Clockwise from top right: Renshou Lu, Gudou Hotspring Resort, Xinhui Confucian Temple, Changdi Lu, & Jingtang Library
Location of Jiangmen in Guangdong
|Coordinates (Jiangmen government): Coordinates:|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|City Seat||Pengjiang District|
|• Prefecture-level city||9,443 km2 (3,646 sq mi)|
|• Urban||1,692 km2 (653 sq mi)|
|• Metro||17,573 km2 (6,785 sq mi)|
|Elevation||10 m (30 ft)|
|• Prefecture-level city||4,448,871|
|• Density||470/km2 (1,200/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||1,100/km2 (2,800/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||2,500/km2 (6,600/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard Time)|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-GD-07|
|License plate prefixes||粤J|
"Jiangmen" in Chinese calligraphy
|Literal meaning||River Gate|
Jiangmen, alternatelyromanized in Cantonese as Kongmoon, is a prefecture-level city in Guangdong Province in southern China. Its 3 urban districts are now part of the Guangzhou–Shenzhen conurbation and the entire prefecture had a population of about 4.45 million in 2010.
- 1 Names
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Climate
- 5 Economy
- 6 Administration
- 7 Culture
- 8 Tourism
- 9 Education
- 10 Transport
- 11 Notable people
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Names [ edit ]
Jiangmen is the pinyin romanization of the Chinese name 江門 or 江门, based on its pronunciation in the Mandarin dialect. Its former Wade-Giles spelling was Chiang-men. The Postal Map spelling "Kongmoon" was based upon the same name's Cantonese pronunciation Gong¹-moon⁴. Other forms of the name include Kong Moon, Kongmun, and Kiangmoon.
Jiangmen is also known as Pengjiang.[clarification needed][why?] Its rural hinterland is known to the Chinese diaspora as the "Four Counties" (q.v.), although the addition of Heshan to Jiangmen has prompted the remaining locals to begin calling it the "Five Counties" instead.
History [ edit ]
Historically, Jiangmen was a community under the administration of nearby Xinhui County. Jiangmen was forced to open to western trade, however, in 1902. A legacy of this period is a historic waterfront district lined with western-style buildings. The city has an ongoing renewal project which is restoring many of these buildings. Jiangmen was proclaimed a city in 1951 and later became the prefectural seat for the Sze Yup ("Four County") region including Taishan, Kaiping, Xinhui, Enping. (In Mainland China but not abroad, the area became known as the "Five Counties" when Heshan was added to Jiangmen's jurisdiction.)
In 2011, the city banned pet dogs in public after rabies killed 42 people over the preceding 3 years. The city reserved a 13-acre site to allow rural Chinese to adopt the 30,000 dogs, but public outcry led to a softer implementation where violators would be told to leave rather than have the dog confiscated.
Geography [ edit ]
The city is located on the lower reaches of the Xijiang or West River, in the west of the Pearl River Delta in the middle of southern Guangdong Province. It faces the South China Sea in the south and is 100 kilometres (62 mi) away from Guangzhou and Zhuhai by highway. Jiangmen city has an area of 9,260 square kilometres (3,580 sq mi), about one quarter the size of the Pearl River Delta.
Climate [ edit ]
|Climate data for Jiangmen (1981−2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||27.8
|Average high °C (°F)||18.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||14.3
|Average low °C (°F)||11.4
|Record low °C (°F)||2.4
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||34.0
|Average relative humidity (%)||71||79||82||84||83||84||82||82||79||72||67||65||78|
|Source: China Meteorological Data Service Center|
Economy [ edit ]
Jiangmen was selected by the Chinese state as a pilot city for a nationwide information programme. It was also chosen by the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC) as a trial city for the Regional Integration for Sustainable Economics (RISE) project. According to the "Report on Investment Environment in China 2003" by the World Bank, Jiangmen ranked the fourth after Shanghai, Hangzhou and Dalian of 23 cities under evaluation in China. Among various indicators, Jiangmen excelled in infrastructure, labour redundancy, proportion of joint ventures in all firms, informal payments to government, taxation, productivity and the investment rate.
The economic development strategies within Jiangmen focus on the three urban districts, and the south, middle and north lines. It is planned to develop four main economic areas: the central urban district of the city, the Yinzhou Lake (銀州湖) economic area, and two economic areas along the various transport axes.
Manufacturing industries [ edit ]
Similar to other cities in the western Pearl River Delta, the manufacturing sector plays a significant role in Jiangmen's economy. The chief industries include manufacturing of motorcycles, household appliances, electronics, paper, food processing, synthetic fibers and garments, as well as textiles and stainless steel products. Some worldwide brand names have factories in Jiangmen such as Asia Pacific Resources International Holdings, ABB Group and Lee Kum Kee foods.
Uranium processing plant [ edit ]
The city was the proposed site of a $6.5 billion, 40 billion renminbi, uranium processing plant which would have supplied about half of the enriched uranium needed by China's nuclear power plants. Announcement of the plant in July 2013 was met by public protests. The proposal was withdrawn out of "respect for public opinion" shortly thereafter.
Jiangmen port [ edit ]
Jiangmen Port is the second largest river port in Guangdong province. The local government plans to develop a harbour industrial zone with heavy industries to include petrochemical and machinery plants, as well as an ocean-based economy.
Administration [ edit ]
|Administrative divisions of Jiangmen|
|Division code ||English name||Chinese||Pinyin||Area in km2||Population 2010||Seat||Postal code||Divisions|
|Subdistricts||Towns||Residential communities||Administrative villages|
|440700||Jiangmen City||江门市||Jiāngmén Shì||9505.42||4,450,703||Pengjiang District||529000||15||61||264||1051|
|440703||Pengjiang District||蓬江区||Péngjiāng Qū||321.97||719,146||Huanshi Subdistrict||529000||6||3||84||56|
|440704||Jianghai District||江海区||Jiānghǎi Qū||109.16||254,313||Jiangnan Subdistrict||529000||3||0||23||36|
|440705||Xinhui District||新会区||Xīnhuì Qū||1354.72||849,155||Huicheng Subdistrict||529100||1||10||31||193|
|440781||Taishan City||台山市||Táishān Shì||3286.30||941,095||Taicheng Subdistrict||529200||1||16||36||277|
|440783||Kaiping City||开平市||Kāipíng Shì||1656.94||699,242||Changsha Subdistrict||529300||2||13||41||226|
|440784||Heshan City||鹤山市||Hèshān Shì||1082.73||494,938||Shaping Subdistrict||529700||1||9||26||112|
|440785||Enping City||恩平市||Ēnpíng Shì||1693.60||492,814||Encheng Subdistrict||529400||1||10||23||151|
Culture [ edit ]
Jiangmen is the homeland of 3.68 million overseas Chinese, who live in 107 countries and regions throughout the world. Strong oversea connections are especially found in the villages.
Tourism [ edit ]
A significant amount of historical heritage survives from the period of mass emigration prior to World War II. The most significant are the fortified multi-story towers found mainly in Kaiping. These are known as "Gold Mountain Towers" or diaolou. A number of natural hotspring resorts has been developed successfully by using its wealthy natural heated ground water resources such as Gudou Hotspring Resort (古兜温泉). Guifeng Mountain, a mountain visited by many tourists, is the peak of Jiangmen with an elevation of 545 meters above sea level.
The local government's economic development strategies emphasize the development of tourism and protection of the environment.
Education [ edit ]
Wuyi University is the main university in Jiangmen.
Jiangmen Polytechnic College, located at Chaolian Island, enrolls about 13,000 students in various technical and humanities programs.
Jiangmen No. 1 Middle School is claimed to be the top middle school in the district. It used to be one of the best middle schools in Guangdong Province in the 1980s and 1990s. However, the quality of its education has been dropping in recent years and within the district of Jiangmen, its status is being constantly challenged by schools such as Xinhui No. 1 Middle School in Xinhui, Kaiqiao (Kaiping Emigrant) Middle School in Kiaping and Heshan No.1 Middle School in Heshan.
Transport [ edit ]
Roads and highways [ edit ]
Jiangmen has a mature network of inter-city and intra-city highways and expressways, whose total length has reached 10,084.97 kilometres (6,266.51 mi) as of 2016.G15 Shenyang–Haikou Expressway travels at the north, connecting downtown Jiangmen to three of its administrative divisions Heshan, Kaiping and Enping, as well as nearby cities Yangjiang, Zhongshan and Foshan. S32 Western Costal Expressway goes along Jiangmen's coastlines, linking Zhuhai at the east and Yangjiang at the west. G94 Pearl River Delta Ring Expressway, S20 Guangzhou-Zhongshan-Jiangmen Expressway, G2518 Shenzhen-Cenxi Expressway and S47 Guangzhou-Foshan-Jiangmen-Zhuhai Expressway run through northeast Jiangmen. S49 Xinhui-Taishan Expressway connects Taishan and joints S32 at the south.
China National Highway 325 is the only highway in the national trunk road system that goes into Jiangmen. Several provincial highways, such as S273, S274, S276 and S367 link the city's suburb areas to major towns.
Railways [ edit ]
Although the very first railway, Sun Ning Railway, began operation in 1909, it was discontinued in 1938 to deny its use by the Japanese military. The second operational railway is the Xinhui branch of Guangzhou–Zhuhai Intercity Mass Rapid Transit (opened 2011), which provides frequent service from Xinhui railway station to Guangzhou South Railway Station, where connections to the nation's high-speed railway network are available. Since the late 2012, Jiangmen is also served by the freight-only Guangzhou–Zhuhai Railway. Shenzhen–Zhanjiang high-speed railway, which opened in 2018, connects Jiangmen at Jiangmen East railway station, Shuangshuizhen railway station, Taishan railway station, Kaiping South railway station and Enping railway station. Since then, Jiangmen is served by direct trains to Shanghai.
Ferries [ edit ]
Coaches [ edit ]
There are 18 coach terminals across Jiangmen as of 2016. 1,137 licensed coaches owned by 23 operators provide inter-county and inter-city bus services to major cities within and outside Guangdong.
Public transportation [ edit ]
Bus service within Pengjiang and Jianghai Districts are provided by Jiangmen Bus Co. Ltd.. Bus routes in Xinhui District were formerly operated by Macao-based Xinfuli Co., but all routes were consolidated into the city-owned bus system run by Jiangmen Automobile Transportation Group Co. Ltd. in 2010. Transit buses in other districts are operated by Jiangmen Automobile Transportation Group and other private companies.
By 2016, there are 1,077 taxicabs in Jiangmen, most of which are operated by local companies.
Notable people [ edit ]
- Adrienne Clarkson (born 1939), Broadcast journalist and Governor General of Canada (1999–2005)
- Alan Chin (born 1987), American contemporary artist
- Andy Lau (born 1961), Hong Kong's most commercially successful film actor
- Anna May Wong (1905–1961), actress
- Annie Wu Suk-ching, Founder of Beijing Air Catering Ltd. and member of the Standing Committee of the National Committee of Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference
- Anthony Wong (born 1961), Award-winning British Hong Kong actor, screenwriter and film director
- Arthur Chin (1913–1997), Kuomintang fighter pilot and flying ace
- Bill Lann Lee (born 1949), U.S. Assistant Attorney General for Civil Rights in the Clinton Administration
- Chen Yunchang (1919–2016), Actress considered to be the third "Queen of Chinese Cinema"
- Chin Siu Dek, Grandmaster of Kung Fu San Soo
- Danny Chan (1958–1993), Hong Kong singer
- Donnie Yen (born 1963), Hong Kong Chinese martial artist, actor, director, fight choreographer and producer
- Ed Lee (1952–2017), Mayor of San Francisco (2011–2017), born in Seattle but parents were immigrants from Taishan
- Evan Low (born 1983), Mayor of Campbell, California
- Flora Chan (born 1970), Hong Kong actress and singer
- Gary Locke (born 1950), Governor of Washington State (1996–2006), U.S. Secretary of Commerce (2009–2011) and U.S. Ambassador to China (2011–2014)
- Gordon Lam (born 1967), Hong Kong actor
- Hiram Fong (1906–2004), U.S. Senator from Hawaii (1959–1977)
- Hu Die (1908–1989), Actress considered to be the first "Queen of Chinese Cinema"
- Inky Mark (born 1947), Canadian politician, mayor of Dauphin (1994–1997) and Member of Parliament (1997–2004)
- Jack Yan (born 1972), Magazine publisher in New Zealand
- James Hong (born 1929), American actor with over 500 television, film and video game credits, and former civil engineer
- James Tak Wu, Founder of Maxim's Catering Limited, Hong Kong's largest food and beverage corporation and restaurant chain
- James Wong Howe (1899–1976), American cinematographer
- John Tsang (born 1951), Financial Secretary of Hong Kong
- Julius Chan (born 1939), Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea (1980–1982, 1994–1997, 1997)
- Ken Hom (born 1949), American chef, author and television–show presenter
- Kylie Kwong (born 1969), Australian chef, restaurateur, author and television-show presenter
- Leland Yee (born 1948), California State Senator and accused arms dealer
- Li Enliang (1912–2008), Chinese civil engineer and educator
- Margaret Chin (born 1954), American politician on the New York City Council representing Chinatown
- Matt Fong (1953–2011), Treasurer of the State of California (1995–1999)
- Mel Chin (born 1951), American contemporary conceptual artist
- Myolie Wu (born 1979), Hong Kong actress and singer
- Norman Kwong (born 1929), championship-winning Canadian football player (1948, 1954, 1955, 1956) and Lieutenant-Governor of Alberta (2005-2010)
- Patrick Yu (born 1922), Hong Kong lawyer, Crown Counsel and founder of its first law school
- Wong Koon Chung (born 1964), Lead guitarist for Beyond
- Raymond "Shrimp Boy" Chow (born 1959), Mobster and Dragon Head of the San Francisco Chinese Freemasons
- Shawn Yue (born 1981), Hong Kong actor and singer
- Tony Leung (born 1962), Hong Kong actor
- Tyrus Wong (born 1910), American painter, muralist, ceramicist, lithographer, designer and kite maker
- William Poy Lee (born 1951), American author of The Eighth Promise
- Wong Ka Keung (born 1964), Bassist for Beyond
- Wong Ka Kui (1962–1993), Lead singer of Beyond
- Wong Kim Ark (born c.1871), Defendant in United States v. Wong Kim Ark - 169 U.S. 649 (1898)
- Wu Lien-teh (1879–1960), doctor
- Yip Sai Wing (born 1963), Drummer for Beyond
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
- Ball, J. Dyer. (1900). "The Shun Tak Dialect" (PDF). The China Review, or notes & queries on the Far East. 25 (2): 57–68.
- "Chinese city bans dogs". The Telegraph. 4 August 2011.
- Branigan, Tania. (2011). "Cull of 30,000 pet dogs ordered after deadly rabies outbreak in Chinese city". The Guardian.
- "Jiangmen ditches ban on pet dogs". South China Morning Post. 2011.
- Andrew Jacobs (12 July 2013). "Rare Protest in China Against Uranium Plant Draws Hundreds". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
- Gerry Mullany (13 July 2013). "After Rare Protest, China Cancels Plans for Uranium Plant". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
- 中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码 (in Chinese). Ministry of Civil Affairs.
- 广东省统计局、国家统计局广东调查总队 (September 2014). 《广东统计年鉴2014》 (in Chinese). China Statistics Press. ISBN 978-7-5037-7174-3.数字为第二次全国土地调查数据
- shi, Guo wu yuan ren kou pu cha ban gong; council, Guo jia tong ji ju ren kou he jiu ye tong ji si bian = Tabulation on the 2010 population census of the people's republic of China by township / compiled by Population census office under the state; population, Department of; statistics, employment statistics national bureau of (2012). Zhongguo 2010 nian ren kou pu cha fen xiang, zhen, jie dao zi liao (Di 1 ban. ed.). Beijing Shi: Zhongguo tong ji chu ban she. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2.
- Ministry of Civil Affairs (August 2014). 《中国民政统计年鉴2014》 (in Chinese). China Statistics Press. ISBN 978-7-5037-7130-9.
- Bureau of Statistics of Jiangmen Municipality (28 December 2017). 江门统计年鉴-2017 (in Chinese). Retrieved 21 September 2018.
- D932时刻表 (in Chinese). gaotie.cn. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
- Jiangmen People's Government Office of Local Chronicles. Jiangmen Yearbook. ISBN 9787514427752.
[ edit ]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jiangmen.|
- Jiangmen International Website (in Chinese)