Jamaica Labour Party
|General Secretary||Horace Chang|
|Founded||8 July 1943|
|Headquarters||20 Belmont Road, Kingston 5|
|Women's Group||Women's Freedom Movement (WFM)|
|Trade Union Wing||Bustamante Industrial Trade Union|
|Political position||Centre-right  |
|International affiliation||International Democrat Union|
|Regional affiliation||Caribbean Democrat Union|
|House of Representatives||
34 / 63
13 / 21
129 / 227
9 / 13
The Jamaica Labour Party (JLP) is one of the two major political parties in Jamaica, the other being the People's National Party (PNP). While its name might suggest that it is a social democratic party (as is the case for "Labour" parties in several other Commonwealth realms such as Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom), the JLP is actually a conservative party. However, it has longstanding ties to the Jamaican labour movement.
It is the current governing party, having won 32 of the 63 parliamentary seats in the lower house of parliament (House of Representatives) in the 2016 general elections. The JLP gained another seat in the November 2017 St Mary South East By-Election, increasing its majority to 33 to the PNP's 30.
In the November 2016 Local Government Elections, the party won eight of the fourteen municipal corporations (Kingston & St. Andrew, Clarendon, St. Elizabeth, St. James, Trelawny, St. Ann, St. Mary and Portland). With a 5-5 tie in the St. Thomas Municipal Corporation and with the JLP winning the popular vote in St. Thomas, the JLP gets control and therefore the mayorship and the PNP gets the deputy mayorship.
History [ edit ]
It won the 1944 general elections with 22 of the 32 seats. It went on to win the 1949 elections with a reduced majority, before losing power to the PNP in the 1955 elections. It remained in opposition following the 1959 elections, but was victorious in 1962 and was therefore the Government when Jamaica gained its political independence from Great Britain on 6 August 1962.
Bustamante suffered a stroke in 1964 and largely withdrew from politics. However, he did not relinquish the title of party leader for another decade. Donald Sangster took over as acting prime minister after Bustamante's stroke. He was named First Deputy Leader in 1967, and led the party to victory as of the 21 February 1967 elections. Sangster suffered a brain hemorrhage and died about six weeks after the elections, while he was preparing for his budget presentation.
Hugh Shearer succeeded Sangster as First Deputy Leader and Prime Minister, defeating David Clement (DC) Tavares by two votes in a run-off by of the JLP parliamentarians. Tavares had come out on top in the first ballot, with Shearer and Robert Lightbourne being the other candidates. Under Shearer, the JLP lost power for the first time to the People's National Party and Michael Manley in 1972. Shearer served as Opposition Leader until 1974.
Bustamante finally gave up the post of party leader in 1974, and Edward Seaga was elected his successor. The party lost the 1976 elections, but Seaga became Prime Minister after victory in 1980 when the party won by a landslide, capturing 51 of the then 60 parliamentary seats. In 1983 with the JLP achieving a spike in popularity, in part because of Seaga's support of the US-led military invasion of Grenada, Seaga called early elections and won all sixty seats, the majority by acclamation, mainly because the opposition PNP boycotted those elections. The JLP suffered defeat in the 1989 elections and went on to lose elections in 1993, 1997 and 2002, all under the continued leadership of Seaga.
In 2005 Bruce Golding succeeded Seaga as leader of the party, and led it to victory in the 2007 elections. Golding resigned as head of the party and Prime Minister in October 2011 and was succeeded by current leader Andrew Holness. Soon after becoming leader, Holness called an election over a year before it was constitutionally due, and the party lost by a 2:1 margin to the PNP. Holness was not blamed for the defeat, and continued to lead the party as Opposition Leader
The party held a leadership election on 10 November 2013 where Holness was challenged by his deputy, Shadow Minister for Finance Audley Shaw. Holness defeated Shaw by a margin of 2,704 votes to Shaw's 2,012.
Holness went on to lead the JLP to a one-seat parliamentary majority (32-31) in the February 25, 2016 general elections, reducing the PNP to the opposition benches after one term.
Political positions [ edit ]
The JLP is a conservative party. It believes in a market-driven economy and individual personal responsibility.
In May 2008, in an interview with Stephen Sackur of the BBC, Bruce Golding PM and Party Leader declared that any cabinet formed by him would exclude any MP known to be gay. In previous statements, Golding stated that he and his party strongly opposed public displays of homosexuality in Jamaica and that he felt that they should continue to be illegal in keeping with Jamaican societal norms. He justified the illegality of homosexual acts by referring to Christian values and the integrity of the family.
Electoral performance [ edit ]
|Election||Leader||Votes||Share of votes||Seats||Result|
|1944||William Alexander Clarke Bustamante||144,661||41.4%||
22 / 32
|1949||William Alexander Clarke Bustamante||199,538||42.7%||
17 / 32
|1955||William Alexander Clarke Bustamante||189,929||39.0%||
14 / 32
|1959||William Alexander Clarke Bustamante||247,149||44.3%||
16 / 45
|1962||Sir William Alexander Clarke Bustamante||288,130||50.0%||
26 / 45
|1967||Sir Donald Burns Sangster||224,180||50.7%||
33 / 53
|1972||Hugh Lawson Shearer||205,587||43.4%||
16 / 53
|1976||Edward Phillip George Seaga||318,180||43.2%||
13 / 60
|1980||Edward Phillip George Seaga||502,115||58.3%||
51 / 60
|1983||Edward Phillip George Seaga||23,363||88.0%||
60 / 60
|1989||Edward Phillip George Seaga||362,589||42.9%||
15 / 60
|1993||Edward Phillip George Seaga||263,711||39.1%||
8 / 60
|1997||Edward Phillip George Seaga||297,387||38.6%||
10 / 60
|2002||Edward Phillip George Seaga||360,468||46.9%||
26 / 60
|2007||Orette Bruce Golding||410,438||50.0%||
32 / 60
|2011||Andrew Michael Holness||405,920||46.3%||
21 / 63
|2016||Andrew Michael Holness||436,972||49.5%||
32 / 63
List of party leaders [ edit ]
- Sir Alexander Bustamante (1943–1974)
- Sir Donald Sangster (acting: 1965–1967)1
- Hugh Shearer (acting: 1967–1974)1
- Edward Seaga (1974–2005)
- Bruce Golding (2005–2011)
- Andrew Holness (2011–present)
- 1.^ Donald Sangster and Hugh Shearer were not actually leaders of the JLP but were de facto leaders during Bustamante's illness/withdrawal from active political life.
References [ edit ]
- King, Cheryl L. A. (2003). Wipf and Stock Publishers (ed.). Michael Manley and Democratic Socialism: Political Leadership and Ideology in Jamaica. p. 1.
- Monteith, Kathleen E. A.; Richards, Glen (2001). University of the West Indies Press (ed.). Jamaica in Slavery and Freedom: History, Heritage and Culture. pp. 365–366.
- Austin, Diane J. (1987). Taylor & Francis (ed.). Urban Life in Kingston, Jamaica: The Culture and Class Ideology of Two Neighborhoods. p. 13.
- Davidson, Vernon (29 March 2015). "Holness outlines the JLP's philosophy". Jamaica Observer.
- "Jamaica country profile". BBC. 10 January 2018.
- Thomason, Ian (2009). Faber & Faber (ed.). The Dead Yard: Tales of Modern Jamaica. p. 68.
- Wallace, Elisabeth (1977). University of Toronto Press (ed.). The British Caribbean from the Decline of Colonialism to the End of Federation. p. 41.
- Axel Klein; Marcus Day; Anthony Harriott (13 November 2004). Caribbean Drugs: From Criminalization to Harm Reduction. Zed Books. pp. 70–. ISBN 978-1-84277-499-1.
- Robin Gauldie (July 2007). Jamaica. New Holland Publishers. pp. 17–. ISBN 978-1-84537-859-2.
- Charles Green (9 May 2002). Manufacturing Powerlessness in the Black Diaspora: Inner-City Youth and the New Global Frontier. AltaMira Press. pp. 133–. ISBN 978-0-585-38626-3.
- Sherry Paprocki; Sean Dolan (1 January 2009). Bob Marley: Musician. Infobase Publishing. pp. 76–. ISBN 978-1-4381-0072-2.
- Nancy Foner (20 August 2013). One Out of Three: Immigrant New York in the 21st Century. Columbia University Press. pp. 235–. ISBN 978-0-231-53513-7.
- Nohlen, D (2005) Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume I, pp432-435 ISBN 978-0-19-928357-6
- "Real 'Man A Yaad' - Holness clobbers Shaw to remain JLP leader".
- Premierminister: Homosexualität ist nicht jamaikanisch, queer.de, 23. Mai 2008 (german)
- "Golding says 'no' to homosexuality"Archived 14 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Jamaica Observer, 8 July 2007
- Violent prejudice against Jamaica's gay people must stop retrieved 19 May 2012
- Is Jamaica homophobic retrieved 19 May