Hasmonean coinage are the coins minted by the Hasmonean kings. Only bronze coins in various denominations have been found; the smallest being a prutah or a half prutah. Two Roman silver denarii are associated with the Hasmoneans; one has the inscription BACCIVS IVDAEAS; with its exact meaning unclear (short for "BASILEOS IUDAEAS", King Judas?). Both show a man thought to be Yehuda Aristobolus bowing before a camel with a palm branch in his hand.
- "Yehochanan Kohen Gadol Chever Hayehudim" (Yehochanan the High Priest, Council of the Jews).
- "Yehochanan Kohen Gadol Rosh Chever Hayehudim" (Yehochanan the High Priest, Head of the Council of the Jews).
- "Yehonatan Kohen Gadol Chever Hayehudim" (Yehonatan the High Priest, Council of the Jews).
- "Yehonatan Hamelech" (Yehonatan the King).
- "Yehudah Kohen Gadol Chever Hayehudim" (Yehudah the High Priest, Council of the Jews).
- "Malka Aleksandros" (King Alexander)
- "Matityahu Kohen Gadol Chever Hayehudim" (Matityahu the High Priest, Council of the Jews).
- "Matityahu HaKohen" (Matityahu the High Priest).
The Hasmonean dynasty and era (164–37 BCE) [ edit ]
The era of Hashmonean rule lasted for 103 years.[dubious ] It was founded by High Priest Simon son of Matityahu, and consolidated by his son Yochanan surnamed Hyrcanus. Thereafter followed Yehuda Aristobolus, Salome Alexandra, Alexander Yannai and then feuding brothers Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus. Hyrcanus and Aristoblulus each asked the Roman Republic to intervene on their behalf; as a result Judea fell under the greater rule of Rome as an autonomous province but still with a significant amount of autonomy. The last Hashmonean king was Aristobulus's son Matityahu Antigonus.
John Hyrcanus [ edit ]
John Hyrcanus (also known as Yochanan Hyrcanus) (reigned 134 – 104 BCE; died 104 BCE). Minted prutot that said:
- Yehochanan the Kohen Gadol and council of the Jews (Sanhedrin)
- Yehochanan the Kohen Gadol and the head of council of the Jews
- Yehochanan the Kohen Gadol and the [council of] the Jews
- 'A' (May have stood for Antiochus VII) Yehochanan the Kohen Gadol and council of the Jews
He also had monograms on some prutot on the cornucopia side, just left of the cornucopia, some resembling Ά, Π or Λ.
Alexander Jannaeus [ edit ]
Alexander Jannaeus (also known as Alexander Jannai/Yannai), king of Judea from (103 to 76 BCE), son of John Hyrcanus, inherited the throne from his brother Aristobulus, and married his brother's widow, Shlomtzion or "Shelomit" (see Coins of Alexander Jannaeus).
Matityahu Antigonus [ edit ]
Obv: Double cornucopia with ancient Hebrew script; reading "Matityahu Kohen Gadol Chever Hayehudim" (Matityahu the High Priest, Council of the Jews).
Rev: Greek inscription; reading "BASILEWS ANTIGONOY" (King Antignus).
See also [ edit ]
- List of historical currencies
- List of artifacts significant to the Bible
- Maccabean Revolt
- Judah Maccabeus
- Jonathan Maccabaeus
- Simon Maccabeus
- Alexander Jannaeus
- John Hyrcanus
- Salome Alexandra
- Hyrcanus II
- Aristobulus II
References [ edit ]
- Reifenberg, A. Ancient Jewish Coins Jerusalem 1965 p.10