John I, Duke of Brittany

John I
Jean Ier le Roux.png
Duke of Brittany
Reign 21 October 1221 – 8 October 1286
Predecessor Peter I & Alix
Successor John II
Regent Peter I
Earl of Richmond
Reign 1268
Predecessor Peter of Savoy
Successor John II
Born c. 1217/18
Died 8 October 1286

Château de l'Isle
Spouse Blanche of Navarre

Among Others
John II

Peter, Lord of Hade

Alix, Countess of Blois
House House of Dreux
Father Peter I, Duke of Brittany
Mother Alix, Duchess of Brittany
Religion Roman Catholicism

John I (Breton: Yann, French: Jean; c. 1217/18 – 8 October 1286), known as John the Red due to the colour of his beard, was Duke of Brittany from 1221 to his death and 2nd Earl of Richmond in 1268.

John was the eldest of three children born to Duchess Alix and her husband and jure uxoris co-ruler, Duke Peter I.[1] He became duke upon his mother's death in 1221. His father, who had reigned as duke due to his marriage to Alix, ruled as regent until John reached adulthood.[2] In 1268, Henry III granted the earldom of Richmond to John, and the title continued in his family, through frequent temporary forfeitures and reversions, until 1342.

He experienced a number of conflicts with the Bishop of Nantes and the Breton clergy. In 1240, he issued an edict expelling Jews from the duchy and cancelling all debts to them.[3] He joined Louis IX of France in the Eighth Crusade in 1270, and survived the plague that killed the king. The duchy of Brittany experienced a century of peace, beginning with John I and ending with Duke John III's reign in 1341.[4]

Marriage and issue [ edit ]

In 1236 John married Infanta Blanche, daughter of King Theobald I of Navarre.[5] They had the following surviving issue:

Ancestry [ edit ]

References [ edit ]

  1. ^ Richard 1983, p. xxviii.
  2. ^ Lower 2005, p. 117.
  3. ^ Jones 1988, p. 140.
  4. ^ Jones 1988, p. 34.
  5. ^ Hallam & Everard 2001, p. 273.
  6. ^ a b c Morvan 2009, p. table 2.

Sources [ edit ]

  • Hallam, Elizabeth M.; Everard, Judith (2001). Capetian France, 987-1328. London: Longman. ISBN 9780582489097. OCLC 6813908.
  • Jones, Michael (1988). The Creation of Brittany: A Late Medieval State. London: The Hambledon Press. ISBN 9780907628804. OCLC 16805427.
  • Lower, Michael (2005). The Barons' Crusade: A Call to Arms and Its Consequences. University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Morvan, Frederic (2009). La Chevalerie bretonne et la formation de l'armee ducale (in French). Presses Universitaires de Rennes.
  • Richard, Jean (1983). Lloyd, Simon (ed.). Saint Louis, Crusader King of France. Translated by Birrell, Jean. Cambridge University Press.

See also [ edit ]

John I, Duke of Brittany
Cadet branch of the Capetian Dynasty
Born: c. 1217/18  Died: 8 October 1286
Regnal titles
Preceded by

Alix and

Peter I
Duke of Brittany

Succeeded by

John II
Peerage of England
Preceded by

Peter of Savoy
Earl of Richmond

Succeeded by

John II

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