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|Literal meaning||Classic on converting the barbarians|
Two unrelated versions are claimed to exist, a partial manuscript discovered in the Mogao Caves in China and a modern English rendering from oral tradition, while some scholars believe the whole work to be a later work from the 4th century CE.
Origins [ edit ]
The work is honorifically known as the Taishang lingbao Laozi huahu miaojing (太上靈寶老子化胡妙經, "The Supreme Numinous Treasure's Sublime Classic on Laozi's Conversion of the Barbarians").
Traditionally, it is said that Laozi wrote it with the intention of converting Buddhists to Taoism, when they began to cross over from India. The Taoists are sometimes claimed to have developed the Huahujing to support one of their favorite arguments against the Buddhists, which was that after leaving China to the West, Laozi had travelled as far as India, where he had converted—or even become—the Buddha. Buddhism had thus been created as a somewhat distorted offshoot of Taoism.
Some scholars believe it is a forgery because there are no historical references to it until the early 4th century CE. It has been suggested that the Taoist Wang Fu (王浮) may have originally compiled the Huahujing circa 300 CE.
Destruction of copies [ edit ]
Emperors of China occasionally organized debates between Buddhists and Taoists, and granted political favor to the winners.[clarification needed] An emperor ordered all copies to be destroyed in the 13th century after Taoists lost a debate with Buddhists.
Dunhuang manuscript [ edit ]
Its contents have no direct relation to later oral texts available in English.[clarification needed]
Oral tradition [ edit ]
The work is said to have survived in oral tradition. A full translation into English by the Taoist priest Hua-Ching Ni was published in 1979. He claimed to have derived his translation from the preservation of the Huahujing through oral tradition, having been handed down through generations of Taoist priests.
Hua-Ching Ni's translation contains exactly the same number of chapters, 81, as his translation of the Tao Te Ching although it is slightly longer. It takes the form of a narrative question-and-answer dialogue between a disciple Prince and his learned Master. Thematically the text covers much of the original ground of the Tao Te Ching elucidating on the concept of the Tao. However it goes much further in elaborating the relationship of Taoism to other aspects of traditional Chinese culture such as holistic medicine, feng shui, tai chi and the I Ching, not all of which existed in the time of Laozi. It also gives more detailed advice on Taoist philosophy, meditation and other practices. It also includes some reinterpretation for the modern world, for example it refers to the four fundamental forces of modern physics, giving their individual modern names and relating them to the four fundamental forces identified in Taoist philosophy.
Based on the teachings of Hua-Ching Ni, a shorter English-language text claiming to be the Huahujing has been written by Brian Walker. His version is in a spare, poetic form reminiscent of many translations of the Tao Te Ching.
References [ edit ]
Notes [ edit ]
- Homes Welch (1957:152)
- Louis Komjathy (2004:48)
- Weinstein (1987:47–48)
- Liu Yu (1977)
- Ni Hua-Ching (1979).
- Ni Hua-Ching (1979) Page 170.
- Walker (1995).
Bibliography [ edit ]
- Komjathy, Louis; Daoist Texts in Translation. 2004.
- Liu Yi. "Towards a New Understanding of Huahujing (The scripture of transforming the barbarians) from Dunhuang" International Dunhuang Project Newsletter 7. 1997.
- Ni Hua-Ching. The Complete Works of Lao Tzu: Tao Teh Ching & Hua Hu Ching, The Shrine of the Eternal Breath of Tao and the College of Tao and Traditional healing, 1979. (New edition SevenStar Communications. 1997. ISBN 0-937064-00-9)
- Walker, Brian. Hua Hu Ching: Unknown Teachings of Lao Tzu. San Francisco: Harper. 1995. ISBN 0-06-069245-6
- Weinstein, Stanley. 1987. Buddhism under the T’ang. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Welch, Holmes. Taoism: The Parting of the Way. Boston: Beacon Press. 1957. ISBN 0-8070-5973-0
- Zürcher, E. (2007). The buddhist conquest of China : the spread and adaptation of buddhism in early medieval China (3rd edition with a foreword by Stephen F. Teiser. ed.). Leiden: Brill. ISBN 9789004156043.