is a transport hub for the continent. Like its neighbours in Western Europe, Germany's road network is among the densest in the world. The motorway (Autobahn) network ranks as the third-largest worldwide in length.
Germany has established a polycentric network of high-speed trains. The InterCityExpress or ICE network of the Deutsche Bahn serves major German cities as well as destinations in neighbouring countries with speeds up to 300 km/h (190 mph). The German railways are subsidised by the government, receiving €17.0 billion in 2014.
The largest German airports are Frankfurt Airport and Munich Airport, both hubs of Lufthansa. Other major airports include Berlin Tegel, Düsseldorf, Berlin Schönefeld, Hamburg, Cologne/Bonn and Leipzig/Halle. The Port of Hamburg is one of the top twenty largest container ports in the world.
Energy and infrastructure
In 2015[update], Germany was the world's seventh-largest consumer of energy. In 2014, energy sources were: oil (35.0%); coal, including lignite (24.6%); natural gas (20.5%); nuclear (8.1%); hydro-electric and renewable sources (11.1%). The government and the nuclear power industry agreed to phase out all nuclear power plants by 2021. It also enforces energy conservation, green technologies, emission reduction activities, and aims to meet the country's electricity demands using 40% renewable sources by 2020.
Germany is committed to the Paris Agreement and several other treaties promoting biodiversity, low emission standards, water management, and the renewable energy commercialisation. The country's household recycling rate is among the highest in the world—at around 65%. Nevertheless, the country's total greenhouse gas emissions were the highest in the EU in 2017[update]. The German energy transition (Energiewende) is the recognised move to a sustainable economy by means of energy efficiency and renewable energy.
Science and technology
Germany is a global leader in science and technology as its achievements in the fields of science and technology have been significant. Research and development efforts form an integral part of the economy. The Nobel Prize has been awarded to 108 German laureates. It produces the second highest number of graduates in science and engineering (31%) after South Korea.
Notable German physicists before the 20th century include Hermann von Helmholtz, Joseph von Fraunhofer and Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit, among others. Albert Einstein introduced the special relativity and general relativity theories for light and gravity in 1905 and 1915 respectively. Along with Max Planck, he was instrumental in the introduction of quantum mechanics, in which Werner Heisenberg and Max Born later made major contributions. Wilhelm Röntgen discovered X-rays. Otto Hahn was a pioneer in the fields of radiochemistry and discovered nuclear fission, while Ferdinand Cohn and Robert Koch were founders of microbiology. Numerous mathematicians were born in Germany, including Carl Friedrich Gauss, David Hilbert, Bernhard Riemann, Gottfried Leibniz, Karl Weierstrass, Hermann Weyl, Felix Klein and Emmy Noether.
Germany has been the home of many famous inventors and engineers, including Hans Geiger, the creator of the Geiger counter; and Konrad Zuse, who built the first fully automatic digital computer. Such German inventors, engineers and industrialists as Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin, Otto Lilienthal, Gottlieb Daimler, Rudolf Diesel, Hugo Junkers and Karl Benz helped shape modern automotive and air transportation technology. German institutions like the German Aerospace Center (DLR) are the largest contributor to ESA. Aerospace engineer Wernher von Braun developed the first space rocket at Peenemünde and later on was a prominent member of NASA and developed the Saturn V Moon rocket. Heinrich Rudolf Hertz's work in the domain of electromagnetic radiation was pivotal to the development of modern telecommunication.
Research institutions in Germany include the Max Planck Society, the Helmholtz Association, the Fraunhofer Society and the Leibniz Association. The Wendelstein 7-X in Greifswald hosts a facility in the research of fusion power for instance. The Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize is granted to ten scientists and academics every year. With a maximum of €2.5 million per award it is one of the highest endowed research prizes in the world.
Germany is the seventh most visited country in the world, with a total of 407 million overnights during 2012. This number includes 68.83 million nights by foreign visitors. In 2012, over 30.4 million international tourists arrived in Germany. Berlin has become the third most visited city destination in Europe. Additionally, more than 30% of Germans spend their holiday in their own country, with the biggest share going to Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Domestic and international travel and tourism combined directly contribute over EUR43.2 billion to German GDP. Including indirect and induced impacts, the industry contributes 4.5% of German GDP and supports 2 million jobs (4.8% of total employment).
Germany's most visited and popular landmarks include Neuschwanstein Castle, Cologne Cathedral, the Brandenburg Gate, the Reichstag, Hofbräuhaus Munich, Heidelberg Castle, Dresden Zwinger, Fernsehturm Berlin, the Walhalla memorial, and Aachen Cathedral. The Europa-Park near Freiburg is Europe's second most popular theme park resort.
With a population of 80.2 million according to the 2011 census, rising to 83 million as of 2018[update], Germany is the most populous country in the European Union, the second most populous country in Europe after Russia, and the 19th most populous country in the world. Its population density stands at 227 inhabitants per square kilometre (588 per square mile). The overall life expectancy in Germany at birth is 80.19 years (77.93 years for males and 82.58 years for females). The fertility rate of 1.41 children born per woman (2011 estimates), below the replacement rate of 2.1, it remains considerably below the high of 5.28 children born per woman in 1884, or 8.33 births per 1000 inhabitants, is one of the lowest fertility rates in the world. Since the 1970s, Germany's death rate has exceeded its birth rate. However, Germany is witnessing increased birth rates and migration rates since the beginning of the 2010s, particularly a rise in the number of well-educated migrants. Germany has the third oldest population in the world, with the average age of 47.4 years.
Four sizeable groups of people are referred to as "national minorities" because their ancestors have lived in their respective regions for centuries: There is a Danish minority (about 50,000) in the northernmost state of Schleswig-Holstein; the Sorbs, a Slavic population of about 60,000, are in the Lusatia region of Saxony and Brandenburg.; the Roma and Sinti live throughout the country; and the Frisians are concentrated in Schleswig-Holstein's western coast and in the north-western part of Lower Saxony.
After the United States, Germany is the second most popular immigration destination in the world. The majority of migrants live in western Germany, in particular in urban areas. Of the country's residents, 18.6 million people (22.5%) were of immigrant or partially immigrant descent in 2016 (including persons descending or partially descending from ethnic German repatriates). In 2015, the Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs listed Germany as host to the second-highest number of international migrants worldwide, about 5% or 12 million of all 244 million migrants. Germany ranks 7th amongst EU countries and 37th globally in terms of the percentage of migrants who made up part of the country's population. As of 2014[update], the largest national group was from Turkey (2,859,000), followed by Poland (1,617,000), Russia (1,188,000), and Italy (764,000). 740,000 people have African origins, an increase of 46% since 2011. Since 1987, around 3 million ethnic Germans, mostly from the former Eastern Bloc countries, have exercised their right of return and emigrated to Germany.
Upon its establishment in 1871, Germany was about two-thirds Protestant[g] and one-third Roman Catholic, with a notable Jewish minority. Germany lost nearly all of its Jewish minority during the Holocaust. After World War II, West Germany became more religiously diversified through immigration and East Germany became overwhelmingly irreligious through state policies. Germany continued to diversify after the German reunification in 1990, with a substantial decline in religiosity throughout Germany but an increase in evangelical Protestants and Muslims.
Protestantism is concentrated in the northern, central and eastern parts of the country.[h] These are mostly members of the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD), which encompasses Lutheran, Reformed and administrative or confessional unions of both traditions dating back to the Prussian Union of 1817.[i]
The 2011 German Census showed Christianity as the largest religion in Germany, with 66.8% identified themselves as Christian, with 3.8% of those not being church members. 31.7% declared themselves as Protestants, including members of the Evangelical Church in Germany (30.8%) and the free churches (German: Evangelische Freikirchen) (0.9%), 31.2% declared themselves as Roman Catholics, Orthodox believers constituted 1.3%. According to data from 2016, the Catholic Church and the Evangelical Church claimed 28.5% and 27.5%, respectively, of the population. Both large churches have lost significant numbers of adherents in recent years.
Islam is the second largest religion in the country. In the 2011 census, 1.9% of the census population (1.52 million people) gave their religion as Islam, but this figure is deemed unreliable because a disproportionate number of adherents of this religion (and other religions, such as Judaism) are likely to have made use of their right not to answer the question. Figures from Religionswissenschaftlicher Medien- und Informationsdienst suggest a figure of 4.4 to 4.7 million (around 5.5% of the population) in 2015. Most of the Muslims are Sunnis and Alevites from Turkey, but there are a small number of Shi'ites, Ahmadiyyas and other denominations.
A study in 2018 estimated that 38% of the population are not members of any religious organization or denomination, though up to a third may still consider themselves religious. Irreligion in Germany is strongest in the former East Germany, which used to be predominantly Protestant before state atheism, and in major metropolitan areas.
Other religions comprising less than one per cent of Germany's population include Buddhism with 270,000 adherents, Judaism with 200,000 adherents, and Hinduism with some 100,000 adherents. All other religious communities in Germany have fewer than 50,000 adherents each.
German is the official and predominant spoken language in Germany. German dialects, traditional local varieties traced back to the Germanic tribes, are distinguished from varieties of standard German by their lexicon, phonology, and syntax. It is one of 24 official and working languages of the European Union, and one of the three working languages of the European Commission. German is the most widely spoken first language in the European Union, with around 100 million native speakers.
Recognised native minority languages in Germany are Danish, Low German, Low Rhenish, Sorbian, Romany, North Frisian and Saterland Frisian; they are officially protected by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. The most used immigrant languages are Turkish, Arabic, Kurdish, Polish, the Balkan languages and Russian. Germans are typically multilingual: 67% of German citizens claim to be able to communicate in at least one foreign language and 27% in at least two.
Responsibility for educational supervision in Germany is primarily organised within the individual federal states. Optional kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory for at least nine years. Primary education usually lasts for four to six years. Secondary education includes three traditional types of schools focused on different academic levels: the Gymnasium enrols the most gifted children and prepares students for university studies; the Realschule for intermediate students lasts six years and the Hauptschule prepares pupils for vocational education. The Gesamtschule unifies all secondary education.
A system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung leads to a skilled qualification which is almost comparable to an academic degree. It allows students in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run trade school. This model is well regarded and reproduced all around the world.
Most of the German universities are public institutions, and students traditionally study without fee payment. The general requirement for university is the Abitur. However, there are a number of exceptions, depending on the state, the college and the subject. Tuition free academic education is open to international students and is increasingly common. According to an OECD report in 2014, Germany is the world's third leading destination for international study.
Germany has a long tradition of higher education. The established universities in Germany include some of the oldest in the world, with Heidelberg University (established in 1386) being the oldest. It is followed by the Leipzig University (1409), the Rostock University (1419) and the Greifswald University (1456). The University of Berlin, founded in 1810 by the liberal educational reformer Wilhelm von Humboldt, became the academic model for many European and Western universities. In the contemporary era Germany has developed eleven Universities of Excellence.
Germany's system of hospitals, called Krankenhaus, dates from medieval times, and today, Germany has the world's oldest universal health care system, dating from Bismarck's social legislation of the 1880s, Since the 1880s, reforms and provisions have ensured a balanced health care system. Currently the population is covered by a health insurance plan provided by statute, with criteria allowing some groups to opt for a private health insurance contract. According to the World Health Organization, Germany's health care system was 77% government-funded and 23% privately funded as of 2013[update]. In 2014, Germany spent 11.3% of its GDP on health care. Germany ranked 20th in the world in life expectancy with 77 years for men and 82 years for women, and it had a very low infant mortality rate (4 per 1,000 live births). In 2015[update], the principal cause of death was cardiovascular disease, at 40%, followed by cancer, at 25%. Obesity in Germany has been increasingly cited as a major health issue. A 2007 study shows Germany has the highest number of overweight people in Europe.
Culture in German states has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular. Historically, Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker ("the land of poets and thinkers"), because of the major role its writers and philosophers have played in the development of Western thought.
Germany is well known for such folk festival traditions as Oktoberfest and Christmas customs, which include Advent wreaths, Christmas pageants, Christmas trees, Stollen cakes, and other practices. As of 2016[update] UNESCO inscribed 41 properties in Germany on the World Heritage List. There are a number of public holidays in Germany determined by each state; 3 October has been a national day of Germany since 1990, celebrated as the Tag der Deutschen Einheit (German Unity Day). Prior to reunification, the day was celebrated on 17 June, in honour of the Uprising of 1953 in East Germany which was brutally suppressed on that date.
In the 21st century Berlin has emerged as a major international creative centre. A global opinion poll for the BBC revealed that Germany is recognised for having the most positive influence in the world in 2013 and 2014.
German classical music includes works by some of the world's most well-known composers. Dieterich Buxtehude composed oratorios for organ, which influenced the later work of Johann Sebastian Bach and Georg Friedrich Händel; these men were influential composers of the Baroque period. During his tenure as violinist and teacher at the Salzburg cathedral, Augsburg-born composer Leopold Mozart mentored one of the most noted musicians of all time: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Ludwig van Beethoven was a crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras. Carl Maria von Weber and Felix Mendelssohn were important in the early Romantic period. Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms composed in the Romantic idiom. Richard Wagner was known for his operas. Richard Strauss was a leading composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. Karlheinz Stockhausen and Hans Zimmer are important composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries.
Germany is the second largest music market in Europe, and fourth largest in the world. German popular music of the 20th and 21st centuries includes the movements of Neue Deutsche Welle, pop, Ostrock, heavy metal/rock, punk, pop rock, indie and schlager pop. German electronic music gained global influence, with Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream pioneering in this genre. DJs and artists of the techno and house music scenes of Germany have become well known (e.g. Paul van Dyk, Paul Kalkbrenner, and Scooter).
Art and design
German painters have influenced western art. Albrecht Dürer, Hans Holbein the Younger, Matthias Grünewald and Lucas Cranach the Elder were important German artists of the Renaissance, Peter Paul Rubens and Johann Baptist Zimmermann of the Baroque, Caspar David Friedrich and Carl Spitzweg of Romanticism, Max Liebermann of Impressionism and Max Ernst of Surrealism. Notable German sculptors include Otto Schmidt-Hofer, Franz Iffland, and Julius Schmidt-Felling.
Several German art groups formed in the 20th century; Die Brücke (The Bridge) and Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) influenced the development of expressionism in Munich and Berlin. The New Objectivity arose in response to expressionism during the Weimar Republic. After World War II, broad trends in German art include neo-expressionism, performance art and conceptual art. Notable neo-expressionists include Georg Baselitz, Anselm Kiefer, Jörg Immendorff, A. R. Penck, Markus Lüpertz, Peter Robert Keil and Rainer Fetting. Other notable artists who work with traditional media or figurative imagery include Martin Kippenberger, Gerhard Richter, Sigmar Polke, and Neo Rauch. Leading German conceptual artists include Bernd and Hilla Becher, Hanne Darboven, Hans-Peter Feldmann, Hans Haacke, Joseph Beuys, HA Schult, Aris Kalaizis, and Andreas Gursky. Major art exhibitions and festivals in Germany are the documenta, the Berlin Biennale, transmediale and Art Cologne.
Architectural contributions from Germany include the Carolingian and Ottonian styles, which were precursors of Romanesque. Brick Gothic is a distinctive medieval style that evolved in Germany. Also in Renaissance and Baroque art, regional and typically German elements evolved (e.g. Weser Renaissance and Dresden Baroque). Among many renowned Baroque masters were Pöppelmann, Balthasar Neumann, Knobelsdorff and the Asam brothers. The Wessobrunner School exerted a decisive influence on, and at times even dominated, the art of stucco in southern Germany in the 18th century. The Upper Swabian Baroque Route offers a baroque-themed tourist route that highlights the contributions of such artists and craftsmen as the sculptor and plasterer Johann Michael Feuchtmayer, one of the foremost members of the Feuchtmayer family and the brothers Johann Baptist Zimmermann and Dominikus Zimmermann. Vernacular architecture in Germany is often identified by its timber framing (Fachwerk) traditions and varies across regions, and among carpentry styles.
When industrialisation spread across Europe, Classicism and a distinctive style of historism developed in Germany, sometimes referred to as Gründerzeit style, due to the economical boom years at the end of the 19th century. Regional historicist styles include the Hanover School, Nuremberg Style and Dresden's Semper-Nicolai School. Among the most famous of German buildings, the Schloss Neuschwanstein represents Romanesque Revival. Notable sub-styles that evolved since the 18th century are the German spa and seaside resort architecture. German artists, writers and gallerists like Siegfried Bing, Georg Hirth and Bruno Möhring also contributed to the development of Art Nouveau at the turn of the 20th century, known as Jugendstil in German.
Expressionist architecture developed in the 1910s in Germany and influenced Art Deco and other modern styles, with e.g. Fritz Höger, Erich Mendelsohn, Dominikus Böhm, and Fritz Schumacher being influential architects. Germany was particularly important in the early modernist movement: it is the home of Werkbund initiated by Hermann Muthesius (New Objectivity), and of the Bauhaus movement founded by Walter Gropius. Consequently, Germany is often considered the cradle of modern architecture and design. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe became one of the world's most renowned architects in the second half of the 20th century. He conceived of the glass façade skyscraper. Renowned contemporary architects and offices include Hans Kollhoff, Sergei Tchoban, KK Architekten, Helmut Jahn, Behnisch, GMP, Ole Scheeren, J. Mayer H., OM Ungers, Gottfried Böhm and Frei Otto (the last two being Pritzker Prize winners). German designers became early leaders of modern product design. The Berlin Fashion Week and the fashion trade fair Bread & Butter are held twice a year. Munich, Hamburg, Cologne and Düsseldorf are also important design, production and trade hubs of the domestic fashion industry, among smaller towns. Renowned fashion designers from Germany include Karl Lagerfeld, Jil Sander, Wolfgang Joop, Philipp Plein and Michael Michalsky. Important brands include Hugo Boss, Escada, Adidas, Puma, Esprit and Triumph. The German supermodels Claudia Schiffer, Heidi Klum, Tatjana Patitz, Nadja Auermann and Toni Garrn, among others, have come to international fame.
Literature and philosophy
German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages and the works of writers such as Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach. Well-known German authors include Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Schiller, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing and Theodor Fontane. The collections of folk tales published by the Brothers Grimm popularised German folklore on an international level. The Grimms also gathered and codified regional variants of the German language, grounding their work in historical principles; their Deutsches Wörterbuch, or German Dictionary, sometimes called the Grimm dictionary, was begun in 1838 and the first volumes published in 1854.
Influential authors of the 20th century include Gerhart Hauptmann, Thomas Mann, Hermann Hesse, Heinrich Böll and Günter Grass. The German book market is the third largest in the world, after the United States and China. The Frankfurt Book Fair is the most important in the world for international deals and trading, with a tradition spanning over 500 years. The Leipzig Book Fair also retains a major position in Europe.
German philosophy is historically significant: Gottfried Leibniz's contributions to rationalism; the enlightenment philosophy by Immanuel Kant; the establishment of classical German idealism by Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling; Arthur Schopenhauer's composition of metaphysical pessimism; the formulation of communist theory by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels; Friedrich Nietzsche's development of perspectivism; Gottlob Frege's contributions to the dawn of analytic philosophy; Martin Heidegger's works on Being; Oswald Spengler's historical philosophy; the development of the Frankfurt School by Max Horkheimer, Theodor Adorno, Herbert Marcuse and Jürgen Habermas have been particularly influential.
The largest internationally operating media companies in Germany are the Bertelsmann enterprise, Axel Springer SE and ProSiebenSat.1 Media. The German Press Agency DPA is also significant. Germany's television market is the largest in Europe, with some 38 million TV households. Around 90% of German households have cable or satellite TV, with a variety of free-to-view public and commercial channels. There are more than 500 public and private radio stations in Germany, with the public Deutsche Welle being the main German radio and television broadcaster in foreign languages. Germany's national radio network is the Deutschlandradio while ARD stations are covering local services.
Many of Europe's best-selling newspapers and magazines are produced in Germany. The papers (and internet portals) with the highest circulation are Bild (a tabloid), Die Zeit, Süddeutsche Zeitung, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung and Die Welt. The largest magazines include Der Spiegel, Stern and Focus. The German video gaming market is one of the largest in the world.
German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film. The first works of the Skladanowsky Brothers were shown to an audience in 1895. The renowned Babelsberg Studio in Potsdam was established in 1912, thus being the first large-scale film studio in the world (today it is Europe's largest studio). Other early and still active studios include UFA and Bavaria Film. Early German cinema was particularly influential with German expressionists such as Robert Wiene and Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau. Director Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1927) is referred to as the first major science-fiction film. In 1930 Josef von Sternberg directed The Blue Angel, the first major German sound film, with Marlene Dietrich.
After 1945, many of the films of the immediate post-war period can be characterised as Trümmerfilm (rubble film). Such films included Wolfgang Staudte's Die Mörder sind unter uns (The Murderers are among us, 1946) and Irgendwo in Berlin (Somewhere in Berlin, 1946) by Werner Krien. The state-owned East German film studio DEFA produced notable films including Ehe im Schatten (Marriage in the Shadows) by Kurt Maetzig (1947), Der Untertan (1951); Die Geschichte vom kleinen Muck (The Story of Little Muck, 1953), Konrad Wolf's Der geteilte Himmel (Divided Heaven) (1964) and Frank Beyer's Jacob the Liar (1975). The defining film genre in West Germany of the 1950s was arguably the Heimatfilm ("homeland film"); these films depicted the beauty of the land and the moral integrity of the people living in it. During the 1970s and 1980s, New German Cinema directors such as Volker Schlöndorff, Werner Herzog, Wim Wenders, and Rainer Werner Fassbinder brought West German auteur cinema to critical acclaim.
The Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film ("Oscar") went to the German production Die Blechtrommel (The Tin Drum) in 1979, to Nirgendwo in Afrika (Nowhere in Africa) in 2002, and to Das Leben der Anderen (The Lives of Others) in 2007. Various Germans won an Oscar for their performances in other films. The annual European Film Awards ceremony is held every other year in Berlin, home of the European Film Academy. The Berlin International Film Festival, known as "Berlinale", awarding the "Golden Bear" and held annually since 1951, is one of the world's leading film festivals. The "Lolas" are annually awarded in Berlin, at the German Film Awards, that have been presented since 1951.
German cuisine varies from region to region and often neighbouring regions share some culinary similarities (e.g. the southern regions of Bavaria and Swabia share some traditions with Switzerland and Austria). International varieties such as pizza, sushi, Chinese food, Greek food, Indian cuisine and doner kebab are also popular.
Bread is a significant part of German cuisine and German bakeries produce about 600 main types of bread and 1,200 different types of pastries and rolls (Brötchen). German cheeses account for about a third of all cheese produced in Europe. In 2012 over 99% of all meat produced in Germany was either pork, chicken or beef. Germans produce their ubiquitous sausages in almost 1,500 varieties, including Bratwursts and Weisswursts. In 2012, organic foods accounted for 3.9% of total food sales.
Although wine is becoming more popular in many parts of Germany, especially close to German wine regions, the national alcoholic drink is beer. German beer consumption per person stands at 110 litres (24 imp gal; 29 US gal) in 2013 and remains among the highest in the world. German beer purity regulations date back to the 16th century.
The 2015 Michelin Guide awarded eleven restaurants in Germany three stars, the highest designation, while 38 more received two stars and 233 one star. German restaurants have become the world's second-most decorated after France.
Twenty-seven million Germans are members of a sports club and an additional twelve million pursue sports individually. Association football is the most popular sport. With more than 6.3 million official members, the German Football Association (Deutscher Fußball-Bund) is the largest sports organisation of its kind worldwide, and the German top league, the Bundesliga, attracts the second highest average attendance of all professional sports leagues in the world. The German men's national football team won the FIFA World Cup in 1954, 1974, 1990, and 2014, the UEFA European Championship in 1972, 1980 and 1996, and the FIFA Confederations Cup in 2017. Germany hosted the FIFA World Cup in 1974 and 2006 and the UEFA European Championship in 1988. The country will host the UEFA European Championship in 2024.
Other popular spectator sports include winter sports, boxing, basketball, handball, volleyball, ice hockey, tennis, horse riding and golf. Water sports like sailing, rowing, and swimming are popular in Germany as well.
Germany is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world. Constructors like BMW and Mercedes are prominent manufacturers in motor sport. Porsche has won the 24 Hours of Le Mans race 19 times, and Audi 13 times (as of 2017[update]). The driver Michael Schumacher has set many motor sport records during his career, having won seven Formula One World Drivers' Championships, more than any other. He is one of the highest paid sportsmen in history. Sebastian Vettel is also among the top five most successful Formula One drivers of all time.
Historically, German athletes have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games, ranking third in an all-time Olympic Games medal count (when combining East and West German medals). Germany was the last country to host both the summer and winter games in the same year, in 1936: the Berlin Summer Games and the Winter Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen. Munich hosted the Summer Games of 1972.
- From 1952 to 1990, the entire "Deutschlandlied" was the national anthem, but only the third verse was sung on official occasions. Since 1991, the third verse alone has been the national anthem.
- Berlin is the sole constitutional capital and de jure seat of government, but the former provisional capital of the Federal Republic of Germany, Bonn, has the special title of "federal city" (Bundesstadt) and is the primary seat of six ministries; all government ministries have offices in both cities.
- Danish, Low German, Sorbian, Romany, and Frisian are recognised by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
- The figure includes people with no religious beliefs such as atheists, secular humanists, or those who consider themselves only culturally part of a religious tradition. It also includes Christians who are not registered church members, and others who consider themselves religious but are not part of an organized religious group or denomination.
- The Federal Republic of Germany was proclaimed on the British, American and French occupation zones on 23 May 1949 while the German Democratic Republic was formed from the Soviet occupation zone on 7 October 1949.
- IPA transcription of "Bundesrepublik Deutschland": German pronunciation: [ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant]
- German Protestantism has been overwhelmingly a mixture of Lutheran, Reformed (i.e. Calvinist), and United (Lutheran & Reformed/Calvinist) churches, with Baptists, Pentecostals, Methodists, and various other Protestants being only a recent development.
- Lutheranism is found mostly throughout northern Germany, Württemberg and parts of Franconia; Calvinism in the extreme northwest and Lippe, while the United churches throughout the remainder of Germany.
- Although the first such union between Lutheran and Calvinist Protestants happened in August 1817 in the Duchy of Nassau (a confessional union, see Unionskirche, Idstein); that is before the Prussian Union of September 1817. There were also unions in other smaller German states happening independent of each other.
Bundespräsidialamt. "Repräsentation und Integration" (in German). Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
Nach Herstellung der staatlichen Einheit Deutschlands bestimmte Bundespräsident von Weizsäcker in einem Briefwechsel mit Bundeskanzler Helmut Kohl im Jahr 1991 die dritte Strophe zur Nationalhymne für das deutsche Volk. [In 1991, following the establishment of German unity, Federal President von Weizsäcker, in an exchange of letters with Chancellor Helmut Kohl, declared the third verse [of the Deutschlandlied] to be the national anthem of the German people.]
- "2017". Statistisches Bundesamt (Destatis), 2018. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
- "2017". Statistisches Bundesamt (Destatis), 2018. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
- "Religionszugehörigkeiten 2018". Forschungsgruppe Weltanschauungen in Deutschland (in German). 25 July 2019. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
- "Religionen & Weltanschauungsgemeinschaften in Deutschland: Mitgliederzahlen" [Religions and philosophical communities in Germany: Membership figures] (in German). REMID. Archived from the original on 25 June 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2017.
- "Numbers and Facts about Church Life in the EKD 2018 Report"(PDF). Evangelical Church of Germany. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
- "Fläche und Bevölkerung". www.statistikportal.de (in German).
- "Bevölkerung nach Geschlecht und Staatsangehörigkeit".
- "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". International Monetary Fund.
- "Human Development Report 2019"(PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 10 December 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
- "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income". Eurostat. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
- Mangold, Max, ed. (2005). Duden, Aussprachewörterbuch (in German) (6th ed.). Dudenverlag. pp. 271, 53f. ISBN 978-3-411-04066-7.
- Demshuk, Andrew (30 April 2012). The Lost German East. ISBN 9781107020733. Archived from the original on 1 December 2016.
- Schulze, Hagen (1998). Germany: A New History. Harvard University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-674-80688-7.
- Lloyd, Albert L.; Lühr, Rosemarie; Springer, Otto (1998). Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Althochdeutschen, Band II (in German). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 699–704. ISBN 978-3-525-20768-0. Archived from the original on 11 September 2015. (for diutisc) Lloyd, Albert L.; Lühr, Rosemarie; Springer, Otto (1998). Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Althochdeutschen, Band II (in German). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 685–686. ISBN 978-3-525-20768-0. Archived from the original on 16 September 2015. (for diot)
- Wagner, G. A; Krbetschek, M; Degering, D; Bahain, J.-J; Shao, Q; Falgueres, C; Voinchet, P; Dolo, J.-M; Garcia, T; Rightmire, G. P (27 August 2010). "Radiometric dating of the type-site for Homo heidelbergensis at Mauer, Germany". PNAS. 107 (46): 19726–19730. Bibcode:2010PNAS..10719726W. doi:10.1073/pnas.1012722107. PMC 2993404. PMID 21041630. Archived from the original on 1 January 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
- Gerhard Trnka. "Rezension zu: H. Thieme (Hrsg.): Die Schöninger Speere, ...es sind acht Speere...(There are eight javelins)". H-Soz-Kult. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
- "Earliest music instruments found". BBC News. 25 May 2012. Archived from the original on 3 September 2017. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
- "Ice Age Lion Man is world's earliest figurative sculpture". The Art Newspaper. 31 January 2013. Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- "The Venus of Hohle Fels". donsmaps.com. 14 May 2009. Archived from the original on 4 January 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2009.
- "Nebra Sky Disc". UNESCO. 2013. Archived from the original on 11 October 2014.
- Claster, Jill N. (1982). Medieval Experience: 300–1400. New York University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-8147-1381-5.
- Fulbrook 1991, pp. 9–13.
Modi, J. J. (1916). "The Ancient Germans: Their History, Constitution, Religion, Manners and Customs". The Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay. 10 (7): 647.
Raetia (modern Bavaria and the adjoining country)
- Rüger, C. (2004) . "Germany". In Bowman, Alan K.; Champlin, Edward; Lintott, Andrew (eds.). The Cambridge Ancient History: X, The Augustan Empire, 43 B.C. – A.D. 69. 10 (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 527–28. ISBN 978-0-521-26430-3. Archived from the original on 23 December 2016.
- Bowman, Alan K.; Garnsey, Peter; Cameron, Averil (2005). The crisis of empire, A.D. 193–337. The Cambridge Ancient History. 12. Cambridge University Press. p. 442. ISBN 978-0-521-30199-2.
- Fulbrook 1991, p. 11.
- The lumping of Germanic people into the generic term 'Germans' has its roots in the Investiture Controversy according to historian Herwig Wolfram, who claimed it was a defensive move made by the papacy to delineate them as outsiders, partly due to the papacy's insecurity and so as to justify counterattacks upon them. See: Wolfram, Herwig (1997). The Roman Empire and its Germanic Peoples. California University Press. pp. 11–13.
- McBrien, Richard (2000). Lives of the Popes: The Pontiffs from St. Peter to Benedict XVI. HarperCollins. p. 138.
- Fulbrook 1991, pp. 13–24.
- Fulbrook 1991, p. 27.
- Nelson, Lynn Harry. The Great Famine (1315–1317) and the Black Death (1346–1351). University of Kansas. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- Eisenstein, Elizabeth (1980). The printing press as an agent of change. Cambridge University Press. pp. 3–43.
- Philpott, Daniel (January 2000). "The Religious Roots of Modern International Relations". World Politics. 52 (2): 206–245. doi:10.1017/S0043887100002604.
- Macfarlane, Alan (1997). The Savage Wars of Peace: England, Japan and the Malthusian Trap. Blackwell. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-631-18117-0.
- For a general discussion of the impact of the Reformation on the Holy Roman Empire, see Holborn, Hajo (1959). A History of Modern Germany, The Reformation. Princeton University Press. pp. 123–248.
- Gagliardo, G (1980). Reich and Nation, The Holy Roman Empire as Idea and Reality, 1763–1806. Indiana University Press. pp. 12–13.
- Bideleux, Robert; Jeffries, Ian (1998). A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change. Routledge. p. 156.
- Batt, Judy; Wolczuk, Kataryna (2002). Region, State and Identity in Central and Eastern Europe. Routledge. p. 153.
- Fulbrook 1991, p. 97.
- Henderson, W. O. (January 1934). "The Zollverein". History. 19 (73): 1–19. doi:10.1111/j.1468-229X.1934.tb01791.x.
- "Germany". U.S. Department of State. 10 November 2010. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
- Fulbrook 1991, pp. 135, 149.
- Black, John, ed. (2005). 100 maps. Sterling Publishing. p. 202. ISBN 978-1-4027-2885-3.
- Olusoga, David; Erichsen, Casper (2010). The Kaiser's Holocaust. Germany's Forgotten Genocide and the Colonial Roots of Nazism. Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-23141-6.
- Olusoga, David (18 April 2015). "Dear Pope Francis, Namibia was the 20th century's first genocide". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 3 June 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Crossland, David (22 January 2008). "Last German World War I veteran believed to have died". Spiegel Online. Archived from the original on 8 October 2012. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
- Boemeke, Manfred F.; Feldman, Gerald D.; Glaser, Elisabeth (1998). "Introduction". Versailles: A Reassessment after 75 Years. Publications of the German Historical Institute. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–20. ISBN 978-0-521-62132-8.
- Klein, Fritz (1998). "Between Compiègne and Versailles: The Germans on the Way from a Misunderstood Defeat to an Unwanted Peace". In Boemeke, Manfred F.; Feldman, Gerald D.; Glaser, Elisabeth (eds.). Versailles: A Reassessment after 75 Years. Publications of the German Historical Institute. Cambridge University Press. pp. 203–220. ISBN 978-0-521-62132-8.
- Keylor, William R. (1998). "Versailles and International Diplomacy". In Boemeke, Manfred F.; Feldman, Gerald D.; Glaser, Elisabeth (eds.). Versailles: A Reassessment after 75 Years. Publications of the German Historical Institute. Cambridge University Press. pp. 469–505. ISBN 978-0-521-62132-8.
- "GERMAN TERRITORIAL LOSSES, TREATY OF VERSAILLES, 1919". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 4 July 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Fulbrook 1991, pp. 156–160.
- Williamson (2005). Germany since 1815: A Nation Forged and Renewed. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 186–204.
- "PROLOGUE: Roots of the Holocaust". The Holocaust Chronicle. Archived from the original on 1 January 2015. Retrieved 28 September 2014.
- Fulbrook 1991, pp. 155–158, 172–177.
- Evans, Richard (2003). The Coming of the Third Reich. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-303469-8. p. 344
- "Ein Konzentrationslager für politische Gefangene in der Nähe von Dachau". Münchner Neueste Nachrichten (in German). 21 March 1933. Archived from the original on 10 May 2000.
- "Industrie und Wirtschaft" (in German). Deutsches Historisches Museum. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
- Evans, Richard (2005). The Third Reich in Power. Penguin. pp. 322–326, 329. ISBN 978-0-14-303790-3.
- Fulbrook 1991, pp. 188–189.
- "The "Night of Broken Glass"". USHMM. Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
- Fulbrook 1991, pp. 190–195.
- Hiden, John; Lane, Thomas (200). The Baltic and the Outbreak of the Second World War. Cambridge University Press. pp. 143–144. ISBN 978-0-521-53120-7.
- Steinberg, Heinz Günter (1991). Die Bevölkerungsentwicklung in Deutschland im Zweiten Weltkrieg: mit einem Überblick über die Entwicklung von 1945 bis 1990 (in German). Kulturstiftung der dt. Vertriebenen. ISBN 978-3-88557-089-9.
- Ian Kershaw.Stalinism and Nazism: dictatorships in comparisonArchived 15 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Cambridge University Press, 1997, p.150 ISBN 0-521-56521-9
- Overy, Richard (17 February 2011). "Nuremberg: Nazis on Trial". BBC. Archived from the original on 16 March 2011. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
- Niewyk, Donald L.; Nicosia, Francis R. (2000). The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. Columbia University Press. pp. 45–52. ISBN 978-0-231-11200-0.
- Institute of National Remembrance (Poland), Polska 1939–1945 Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami. Materski and Szarota. page 9 "Total Polish population losses under German occupation are currently calculated at about 2 770 000".
- Maksudov, S. (1994). "Soviet Deaths in the Great Patriotic War: A Note". Europe-Asia Studies 46 (4): 671–680.
- Overmans, Rüdiger (2000). Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg. ISBN 978-3-486-56531-7.
- Kershaw, Ian (2011). The End; Germany 1944–45. Allen Lane. p. 279.
- Wise, Michael Z. (1998). Capital dilemma: Germany's search for a new architecture of democracy. Princeton Architectural Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-56898-134-5.
- Carlin, Wendy (1996). "West German growth and institutions (1945–90)". In Crafts, Nicholas; Toniolo, Gianni (eds.). Economic Growth in Europe Since 1945. Cambridge University Press. p. 464. ISBN 978-0-521-49964-4.
- Werner Bührer (24 December 2002). "Deutschland in den 50er Jahren: Wirtschaft in beiden deutschen Staaten" [Economy in both German states]. Informationen zur Politischen Bildung. Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017.
- "New Study Finds More Stasi Spooks". Spiegel Online. 11 March 2008. Archived from the original on 19 November 2012. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
- Protzman, Ferdinand (22 August 1989). "Westward Tide of East Germans Is a Popular No-Confidence Vote". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 4 October 2012. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
- "The Berlin Wall". BBC. Archived from the original on 26 February 2017. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
- "What the Berlin Wall still stands for". CNN Interactive. 8 November 1999. Archived from the original on 6 February 2008. Retrieved 18 February 2008.
- "Vertrag zwischen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik über die Herstellung der Einheit Deutschlands (Einigungsvertrag) Art 11 Verträge der Bundesrepublik Deutschland" (in German). Bundesministerium für Justiz und Verbraucherschutz. Archived from the original on 25 February 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- "Gesetz zur Umsetzung des Beschlusses des Deutschen Bundestages vom 20. Juni 1991 zur Vollendung der Einheit Deutschlands" [Law on the Implementation of the Beschlusses des Deutschen Bundestages vom 20. Juni 1991 zur Vollendung der Einheit Deutschlands] (PDF) (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz. 26 April 1994. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 July 2016. Retrieved 22 June 2016.
- "Brennpunkt: Hauptstadt-Umzug". Focus (in German). 12 April 1999. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- Kulish, Nicholas (19 June 2009). "In East Germany, a Decline as Stark as a Wall". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 3 April 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
"Lisbon Treaty : The making of". Council of the European Union. Archived from the original(PDF) on 20 May 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
After signature by all 27 Heads of State and governments, the Treaty will travel back to Brussels, where it will be officially sealed with the seals of the 27 Member States, on the 18th of December. Then, it will be sent to Rome, the Italian government being the depository of the Treaties.
- Dempsey, Judy (31 October 2006). "Germany is planning a Bosnia withdrawal". International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on 11 November 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- Merz, Sebastian (November 2007). "Still on the way to Afghanistan? Germany and its forces in the Hindu Kush" (PDF). Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. pp. 2, 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 April 2017. Retrieved 21 February 2017.
- "Germany agrees on 50-billion-euro stimulus plan". France 24. 6 January 2009. Archived from the original on 13 May 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
- "Government declaration by Angela Merkel" (in German). ARD Tagesschau. 29 January 2014. Archived from the original on 1 January 2015. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "Migrant crisis: Migration to Europe explained in seven charts". BBC. 28 January 2016. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
- "Germany". CIA World Factbook. Archived from the original on 11 February 2016. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
- "Climate in Germany". GermanCulture. Archived from the original on 5 February 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
- "Terrestrial Ecoregions". WWF. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- Appunn, Kerstine (30 October 2018). "Climate impact of farming, land use (change) and forestry in Germany". Clean Energy Wire.
- Bekker, Henk (2005). Adventure Guide Germany. Hunter. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-58843-503-3.
Marcel Cleene; Marie Claire Lejeune (2002). Compendium of Symbolic and Ritual Plants in Europe: Herbs. Man & Culture.
The Cornflower was once the floral emblem of Germany (hence the German common name Kaiserblume).
- "Zoo Facts". Zoos and Aquariums of America. Archived from the original on 7 October 2003. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
- "Der Zoologische Garten Berlin" (in German). Zoo Berlin. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- "Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany"(PDF). Deutscher Bundestag. October 2010. Archived(PDF) from the original on 19 June 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
- "Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union". U.S. Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
- "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2015, General government gross debt (National currency, Percent of GDP)". International Monetary Fund. April 2015. Archived from the original on 5 February 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
- "Third quarter of 2015 compared with second quarter of 2015 – Government debt fell to 91.6% of GDP in euro area". Eurostat. 22 January 2016. Archived from the original on 24 January 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
- "Deutschlands Schuldenstand sinkt unter Maastricht-Grenze". Zeit.de. 16 April 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
- Thomas, Andrea (13 January 2016). "German Government Achieves 'Historic' Budget Surplus". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
- "Bund macht fast Rekordüberschuss". Tagesspeigel. 11 January 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
- "Reuters: Fitch Affirms Germany at 'AAA'; Outlook Stable". Reuters. 8 January 2016. Archived from the original on 2 February 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
- "The Federal States". Bundesrat of Germany. Archived from the original on 5 May 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- "Example for state constitution: "Constitution of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia"". Landtag (state assembly) of North Rhine-Westphalia. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
- "Verwaltungsgliederung in Deutschland am 30 June 2017 – Gebietsstand: 30 June 2017 (2. Quartal)"(XLS) (in German). Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland. July 2017. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
- "Gebiet und Bevölkerung – Fläche und Bevölkerung" (in German). Statistisches Bundesamt und statistische Landesämter. December 2015. Archived from the original on 6 July 2017. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
- "Gross domestic product – at current prices – 1991 to 2015". Statistische Ämter des Bundes und der Länder. 5 November 2016. Archived from the original on 5 November 2016. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
- "Federal Constitutional Court". Bundesverfassungsgericht. Archived from the original on 13 December 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
- "§ 2 Strafvollzugsgesetz" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz. Archived from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
- Jehle, Jörg-Martin; German Federal Ministry of Justice (2009). Criminal Justice in Germany. Forum-Verlag. p. 23. ISBN 978-3-936999-51-8. Archived from the original on 22 September 2015.
- Casper, Gerhard; Zeisel, Hans (January 1972). "Lay Judges in the German Criminal Courts". Journal of Legal Studies. 1 (1): 135–191. doi:10.1086/467481. JSTOR 724014.
- "Intentional homicides (per 100,000 people)". World Bank. Archived from the original on 18 October 2016.
- "Germany's crime rate fell to lowest level in decades in 2018". DW. 2 April 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
- "The German Missions Abroad". German Federal Foreign Office. Archived from the original on 29 June 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
- "The Embassies". German Federal Foreign Office. Archived from the original on 25 June 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
- "Declaration by the Franco-German Defence and Security Council". French Embassy UK. 13 May 2004. Archived from the original on 27 March 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- Freed, John C. (4 April 2008). "The leader of Europe? Answers an ocean apart". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- "U.S.-German Economic Relations Factsheet"(PDF). U.S. Embassy in Berlin. May 2006. Archived from the original(PDF) on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
- "Aims of German development policy". Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development. 10 April 2008. Archived from the original on 10 March 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
- "Net Official Development Assistance 2009"(PDF). OECD. Archived from the original(PDF) on 26 April 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
- "Speech by Chancellor Angela Merkel to the United Nations General Assembly". Die Bundesregierung. 21 September 2010. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 18 March 2011.
- "Trends in World Military Expenditure". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.
- "Germany to increase defence spending". IHS Jane's 360. Archived from the original on 5 July 2015. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
- "Stärke: Militärisches Personal der Bundeswehr" [Strength: Military personnel of the Bundeswehr] (in German). Bundeswehr. 15 August 2017. Archived from the original on 23 August 2017. Retrieved 22 August 2017.
- "Ausblick: Die Bundeswehr der Zukunft" (in German). Bundeswehr. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
- "Frauen in der Bundeswehr" (in German). Bundeswehr. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
- "Trends in International Arms Transfers". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.
- "Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Artikel 65a,87,115b"(PDF) (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 May 2017. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- "Einsatzzahlen – die Stärke der deutschen Kontingente" (in German). Bundeswehr. 18 August 2017. Archived from the original on 23 August 2017. Retrieved 22 August 2017.
- Connolly, Kate (22 November 2010). "Germany to abolish compulsory military service". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 17 September 2013. Retrieved 7 April 2011.
- Pidd, Helen (16 March 2011). "Marching orders for conscription in Germany, but what will take its place?". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 22 September 2013. Retrieved 7 April 2011.
- "CPI 2009 table". Transparency International. Archived from the original on 11 May 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
- "The Innovation Imperative in Manufacturing: How the United States Can Restore Its Edge"(PDF). Boston Consulting Group. March 2009. Archived(PDF) from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- "Gross domestic product (2009)"(PDF). World Bank. 27 September 2010. Archived(PDF) from the original on 12 September 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2011.
- "Gross domestic product (2009)"(PDF). World Bank. 27 September 2010. Archived(PDF) from the original on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
- "Euro area unemployment rate at 11.2%". Eurostat. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017.
- "Labour productivity levels in the total economy". OECD. Archived from the original on 10 December 2014. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
- Andrews, Edmund L. (1 January 2002). "Germans Say Goodbye to the Mark, a Symbol of Strength and Unity". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 18 March 2011.
- Taylor Martin, Susan (28 December 1998). "On Jan. 1, out of many arises one Euro". St. Petersburg Times. p. National, 1.A.
- "Germany – The World's Automotive Hub of Innovation". Germany Trade & Invest. Archived from the original on 27 April 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
- "Production Statistics". OICA. Archived from the original on 4 November 2010.
- "CIA Factbook". Archived from the original on 2 May 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
- "Best Global Brands – 2014 Rankings". Interbrand. Archived from the original on 15 March 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
- Gavin, Mike (23 September 2010). "Germany Has 1,000 Market-Leading Companies, Manager-Magazin Says". Businessweek. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
- Frost, Simon. "Berlin outranks London in start-up investment". euractiv.com. Archived from the original on 6 November 2015. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
- "Global 500 – Germany". Fortune. Archived from the original on 29 March 2017. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
- "Assessment of strategic plans and policy measures on Investment and Maintenance in Transport Infrastructure"(PDF). International Transport Forum. 2012. Archived from the original(PDF) on 1 January 2015. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- "Road density (km of road per 100 sq. km of land area)". World Bank. 2014. Archived from the original on 1 January 2015. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
- "Geschäftsbericht 2006" (in German). Deutsche Bahn. Archived from the original on 9 August 2007. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
- "German Railway Financing"(PDF). p. 2. Archived from the original(PDF) on 10 March 2016.
- "Airports in Germany". Air Broker Center International. Archived from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
- "Top World Container Ports". Port of Hamburg. Archived from the original on 5 May 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- "Germany". US Energy Information Administration. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
- Ziesing, Hans-Joachim. "Energieverbrauch in Deutschland im Jahr 2014" (PDF) (in German). AG Energiebilanzen. p. 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 March 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- "Germany split over green energy". BBC News. 25 February 2005. Archived from the original on 19 March 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
- "Germany greenest country in the world". The Times of India. 21 June 2008. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
- "Deutschland erfüllte 2008 seine Klimaschutzverpflichtung nach dem Kyoto-Protokoll" (Press release) (in German). Umweltbundesamt. 1 February 2010. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
- Brown, Eliot. "Germans Have a Burning Need for More Garbage". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "Greenhouse gas emissionstatistics - emissioninventories"(PDF). Eurostat. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
- Federal Ministry for the Environment (29 March 2012). Langfristszenarien und Strategien für den Ausbau der erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland bei Berücksichtigung der Entwicklung in Europa und global [Long-term Scenarios and Strategies for the Development of Renewable Energy in Germany Considering Development in Europe and Globally] (PDF). Federal Ministry for the Environment (BMU). Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 September 2015.
- "Federal Report on Research and Innovation 2014"(PDF). Federal Ministry of Education and Research. 2014. Archived from the original(PDF) on 14 May 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
- "Nobel Prize". Nobelprize.org. Archived from the original on 5 April 2006. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
- "These are the 10 smartest countries in the world when it comes to science". Business Insider. 4 December 2015. Archived from the original on 27 October 2016. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
- Roberts, J. M. (2002). The New Penguin History of the World. Allen Lane. p. 1014. ISBN 978-0-7139-9611-1.
- "The First Nobel Prize". Deutsche Welle. 8 September 2010. Archived from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
- Bianchi, Luigi. "The Great Electromechanical Computers". York University. Archived from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
- "The Zeppelin". U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission. Archived from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
- "Historical figures in telecommunications". International Telecommunication Union. 14 January 2004. Archived from the original on 25 April 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
- "Preparations for operation of Wendelstein 7-X starting". PhysOrg. 13 May 2014. Archived from the original on 9 December 2014. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
- "Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize". DFG. Archived from the original on 21 June 2008. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
- "Interim Update"(PDF). UNWTO World Tourism Barometer. April 2011. Archived from the original(PDF) on 1 January 2015. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
- "Zahlen Daten Fakten 2012"(PDF) (in German). German National Tourist Board.
- "Tourism Highlights 2014 edition"(PDF). UNWTO. Archived from the original(PDF) on 14 February 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
- "2013 Travel & Tourism Economic Impact Report Germany"(PDF). WTTC. Archived from the original(PDF) on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- "Top Tourist Attractions of Germany". Germany.Travel. Archived from the original on 23 December 2014. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
- "Zensus 2011: Bevölkerung am 9. Mai 2011"(PDF). Destatis. Archived from the original(PDF) on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- Max Roser (2014). "Total Fertility Rate around the world over the last centuries". Our World In Data. Archived from the original on 7 August 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
- "Demographic Transition Model". Barcelona Field Studies Centre. 27 September 2009. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- "Birth rate on the rise in Germany". The Local. 29 December 2010. Archived from the original on 25 September 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2014.
- Staff, Spiegel (28 February 2013). "The New Guest Workers: A German Dream for Crisis Refugees". Spiegel Online. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 28 September 2014.
- "More skilled immigrants find work in Germany". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 28 September 2014.
- "National Minorities in Germany"(PDF). Federal Ministry of the Interior (Germany). May 2010. Archived from the original(PDF) on 21 April 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "International Migration Report 2015 – Highlights"(PDF). UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Archived(PDF) from the original on 13 May 2016. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- Webb, Alex (20 May 2014). "Germany Top Migration Land After U.S. in New OECD Ranking". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 17 March 2015. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- "Trends in International Migrant Stock 2015". United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. 2015. Archived from the original on 16 May 2016.
- "German population rises thanks to immigration". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 28 September 2014.
- "Population and employment: Population with migrant background – Results of the 2010 microcensus"(PDF). 13 March 2012. Archived(PDF) from the original on 7 July 2014. Retrieved 28 September 2014.
- "Bevölkerung mit Migrationshintergrund um 8,5 % gestiegen" (in German). Federal Statistical Office of Germany. Archived from the original on 29 August 2017. Retrieved 1 August 2017.
- "International Migration Report 2015 – Highlights"(PDF). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 2015. Archived(PDF) from the original on 13 May 2016. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- "Bevölkerung nach Migrationshintergrund". destatis. 2014. Archived from the original on 15 March 2016. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- "Fewer Ethnic Germans Immigrating to Ancestral Homeland". Migration Information Source. February 2004. Archived from the original on 11 August 2014. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
- Solsten, Eric (1999). Germany: A Country Study. Diane Publishing. pp. 173–175. ISBN 978-0-7881-8179-5. Archived from the original on 2 December 2016.
- "Pressekonferenz "Zensus 2011 – Fakten zur Bevölkerung in Deutschland" am 31. Mai 2013 in Berlin"(PDF). Federal Statistical Office of Germany. pp. 9–11. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2017.
- "Official membership statistics of the Roman Catholic Church in Germany 2016"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
- "Official membership statistics of the Evangelical Church in Germany 2016"(PDF). Retrieved 5 June 2017.
- "Bevölkerung im regionalen Vergleich nach Religion (ausführlich) -in %-". destatis.de (Zensusdatenbank des Zensus 2011) (in German). Federal Statistical Office of Germany. 9 May 2011. p. Zensus 2011 – Page 6. Archived from the original on 21 June 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- "Zensus 2011 – Fakten zur Bevölkerung in Deutschland" am 31. Mai 2013 in Berlin" [2011 Census – Facts about the population of Germany on 31 May 2013 in Berlin] (pdf) (Press release) (in German). Federal Statistical Office of Germany. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 28 September 2017..
- "Chapter 2: Wie viele Muslime leben in Deutschland?"(PDF). Muslimisches Leben in Deutschland (in German). Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge. June 2009. pp. 80, 97. ISBN 978-3-9812115-1-1. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- "Recommendations on the Advancement of Theologies and Sciences concerned with Religions at German universities (Drs. 9678-10), January 2010"(PDF). Wissenschaftsrat. pp. 9–10. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
- Thompson, Peter (22 September 2012). "Eastern Germany: the most godless place on Earth". Guardian. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
- "Germany". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Archived from the original on 24 March 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
- "Religionen in Deutschland: Mitgliederzahlen" (in German). Religionswissenschaftlicher Medien- und Informationsdienst. 31 October 2009. Archived from the original on 25 June 2008. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
European Commission (2006). "Special Eurobarometer 243: Europeans and their Languages (Survey)" (PDF). Europa (web portal). Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 April 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
European Commission (2006). "Special Eurobarometer 243: Europeans and their Languages (Executive Summary)" (PDF). Europa (web portal). Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- "Sprechen Sie Deutsch?". The Economist. 18 March 2010. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
- European Commission. "Official Languages". Archived from the original on 26 September 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- Marten, Thomas; Sauer, Fritz Joachim, eds. (2005). Länderkunde – Deutschland, Österreich, Schweiz und Liechtenstein im Querschnitt [Regional Geography – An Overview of Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Liechtenstein] (in German). Inform-Verlag. p. 7. ISBN 978-3-9805843-1-9.
- "Country profile: Germany"(PDF). Library of Congress. April 2008. Archived(PDF) from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- "The Educational System in Germany". Cuesta College. 31 August 2002. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
- "A German model goes global". Financial Times. Retrieved 28 September 2014.
- Pitman, Tim; Hannah Forsyth (18 March 2014). "Should we follow the German way of free higher education?". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 18 March 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Coughlan, Sean (9 March 2011). "Germany top for foreign students". BBC News. Archived from the original on 24 March 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
- Strasser, Franz (3 June 2015). "How US students get a university degree for free in Germany". BBC News. BBC. Archived from the original on 13 November 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- Bridgestock, Laura (13 November 2014). "The Growing Popularity of International Study in Germany". QS Topuniversities. Archived from the original on 13 April 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
- Bertram, Björn. "Rankings: Universität Heidelberg in International Comparison". Archived from the original on 21 September 2014. Retrieved 28 September 2014.
- "Top 100 World Universities". Academic Ranking of World Universities. Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- "A German Ivy League Takes Shape". Science. 13 October 2006. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 16 May 2008.
- "Hospital of the Holy Spirit Lübeck". Lübeck + Travemünde. Archived from the original on 15 December 2014. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
- Health Care Systems in Transition: Germany(PDF). European Observatory on Health Care Systems. 2000. p. 8. AMS 5012667 (DEU). Archived(PDF) from the original on 13 May 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- "Germany statistics summary (2002–present)". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 6 June 2016. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
- "Health expenditure, total (% of GDP)". World Bank. 1 January 2016. Archived from the original on 30 January 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
- "Health in Germany"(PDF). Robert Koch Institute. 3 December 2015.
- "Topping the EU Fat Stats, Germany Plans Anti-Obesity Drive". Deutsche Welle. 20 April 2007. Archived from the original on 23 March 2010. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
- "Germany launches obesity campaign". BBC. 9 May 2007. Archived from the original on 2 December 2010. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
- Wasser, Jeremy (6 April 2006). "Spätzle Westerns". Spiegel Online International. Archived from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- "Germany country profile". BBC. 25 February 2015. Archived from the original on 2 June 2015. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
- MacGregor, Neil (28 September 2014). "The country with one people and 1,200 sausages". BBC News. Archived from the original on 10 December 2014. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
- "Christmas Traditions in Austria, Germany, Switzerland". German Ways. Archived from the original on 25 December 2014. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
- "World Heritage Sites in Germany". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 23 March 2016. Retrieved 22 March 2016.
- "Artikel 2 EV – Vertrag zwischen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik über die Herstellung der Einheit Deutschlands (Einigungsvertrag – EV k.a.Abk.)" (in German). buzer.de. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- Gunkel, Christoph (3 October 2015). "Der 17. Juni: Tag der deutschen Zwietracht". Spiegel. Archived from the original on 25 May 2017.
- Sifton, Sam (31 December 1969). "Berlin, the big canvas". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 April 2013. Retrieved 18 August 2008.
- "Sites and situations of leading cities in cultural globalisations/Media". GaWC Research Bulletin 146. Archived from the original on 3 February 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2008.
- "BBC poll: Germany most popular country in the world". BBC. 23 May 2013. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- "World Service Global Poll: Negative views of Russia on the rise". BBC.co.uk. 4 June 2014. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
- "Top 100 living geniuses". The Daily Telegraph. 30 October 2007. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- "The Recorded Music Industry in Japan"(PDF). Recording Industry Association of Japan. 2013. p. 24. Archived(PDF) from the original on 18 August 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
- "Kraftwerk maintain their legacy as electro-pioneers". Deutsche Welle. 8 April 2011. Archived from the original on 4 April 2013. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
- Nye, Sean. "Minimal Understandings: The Berlin Decade, The Minimal Continuum, and Debates on the Legacy of German Techno". Journal of Popular Music Studies. Archived from the original on 1 January 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
- Marzona, Daniel (2005). Conceptual Art. Taschen.
- Berman, Harold (1974). Bronzes, Sculptors & Founders – Signatures (Vol. 2 ed.). Abage Publishers. p. 477.
- Payne, Christopher (1986). Animals in Bronze: Reference and Price Guide. Antique Collectors' Club Ltd. p. 401. ISBN 978-0-907462-45-3.
- Koppmann, Jan (2002). "Das Zeitalter des Barock". In Thierer, M (ed.). Lust auf Barock: Himmel trifft Erde in Oberschwaben (in German). Kunstverlag Fink. p. 11f.
- Süvern, Wilhelm (1971). Torbögen und Inschriften lippischer Fachwerkhäuser. Lippe Heimatbund.
- Stiewe, Heinrich (2007). Fachwerkhäuser in Deutschland: Konstruktion, Gestalt und Nutzung vom Mittelalter bis heute. Primus Verlag. ISBN 978-3-89678-589-3.
- "Art Nouveau". Huntfor.com. Archived from the original on 22 February 2013. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
- A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. Oxford University Press. 2006. p. 880. ISBN 978-0-19-860678-9.
- Jodidio, Philip (2008). 100 Contemporary Architects (1 ed.). Taschen. ISBN 978-3-8365-0091-3.
- "Bauhaus: The Single Most Influential School of Design". Gizmodo. 13 June 2012. Archived from the original on 21 December 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
- "Berlin as a fashion capital: the improbable rise". Fashion United UK. 12 January 2012. Archived from the original on 8 May 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- "Die deutsche Mode kommt aus der Provinz". BRIGITTE. 10 July 2012. Archived from the original on 1 January 2015. Retrieved 28 September 2014.
- "German Cultures Today: Fashion Stars – One Germany in Europe". German History Docs GHDI. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
- Dégh, Linda (1979). "Grimm's Household Tales and its Place in the Household". Western Folklore. 38 (2): 99–101. doi:10.2307/1498562. JSTOR 1498562. (subscription required)
- "History of the Deutsches Wörterbuch". DWB 150th Anniversary Exhibition and Symposium (in German). Humboldt-Universität. 2004. Archived from the original on 15 October 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- Espmark, Kjell (3 December 1999). "The Nobel Prize in Literature". Nobelprize.org. Archived from the original on 26 April 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- "Annual Report"(PDF). International Publishers Association. October 2014. p. 13. Archived(PDF) from the original on 11 July 2016. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
- Weidhaas, Peter; Gossage, Carolyn; Wright, Wendy A. (2007). A History of the Frankfurt Book Fair. Dundurn Press Ltd. pp. 11 ff. ISBN 978-1-55002-744-0.
- Chase, Jefferson (13 March 2015). "Leipzig Book Fair: Cultural sideshow with a serious side". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 25 April 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
- Searle, John (1987). "Introduction". The Blackwell Companion to Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell.
- "Distribution of TV in Germany (German)". Astra Sat. 19 February 2013. Archived from the original on 1 January 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
- "Country profile: Germany". BBC News. Archived from the original on 1 April 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- "Organization 1950–1954". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- "ZDB OPAC – start/text". d-nb.de. Archived from the original on 14 July 2006. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- Purchese, Robert (17 August 2009). "Germany's video game market". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
- SemiColonWeb. "Studios". www.cinecitta.com.
- "SciFi Film History – Metropolis (1927)". Archived from the original on 1 January 2015. Retrieved 28 September 2014.
- Bordwell, David; Thompson, Kristin (2003) . "The Introduction of Sound". Film History: An Introduction (2nd ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 204. ISBN 978-0-07-115141-2.
- Brockmann, Stephen (2010). A Critical History of German Film. Camden House. p. 286. ISBN 978-1571134684.
- "2006 FIAPF accredited Festivals Directory"(PDF). International Federation of Film Producers Associations. Archived from the original(PDF) on 9 January 2007. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- Ehlers, Steve; Hurt, Jeanette (2008). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Cheeses of the World. pp. 113–115. ISBN 9781592577149.
- "Guide to German Hams and Sausages". German Foods North America. Archived from the original on 22 March 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
- "Numbers, data, facts about the organic food sector" (in German). Foodwatch. Archived from the original on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
- "German Wine Statistics". Wines of Germany, Deutsches Weininstitut. Archived from the original on 14 December 2014. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- Payne, Samantha (20 November 2014). "Top 10 Heaviest Beer-drinking Countries: Czech Republic and Germany Sink Most Pints". International Business Times. Archived from the original on 13 May 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- "492 Years of Good Beer: Germans Toast the Anniversary of Their Beer Purity Law". Spiegel Online. 23 April 2008. Archived from the original on 6 May 2008.
- "Michelin Guide restaurants for Germany". Archived from the original on 20 December 2014. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
- "German cuisine beats Italy, Spain in gourmet stars". Reuters. 28 March 2011. Archived from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- "Schnitzel Outcooks Spaghetti in Michelin Guide". Deutsche Welle. 15 November 2007. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
- "Germany Info: Culture & Life: Sports". Germany Embassy in Washington, D.C. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- Ornstein, David (23 October 2006). "What we will miss about Michael Schumacher". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 8 January 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- "Vettel makes Formula One history with eighth successive victory". Irish Independent. 17 November 2013.
- Large 2007, p. 136.
- Large 2007, p. 337.
- Fulbrook, Mary (1991). A Concise History of Germany. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-36836-0.
- Large, David Clay (2007). Nazi Games: The Olympics of 1936. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 9780393058840.
- Official site of the Federal Government
- Official Germany Tourism website
- Germany from the BBC News
- "Germany". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
- Germany from the OECD
- Germany at the EU
- Wikimedia Atlas of Germany
- Geographic data related to Germany at OpenStreetMap
- Key Development Forecasts for Germany from International Futures