Jingzhou Miao and Dong Autonomous County

Jingzhou County


Jingzhou Miao and Dong Autonomous County
Jingzhou is located in Hunan
Location in Hunan
Coordinates: 26°34′26″N109°41′42″E / 26.574°N 109.695°E / 26.574; 109.695Coordinates: 26°34′26″N109°41′42″E / 26.574°N 109.695°E / 26.574; 109.695[1]
Country People's Republic of China
Province Hunan
Prefecture-level city Huaihua
 • Total 2,210.56 km2 (853.50 sq mi)
 • Total 245,116
 • Density 110/km2 (290/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code

Jingzhou Miao and Dong Autonomous County (simplified Chinese: 靖州苗族侗族自治县; traditional Chinese: 靖州苗族侗族自治縣; pinyin: Jìngzhōu Miáozú Dòngzú Zìzhìxiàn; usually referred to as Jingzhou County, commonly abbreviated as Jingzhou, simplified Chinese: 靖州县; traditional Chinese: 靖州縣; pinyin: Jìngzhōu Xiàn) is an autonomous county of Miao and Dong peoples in Hunan Province, China, the county is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Huaihua. It was known as "Jing County" (靖县; 靖縣; Jìng Xiàn), renamed to the present name on February 19, 1987.[4]

Jingzhou is located on the southwestern margin of Hunan Province, adjacent to Guizhou Province. It borders Jinpin, Liping and Tianzhu Counties of Guizhou to the west, Tongdao County to the south, Suining County to the east, Huitong County to the north. The county covers 2,210 km2 (850 sq mi), as of 2015, It had a registered population of 271,403 and a resident population of 253,000.[5] The county has six towns and five townships under its jurisdiction, the county seat is the town of Quyang (渠阳镇).[6]

Etymology [ edit ]

The name "Jingzhou" appears on official papers dated 1103, when the local leader Yang Shengzhen (杨晟臻) has allegiance to the Song Empire (960–1279).[7] "Jing" means "pacify" and "zhou" means "prefecture".

History [ edit ]

According to the unearthed cultural relics, human habitation in Jingzhou Miao and Dong Autonomous County dates back the Paleolithic Age.[8]

During the Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties (2070 BC–256 BC), it belonged to Jingzhou (荆州).[8]

During the Spring and Autumn period (722 BC–476 BC), Jingzhou Miao and Dong Autonomous County was under the rule of the state of Chu (1115 BC–223 BC).[8]

The Qin dynasty (221 BC–207 BC) unified China in 221 BC. With the implementation of the system of prefectures and counties, Jingzhou Miao and Dong Autonomous County belonged to Qianzhongjun (黔中郡).[8]

From the Han dynasty (206 BC–220 AD) to Western Jin dynasty (265–317), it came under the jurisdiction of Tancheng County (镡成县) of Wulingjun (武陵郡).[8]

The territory of Jingzhou Miao and Dong Autonomous County has been governed by the Eastern Jin dynasty (317–420), Liu Song dynasty (420–479), Southern Qi dynasty (479–502), Liang dynasty (502–557) and Chen dynasty (557–589).[8]

In 581, Emperor Wen of Sui established the Sui Empire (581–618), it was under the jurisdiction of Longbiao County (龙标县) of Yuanlingjun (沅陵郡).[8]

In the Tang dynasty (618–907), it was under the jurisdiction of Langxi County (朗溪县) of Xuzhou (叙州).[8]

In 911, during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–960), Ma Yin commissioned Lü Shizhou (吕师周) to conquer the region, the local leader Yang Zaisi led the army to surrender. But Yang's descendants set up a self-government authority in the region soon.[8]

In 1076, Emperor Shenzong of Song sent soldiers to seize the region and established "Chengzhou" (诚州) in 1081. In the next year, the imperial court established Quyang County (渠阳县) out of Yuanzhou (沅州) and it used to be in the territory of Chengzhou. In 1103, the local leader Yang Shengzhen (杨晟臻) has allegiance to the Song Empire (960–1279) and the imperial court renamed the region "Jingzhou" (靖州). In 1138, Quyang County was renamed Yongping County (永平县). The zhou (prefecture) ruled three counties including Yongping, Huitong and Tongdao.[8] From 1167 to 1176, the exploitation and injustice policy sparked off a major rebellion.[9]

The Mongol Yuan Empire (1271–1368) set up province system to maintain control of the vast region. Jingzhou was renamed Jingzhoulu (靖州路).[7] In 1346, Wu Tianbao (吴天保) and Yang Liuzong (杨留总), both headers of Miao people, rose up in national rebellion against Mongol occupation. The central government put down the rebellion three years later.[10]

In the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), Jingzhou ruled four counties including Huitong, Tongdao, Suining and Tianzhu.[7]

In the Manchu Qing dynasty (1644–1911), Jingzhou came under the jurisdiction of Hunan-Guangdong Provinces (湖广布政使司).[7] In 1698, Wu Guangdan (吴光旦), a header of Li people, staged a massive uprising and killed the local military leader Li Chenggong (李成功).[10]

The Qing dynasty (1644–1911) collapsed in 1911 and was replaced by the Republic of China. Jingzhou was changed to a county named "Jing County" (靖县) and belonged to Hunan Province.[7]

In March 1950, the CPC Jing County Committee was founded and Guo Zhiquan (郭之泉) served as the Party chief.[11] In October, the People's Government of Jing County was set up. Li Shu (李树) was appointed county magistrate and Cao Zhenjia (曹振家) and Ming Yilun (明一轮) were appointed deputy county magistrate.[12] It was under the jurisdiction of Huitong Zhuanqu (会同专区) from January 1950 to August 1952, Zhijiang Zhuanqu (芷江专区) from August 1952 to December 1952 and Qianyang Zhuanqu (黔阳专区) from December 1952 to March 1959. On March 28, 1959, Jing County and Tongdao County merged into one named "Tongdao County". On July 1, 1961, Jing County was split from Tongdao County. In June 1981, Qianyang Zhuanqu was renamed "Huaihua Diqu" (怀化地区), Jing County belonged to it. On February 19, 1987, the Jingzhou Miao and Dong Autonomous County was set up with the approval of the State Council.[13]

Administrative division [ edit ]

As of October 2015, Jingzhou Miao and Dong Autonomous County has five townships and six towns under its jurisdiction. The county seat is the town of Quyang.

Name Chinese character Population (2015) Area (km2) Notes
Aoshang 坳上镇 10,870 169.8
Dabaozi 大堡子镇 21,000 176.44
Gantang 甘棠镇 24,000 134.6
Pingcha 平茶镇 11,000 160
Quyang 渠阳镇 118,100 687.9
Xinchang 新厂镇 24,500 188.38
Outuan Township 藕团乡 9,000 150
Sanqiao Township 三锹乡 5,000 174.23
Taiyangping Township 太阳坪乡 12,235 88.78
Wenxi Township 文溪乡 8,000 119
Zhaiya Township 寨牙乡 7,756 136.4

Geography [ edit ]

Jingzhou Miao and Dong Autonomous County is located in the western Hunan province and southern Huaihua city. The county has a combined area of 2,211.8495-square-kilometre (853.9999 sq mi). The county shares a border with the counties of Jinpin, Liping and Tianzhu to the west, Suining County to the east, Huitong County to the north, and Tongdao Dong Autonomous County to the south. The eastern and western sides of the county are mountainous areas, with basins in the middle and hills in the north.[14]

Climate [ edit ]

Jingzhou Miao and Dong Autonomous County is in the subtropical monsoon climate zone, with an average annual temperature of 16.6 °C (61.9 °F), total annual rainfall of 1,371.3-millimetre (53.99 in), a frost-free period of 290 days and annual average sunshine hours in 1336 hours.[15]

Rivers [ edit ]

There are 101 rivers and streams in the county.[16] The Qushui River (渠水) is the largest river in the county and it has 42 tributaries.[15]

Lakes and reservoirs [ edit ]

There are 50 reservoirs and lakes in Jingzhou Miao and Dong Autonomous County.[17]

Mountains [ edit ]

There are more than nine mountains over 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) above sea level in this county. Mount Qingdian (青靛山) is the highest point in the county, which, at 1,178 metres (3,865 ft) above sea level. The lowest point is Lack Xian (咸池), which stands 278 metres (912 ft) above sea level.[15]

Demographics [ edit ]

The population of Jingzhou Miao and Dong Autonomous County, according to the 2017 census, is 275,128, of which 70,550 were urban population, 20,4578 were rural population.[18]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1949 85,243 —    
1953 93,280 +9.4%
1964 122,456 +31.3%
1988 218,286 +78.3%
1990 231,942 +6.3%
2000 255,132 +10.0%
2004 261,700 +2.6%
2006 260,358 −0.5%
2017 275,128 +5.7%
Source: [19]

According to the 2006 Census, the ethnic makeup of Jingzhou Miao and Dong Autonomous County included: 67,693 Dong people (26%), 122,368 Miao people (47%), 489 Hui people (0.19%), 315 Tujia people (0.12%), and 116 Yao people (0.04%).[20]

Language [ edit ]

Mandarin is the official language. The local people speak Kam language, Hmongic languages, and Dungan language.

Religion [ edit ]

The Dong and Miao people believe in animism and worship ancestors. Buddhism is the earliest foreign religion introduced in the county. Islam spread as Hui people moved into the area.[21]

Education [ edit ]

By the end of 2017, Jingzhou Miao and Dong Autonomous County had one county vocational secondary school, 15 high schools and middle schools, and 15 primary schools.[18]

Transportation [ edit ]

Highway [ edit ]

The G65 Baotou–Maoming Expressway is a north–south highway passing through the county's downtown, commercial, and industrial districts in the eastern part of the county.[22]

The National Highway G209, also popularly known as G209, is a north–south highway passing through commercial and residential districts center of the county limits.[22]

The Provincial Highway S222, more commonly known as "S222", passes through the county leading northeastward to Huitong County and southwestward to Liping County.[22]

The Provincial Highway S221, commonly abbreviated as "S221", runs south-east through Quyang Town and Zhaiya Township.[22]

Rail [ edit ]

The Jiaozuo–Liuzhou railway runs north–south through the county's downtown, commercial, and industrial districts.[22]

Tourism [ edit ]

The famous natural landscapes of Jingzhou Miao and Dong Autonomous County are: Mount Fei, National Forest Park of Mount Paiya (排牙山国家森林公园), and Mount Jiulong (九龙山; 'Nine Dragons Mountain'). Major Buddhist temples in the county include Yanshou Temple (延寿寺), Fangguang Temple (方广寺), Wufeng Temple (五峰寺), Qingyun Temple (青云寺), and Guixiang Temple (桂香寺). Major Taoist temples in the county include Temple of Wu (武庙) and Feishan Temple (飞山庙). There are famous academies in the county include Zuoxin Academy (作新书院), Heshan Academy (鹤山书院) and Ziyang Academy (紫阳书院).[23][24]

References [ edit ]

  1. ^ Google (2014-07-02). "Jingzhou" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved 2014-07-02.
  2. ^ Huaihua City Land Use Plan (2006–20)/《怀化市土地利用总体规划(2006-2020年)》.(in Chinese) Accessed 8 July 2014.
  3. ^ 怀化市2010年第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报 (in Chinese). Huaihua Statistical Bureau. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
  4. ^ 靖州历史沿革 [History of Jingzhou County].
  5. ^ 2015年靖州县国民经济和社会发展统计公报 [Statistical Communiqué of Jingzhou County on the 2015 National Economic and Social Development]. Jingzhou County People's Government. or
  6. ^ 《湖南省民政厅关于同意靖州县乡镇区划调整方案的批复》(湘民行发〔2015〕80号 [Divisions of Jingzhou County in 2015, according to the result on adjustment of township-level administrative divisions of Jingzhou County on 25 November 2015]. Hunan., also see 《湖南省乡镇区划调整改革109个县市区批复方案》. Hunan. or
  7. ^ a b c d e Pan Rongjian (2009), p. 34.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Pan Rongjian (2009), p. 33.
  9. ^ Pan Rongjian (2009), pp. 35–36.
  10. ^ a b Pan Rongjian (2009), p. 36.
  11. ^ Pan Rongjian (2009), p. 38.
  12. ^ Pan Rongjian (2009), p. 40.
  13. ^ Pan Rongjian (2009), p. 34–35.
  14. ^ Pan Rongjian (2009), p. 1.
  15. ^ a b c Pan Rongjian (2009), p. 2.
  16. ^ Pan Rongjian (2009), p. 6.
  17. ^ 靖州苗族侗族自治县防汛抗旱指挥部 关于下达2017年水利水电工程度汛方案的通知. (in Chinese). 2017-06-02.
  18. ^ a b 2017年靖州县国民经济和社会发展统计公报. (in Chinese). 2018-04-03.
  19. ^ Pan Rongjian (2009), p. 7–8.
  20. ^ Pan Rongjian (2009), p. 11.
  21. ^ Pan Rongjian (2009), p. 25–26.
  22. ^ a b c d e Zhang Hong, ed. (2018). "Jingzhou Miao and Dong Autonomous County" 《靖州苗族侗族自治县》. 《中国分省系列地图册:湖南》 [Maps of Provinces in China: Hunan] (in Chinese). Xicheng District, Beijing: SinoMaps Press. pp. 166–167. ISBN 978-7-5031-8949-4.
  23. ^ Pan Rongjian (2009), pp. 26–30.
  24. ^ Pan Rongjian (2009), p. 184.

Bibliography [ edit ]

  • Pan Rongjian, ed. (2009). 《靖州苗族侗族自治县概况》 [General Situation of Jingzhou Miao and Dong Autonomous County] (in Chinese). Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House. ISBN 978-7-105-08631-3. CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)

External links [ edit ]

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