King of Kings of Iran and Aniran
Coin of the Sasanian king Jamasp from Susa.jpg
Coin of Jamasp, Susa mint
Shahanshah of the Sasanian Empire
Reign 496–498/9
Predecessor Kavad I
Successor Kavad I (restored)
Died 530/540
Issue Narsi
House House of Sasan
Father Peroz I
Religion Zoroastrianism

Jamasp (also spelled Zamasp or Djamasp; Middle Persian: 𐭩𐭠𐭬𐭠𐭮𐭯‎; Persian: جاماسپJāmāsp) was Sasanian King of Kings of Iran from 496 to 498/9. He was a son of Peroz I and younger brother of Kavad I. Jamasp was installed on the Sasanian throne upon the deposition of the latter by the nobility and clergy.

Name [ edit ]

Due to increased Sasanian interest in Kayanian history, Jamasp was named after Jamasp, the mythological minister of the Kayanian monarch Vishtaspa.[1][2] The name is transliterated in Greek as Zamásphēs; Arabic Jāmāsb, Zāmāsb, and Zāmāsf; New Persian Jāmāsp and Zāmāsp.[2]

Background [ edit ]

In 484, Peroz I (r. 459–484) was defeated and killed by a Hephthalite[a] army near Balkh.[5][6] His army was completely destroyed, and his body was never found.[7] Four of his sons and brothers had also died.[8] The main Sasanian cities of the eastern region of KhorasanNishapur, Herat and Marw were now under Hephthalite rule.[6] Sukhra, a member of the Parthian House of Karen, one of the Seven Great Houses of Iran, quickly raised a new force and stopped the Hephthalites from achieving further success.[9] Peroz' brother, Balash, was elected as shah by the Iranian magnates, most notably Sukhra and the Mihranid general Shapur Mihran.[10] However, Balash proved unpopular among the nobility and clergy who had him deposed after just four years in 488.[11] Sukhra, who had played a key role in Balash's deposition,[11] appointed Kavad I as the new shah of Iran.[12]

Reign [ edit ]

In 496, due to the socioeconomic and religious changes implemented by Kavad I, the nobility and Zoroastrian clergy had him deposed.[2] They installed his more impressionable brother Jamasp on the throne.[13][14] One of the other reasons behind Kavad's deposal was his execution of Sukhra.[6] Meanwhile, chaos was occurring in the country, notably in Mesopotamia.[14] A council soon took place among the nobility to discuss what to do with Kavad. Gushnaspdad, a member of a prominent family of landowners (the Kanarangiyan) proposed that Kavad be executed. His suggestion was overruled, however, and Kavad was imprisoned instead in the Prison of Oblivion in Khuzestan.[15][13] However, Kavad managed to escape and flee to the domains of the Hephthalites.[6]

In 498 (or 499), Kavad returned to Iran with a Hephthalite army.[16][6] When he crossed the domains of the Kanarangiyan family in Khorasan, he was met by Adergoudounbades, a member of the family, who agreed to help him.[15] Another noble who supported Kavad was Zarmihr Karen, a son of Sukhra.[6] Jamasp and the nobility and clergy did not resist as they wanted to prevent another civil war.[17] They came to an agreement with Kavad that he would be shah again with the understanding that he would not hurt Jamasp or the elite.[17] Jamasp was spared, albeit probably blinded, while Gushnaspdad and other nobles who had plotted against Kavad were executed.[6] Kavad's reclamation of his throne displays the troubled circumstances of the empire, where in a time of anarchy a small force was able to overwhelm the nobility-clergy alliance.[13]

Jamasp then went to Armenia, where he defeated the Khazars, conquered some of their territory, and married a woman from Armenia, who bore him a son named Narsi.[18]

Descendants [ edit ]

After Jamasp's death in 530/540, his son Narsi, who had a son named Piruz, expanded the domains of his family, which included Gilan.[19] He then married one of the princesses of Gilan, who bore him a son named Gil Gavbara, who later started the Dabuyid dynasty, and had two sons named Dabuya and Paduspan.[20] His son Dabuya succeeded him as ispahbadh of the Dabuyid dynasty, while his other son, Paduspan, founded the Paduspanid dynasty.

Notes [ edit ]

  1. ^ The Hephthalites were a tribal group that was most prominent of the "Iranian Huns".[3] In the second half of the 5th-century, they controlled Tukharistan and also seemingly chunks of southern Transoxiana.[4]

References [ edit ]

  1. ^ Boyce 2001, p. 127–128.
  2. ^ a b c Choksy 2008, pp. 453–454.
  3. ^ Rezakhani 2017, p. 145.
  4. ^ Daryaee & Rezakhani 2017, p. 163.
  5. ^ McDonough 2011, p. 305.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Schindel 2013, pp. 136–141.
  7. ^ Payne 2015, p. 287.
  8. ^ Potts 2018, p. 295.
  9. ^ Payne 2015, p. 288.
  10. ^ Shahbazi 2005.
  11. ^ a b Chaumont & Schippmann 1988, pp. 574–580.
  12. ^ Pourshariati 2008, p. 78.
  13. ^ a b c Daryaee 2014, p. 27.
  14. ^ a b Axworthy 2008, p. 59.
  15. ^ a b Pourshariati 2008, p. 267.
  16. ^ Rezakhani 2017, p. 131.
  17. ^ a b Pourshariati 2008, p. 114.
  18. ^ Pourshariati 2008, p. 299.
  19. ^ Pourshariati 2008, p. 301.
  20. ^ Madelung 1993, pp. 541–544.

Sources [ edit ]

  • Axworthy, Michael (2008). A History of Iran: Empire of the Mind. New York: Basic Books. pp. 1–368. ISBN 978-0-465-00888-9.
  • Boyce, Mary (2001). Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Psychology Press. pp. 1–252. ISBN 9780415239028.
  • Chaumont, M. L.; Schippmann, K. (1988). "Balāš, Sasanian king of kings". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. III, Fasc. 6. pp. 574–580.
  • Choksy, Jamsheed K. (2008). "Jāmāsp i. Reign". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. XIV, Fasc. 5. pp. 453–454.
  • Daryaee, Touraj (2014). Sasanian Persia: The Rise and Fall of an Empire. I.B.Tauris. pp. 1–240. ISBN 978-0857716668.
  • Daryaee, Touraj; Rezakhani, Khodadad (2017). "The Sasanian Empire". In Daryaee, Touraj (ed.). King of the Seven Climes: A History of the Ancient Iranian World (3000 BCE - 651 CE). UCI Jordan Center for Persian Studies. pp. 1–236. ISBN 9780692864401.
  • Madelung, Wilferd (1993). "Dabuyids". In Yarshater, Ehsan (ed.). Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. VI, Fasc. 5. London et al.: Routledge & Kegan Paul. pp. 541–544. ISBN 1-56859-007-5.
  • McDonough, Scott (2011). "The Legs of the Throne: Kings, Elites, and Subjects in Sasanian Iran". In Arnason, Johann P.; Raaflaub, Kurt A. (eds.). The Roman Empire in Context: Historical and Comparative Perspectives. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. pp. 290–321. doi:10.1002/9781444390186.ch13. ISBN 9781444390186.
  • Payne, Richard (2015). "The Reinvention of Iran: The Sasanian Empire and the Huns". In Maas, Michael (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Attila. Cambridge University Press. pp. 282–299. ISBN 978-1-107-63388-9.
  • Potts, Daniel T. (2018). "Sasanian Iran and its northeastern frontier". In Mass, Michael; Di Cosmo, Nicola (eds.). Empires and Exchanges in Eurasian Late Antiquity. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–538. ISBN 9781316146040.
  • Pourshariati, Parvaneh (2008). Decline and Fall of the Sasanian Empire: The Sasanian-Parthian Confederacy and the Arab Conquest of Iran. London and New York: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-645-3.
  • Rezakhani, Khodadad (2017). ReOrienting the Sasanians: East Iran in Late Antiquity. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 1–256. ISBN 9781474400305.
  • Schindel, Nikolaus (2013). "Kawād I i. Reign". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. XVI, Fasc. 2. pp. 136–141.
  • Shahbazi, A. Shapur (2005). "Sasanian dynasty". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition.

Further reading [ edit ]

Preceded by

Kavad I
King of kings of Iran and Aniran

Succeeded by

Kavad I (restored)
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