|Cultural origins||Early-1900s in the United States|
|2019 in Latin music|
Latin music (Portuguese and Spanish: música latina) is a genre used by the music industry as a catch-all term for music that comes from Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking areas of the world, namely Ibero America and the Iberian Peninsula, as well as music sung in either language.
Terminology and categorizations [ edit ]
Deborah Pacini Hernández noted that due to the majority of Latino immigrants living in New York City mostly being of Puerto Rican and Cuban descent and the area being dominant in the music industry during the 1950s, "Latin music" had been stereotyped as music simply originating from the Spanish Caribbean. She also observed that even the popularization of bossa nova and Herb Alpert's Mexican-influenced sounds in the 1960s did little to change the perceived image of Latin music. Since then, the music industry classifies all music sung in Spanish or Portuguese as Latin music, including musics from Spain and Portugal.
Following protests from Latinos in New York, a category for Latin music was created by National Recording Academy (NARAS) for the Grammy Awards titled Best Latin Recording in 1975. Enrique Fernandez wrote on Billboard that the single category for Latin music meant that all Latin music genres had to compete with each other despite the distinct sounds of the genre. He also noted that the accolade was mostly given to performers of tropical music. Eight years later, the organization debuted three new categories for Latin music: Best Latin Pop Performance, Best Mexican/Mexican-American Performance, and Best Tropical Latin Performance. Latin pop is a catch-all for any pop music sung in Spanish, while Mexican/Mexican-American (also to referred to as Regional Mexican) is based any musical style originating from Mexico or influences by its immigrants in the United States including Tejano, and tropical music focuses any music from the Spanish Caribbean.
In 1997, NARAS established the Latin Recording Academy (LARAS) in an effort to expand its operations in both Latin America and Spain. On September 2000, LARAS launched the Latin Grammy Awards, a separate award ceremony from the Grammy Awards, which organizers stated that the Latin music universe was too large to fit on the latter awards. Michael Greene, former head of NARAS, said that the process of creating the Latin Grammy Awards was complicated due to the diverse Latin musical styles, noting that the only thing they had in common was language. As a result, the Latin Grammy Awards are presented to records performed in Spanish or Portuguese, while the organization focuses on music from Latin America, Spain, and Portugal.
Since the late 1990s, the United States has had a substantially rising population of "Latinos", a term popularized since the 1960s due to the wrong and confusing use of the term "Spanish" and the more proper but less popular term "Hispanic". The music industry in the United States started to refer to any kind of music featuring Spanish vocals as "Latin music". Under this definition, Spanish sung in any genre is categorized as "Latin". In turn, this has also led to artists from Spain being labelled as "Latin" as they sing in the same language.
The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) and Billboard magazine use this definition of Latin music to track sales of Spanish-language records in the United States. The RIAA initiated the "Los Premios de Oro y Platino" ("The Gold and Platinum Awards" in Spanish) in 2000 to certify sales of Latin music albums and singles under a different threshold than its standard certifications. Billboard divides its Latin music charts into three subcategories: Latin pop, Regional Mexican, and tropical. A fourth subcategory was eventually added in the mid 2000s to address the rise of Latin urban music genres such as Latin hip hop and reggaeton.
History [ edit ]
1940s–1950s [ edit ]
The term "Latin music" originated from the US due to the growing influence of Hispanic and Latino Americans in the American music market, with notable pioneers including Xavier Cugat (1940s) and Tito Puente (1950s) and then accelerating in later decades. As one author explained the rising popularity from the 1940s: "Latin America, the one part of the world not engulfed in World War II, became a favorite topic for songs and films for Americans who wanted momentarily to forget about the conflagration." Wartime propaganda for America's "Good Neighbor Policy" further enhanced the cultural impact. Pérez Prado is the composer of such famous pieces as "Mambo No. 5" and "Mambo No. 8". At the height of the mambo movement in 1955, Pérez hit the American charts at number one with a cha-cha-chá version of "Cherry Pink and Apple Blossom White".
1960s [ edit ]
The Brazilian bossa nova became widespread in Latin America and later became an international trend, led especially by Antônio Carlos Jobim. Rock en español became popular with the younger generation of Latinos in Latin America, notably including Argentine bands such as Almendra. Mexican-American Latin rock guitarist Carlos Santana began his decades of popularity.
1970s [ edit ]
Salsa music became the dominant genre of tropical music in the 1970s. Fania Records was credited for popularizing salsa music, with acts such as Rubén Blades, Héctor Lavoe, and Celia Cruz expanding the audience. In the late 1970s, an influx of balladeers from Spain such as Julio Iglesias, Camilo Sesto, and Raphael established their presence on the music charts both in Latin America and the US Latin market. In 1972, OTI Festival was established by the Organización de Telecomunicaciones de Iberoamérica as a songwriting contest to connect the Ibero-American countries (Latin America, Spain, and Portugal) together. Ramiro Burr of Billboard noted that the contest was considered to be the "largest and most prestigious songwriting festival in the Latin music world".
1980s [ edit ]
In the 1980s, the Latin ballad continued to be the main form of Latin pop music, with Juan Gabriel, José José, Julio Iglesias, Roberto Carlos, and José Luis Rodríguez dominating the charts. Salsa music lost some traction, and its musical style changed to a slower rhythm with more emphasis on romantic lyrics. This became known as the salsa romantica era.
1990s [ edit ]
Bolero music saw a resurgence of popularity with the younger audience. Mexican singer Luis Miguel was credited for the renewed interest due to the success of his album, Romance (1991), a collection of classics covered by the artist. By the mid-1990s, Latin pop music was dominated by younger artists such as Menudo alumnus Ricky Martin, Colombian teen Shakira, and Julio's son Enrique Iglesias. Around the same time, artists from Italy such as Eros Ramazzotti, Laura Pausini, and Nek successfully crossed over to the Latin music field by recording Spanish-language versions of their songs. In the Regional Mexican field, Tejano became the most prominent genre. Selena helped push Tejano music into the mainstream market with her albums Entre a Mi Mundo (1992) and Amor Prohibido (1994), although the genre's popularity declined following her death in 1995. In the tropical music field, merengue, which gained attention in the 1980s, rivaled salsa in popularity.
2000s [ edit ]
In the mid-2000s, reggaeton became popular in the mainstream market, with Tego Calderon, Daddy Yankee, Don Omar, and Wisin & Yandel considered to be the frontiers of the genre. In the tropical music scene, bachata music became popular in the field, with artists such as Monchy & Alexandra and Aventura finding success in the urban areas of Latin America. Banda was the dominant genre in the Regional Mexican music field.
2010s [ edit ]
By the turn of the decade, the Latin music field became dominated by up-tempo rhythms, including electropop, reggaeton, urbano, banda and contemporary bachata music, as Latin ballads and crooners fell out of favor among U.S. Latin radio programmers. Streaming has become the dominant form of revenue in the Latin music industry in the United States, Latin America and Spain. Latin trap gained mainstream attention in the mid-2010s with notable artists such as Ozuna, Bad Bunny, and Anuel AA.
See also [ edit ]
- Category:Latin music by year
- Billboard Top Latin Albums
- Hot Latin Songs
- List of best-selling Latin albums in the United States
- OTI Festival
References [ edit ]
Morales, Ed (2003). The Latin beat: The Rhythms and Roots of Latin music From Bossa Nova to Salsa and Beyond (1. Da Capo Press ed.). Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press. p. xiii. ISBN 978-0-306-81018-3. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
Including Spain, there are twenty-two predominately Spanish-speaking countries, and there are many more styles of Latin music.
- Stavans, llan (2014). Latin music: musicians, genres, and themes. Santa Barbara, California:: ABC-CLIO. p. xviii, 838. ISBN 978-0-313-34396-4. Retrieved October 30, 2014.
- Lawrence, Larry; Wright, Tom (January 26, 1985). "¡Viva Latino!". Billboard. 97 (4): 53, 62. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved April 9, 2015.
- Flores, Juan; Rosaldo, Renato (2007). A Companion to Latina/o Studies. Oxford: Blackwell Pub. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-470-65826-0. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
- Llewellyn, Howell (November 25, 1995). "ShowMarket to Focus on Development of Latin Music". Billboard. 107 (47): 72. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved July 30, 2015.
- Arenas, Fernando (2011). Lusophone Africa: Beyond Independence. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-8166-6983-7. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
Stavans, Ilan; Augenbraum, Harold (2005). Encyclopedia Latina : history, culture, and society in the United States. Danbury, Conn.: Grolier Academic Reference. p. 201. ISBN 978-0-7172-5818-5.
The term Latin music identifies a wide range of genres and styles generated in Latin America and the Iberian Peninsula
- Gebesmair, Andreas (2001). Global Repertoires : Popular Music Within and Beyond the Transnational Music Industry. Taylor and Francis. p. 63. ISBN 9781138275201. Retrieved July 17, 2019.
- Fernandez, Enrique (June 18, 1983). "NARAS Takes A Welcome Step". Billboard: 73. ISSN 0006-2510.
- Fernandez, Enrique (November 1, 1986). "Latin Notas". Billboard. 98 (44): 40A. Retrieved March 22, 2015.
- Lannert, John (June 21, 1997). "LARAS Formed To Expand Latin Work of NARAS". Billboard. 109 (25): 6, 92. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
- Valdes-Rodriguez, Alisa (September 12, 2000). "One Little Word, Yet It Means So Much". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Company. Retrieved December 25, 2013.
- Fernandez, Enrique (March 5, 2000). "After Birthing Pains, Latin Grammys Should Grow Strong". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved March 9, 2017.
- Suárez-Orozco, Marcelo (2008). Latinos: Remaking America. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-25827-3.
- González, Juan (2011). Harvest of Empire: A History of Latinos in America. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-311928-9.
- Avant-Mier, Roberto (2010). Rock the Nation: Latin/o Identities and the Latin Rock Diaspora. Continuum Publishing Corporation.
- Edwards, Bob (September 13, 2000). "Profile: Latin Grammys at the Staples Center in Los Angeles". NPR. Archived from the original on February 25, 2016. Retrieved August 7, 2015.
Barkley, Elizabeth F. (2007). Crossroads: the Multicultural Roots of America's Popular Music (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. p. 232. ISBN 978-0-13-193073-5.
The U.S. record industry defines Latin music as simply any release with lyrics that are mostly in Spanish.
- Valdes-Rodriguez, Alisa (December 26, 1999). "The Loud and Quiet Explosions". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Company. Retrieved October 28, 2015.
- Cobo, Leila (April 18, 2019). "What 'Latin' Means Now, In Music and Beyond". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved July 17, 2019.
- "RIAA 2015 Year-End Latin Sales & Shipments Data Report". RIAA. 2015. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
- Cobo, Leila (January 5, 2012). "Latin Sales Down Slightly In 2011, Digital Latin Sales Up". Billboard. Retrieved September 30, 2015.
- "RIAA Updates Latin Gold & Platinum Program". RIAA. December 20, 2013. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
- "Billboard's Latin Charts Switch To SoundScan". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media: 4, 71. July 10, 1993. Retrieved January 19, 2013.
- Cobo, Leila (May 21, 2005). "New Latin Charts Bow". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media. 117 (21): 10. ISSN 0006-2510.
- Furia, Philip (2004). Skylark: The Life and Times of Johnny Mercer. Macmillan. p. 263. ISBN 978-1-4668-1923-8.
O'Neil, Brian (2005). "Carmen Miranda: The High Price of Fame and Bananas". In Ruiz, Vicki L.; Sánchez Korrol, Virginia (eds.). Latina Legacies. Oxford University Press. p. 195. ISBN 978-0-19-515398-9.
the power that Hollywood films could exert in the two-pronged campaign to win the hearts and minds of Latin Americans and to convince Americans of the benefits of Pan-American friendship
- Taffet, Jeffrey; Watcher, Dustin (2011). Latin America and the United States: A Documentary History (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-538568-7. Retrieved June 7, 2017.
- Candelaria, Cordelia (2004). Candelaria, Cordelia; García, Peter J.; Aldama, Arturo J. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Latino Popular Culture in the United States. 2. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. p. 690. ISBN 978-0-313-32215-0.
- Olsen, Dale; Sheehy, Daniel E. (2008). The Garland handbook of Latin American music (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge. p. 458. ISBN 978-0-415-96101-1. Retrieved June 7, 2017.
- Ruhlmann, William (2003). "Carlos Santana: Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved June 7, 2017.
- "Julio Iglesias receives world record certificate in Beijing". Guinness World Record. April 2, 2013. Retrieved December 24, 2013.
- Bernstein, Arthur; Sekine, Naoki; Weismann, Dick (2013). The Global Music Industry Three Perspectives. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis. p. 78. ISBN 978-1-135-92248-1. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
- Salaverri, Fernando (November 3, 1979). "Spain Establishing the Latin European Link". Billboard. 91 (44). ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved March 24, 2017.
- Burr, Ramiro (January 5, 1991). "Mexican Quartet Captures Top OTI Prize". Billboard: 61.
- Cobo, Leila (November 29, 2003). "The Prince's 40-Year Reign: A Billboard Q&A". Billboard. 115 (48): 28.
- Pietrobruno, Sheenagh (2006). Salsa and Its Transnational Moves. Lanham: Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-6058-9.
- Holston, Mark (September 1, 1995). "Ageless Romance with Bolero". Américas. Retrieved March 21, 2015.
- Powell, John (2005). Encyclopedia of North American immigration. New York: Facts On File. p. 92. ISBN 978-1-4381-1012-7.
- Obejas, Achy (April 4, 1999). "Italian Artists Conquer Latin Music Charts". Chicago Tribune. Tribune Company. Retrieved January 4, 2015.
- Saldana, Hector (August 16, 2015). "Tejano music enjoyed a decade-long golden age". San Antonio Express-News. Retrieved March 24, 2016.
- Rodriguez, Nelson (September 1, 1998). "A look at contemporary Merengue. - Free Online Library". Latin Beat Magazine. thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved July 7, 2019.
- Resto-Montero, Gabriela (January 25, 2016). "The Unstoppable Rise of Reggaeton". Fusion. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- Cobo, Leila (August 15, 2009). "Tropical Paradise". Billboard. 121 (32): 31. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- Henderson, Alex. "Me Cambiaste la Vida – Rogelio Martinez". AllMusic. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- Cobo, Leila (September 10, 2014). "Latin Noise: We Want Our Ballads". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved September 8, 2015.
- Melendez, Angel (April 25, 2017). "Why Are Spanish Songs More Popular on YouTube? Billboard's Leila Cobo Knows". Miami New Times. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
- "Trap's Latin American Takeover". The Fader. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
Further reading [ edit ]
- Stavans, Ilan (2014). Latin music: musicians, genres, and themes. Santa Barbara, California:: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-34396-4.
- Morales, Ed (2003). The Latin Beat. Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-81018-3.
- "1992 International Buyer's Guide to Latin Music". Billboard. 1992. ISSN 1074-746X.