Wikipedia

List of Chinese monarchs

This list of Chinese monarchs includes rulers of China with various titles prior to the establishment of the Republic in 1912. From the Zhou dynasty until the Qin dynasty, rulers usually held the title "king" (Chinese: ; pinyin: wáng). With the separation of China into different Warring States, this title had become so common that the unifier of China, the first Qin Emperor Qin Shihuang created a new title for himself, that of "emperor" (pinyin: huángdì). The title of Emperor of China continued to be used for the remainder of China's imperial history, right down to the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912.

While many other monarchs existed in and around China throughout its history, this list covers only those with a quasi-legitimate claim to the majority of China, or those who have traditionally been named in king-lists. The following list of Chinese monarchs is in no way comprehensive.

Chinese sovereigns were known by many different names, and how they should be identified is often confusing. Sometimes the same emperor is commonly known by two or three separate names, or the same name is used by emperors of different dynasties. The tables below do not necessarily include all of an emperor's names – for example, posthumous names could run to more than twenty characters and were rarely used in historical writing – but, where possible, the most commonly used name or naming convention has been indicated. Scholars also often use common terms to refer to some monarchs with special circumstances — "Modi" (末帝; "last emperor"), "Mozhu" (末主; "last lord"), "Houzhu" (後主; "last lord"), "Shaodi" (少帝; "young emperor"), "Shaozhu" (少主; "young lord"), "Feidi" (廢帝; "deposed emperor"), etc.; these terms are not temple names, posthumous names or regnal names.

In some cases, the regnal or era name is changed in the same year as the death of the previous sovereign; in other cases, the name change occurs in the subsequent year. Thus, the date given for the beginning of a reign may actually refer to the first full year of the sovereign's reign.

These tables may not necessarily represent the most recently updated information on Chinese monarchs; please check the page for the relevant dynasty for possible additional information.

Follow these links to see how they are related:

Family tree of ancient Chinese emperorsChinese emperors family tree (early)Chinese emperors family tree (middle)Chinese emperors family tree (late)

Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors (三皇五帝) (2852–2070 BCE) [ edit ]

Although it is ingrained in Chinese mythology that the earliest mythological rulers of China included three huáng (皇, generally translated "sovereign" or "august one") and five (帝, generally translated "emperor"), both terms denoting demigod status, their identities have differed between different sources, with some individuals, such as the Yellow Emperor, being regarded as either sovereign or emperor, depending on the source. The two characters would later be taken together by Qin Shi Huang to form the new title huángdì (皇帝, emperor), thus claiming legendary status for himself.

Note: These figures are considered to be legendary.

Title Name by which most commonly known Reign (according to tradition) In Chinese Other names
Huang1,4,5 / Di3 Youchao 3162–2962 BCE Yǒucháo 有巢
Huang/ Di3 Suiren 2962–2852 BCE Suìrén 燧人
Huang4 / Di3 Fuxi 2852–2737 BCE Fúxī 伏羲
Huang1 / Di1 Yan Emperor and/or Shennong 2737–2698 BCE Yándì 炎帝 Shennong 神農
Huang5 / Di1,2 Yellow Emperor 2698–2598 BCE Huángdì 黃帝 Xuanyuan 軒轅
Di2 Shaohao 2597–2514 BCE Shǎohào 少昊 Jintian 金天
Di1,2 Zhuanxu 2514–2436 BCE Zhuānxū 顓頊 Gaoyang 高陽
Di1 Emperor Ku 2436–2366 BCE Dìkù 帝嚳 Gaoxin 高辛
Di1 Emperor Zhi 2366–2358 BCE Dìzhì 帝摯 Qingyang 青陽
Di1 Emperor Yao (of Tang) 2356–2255 BCE Dìyáo or Táng Yáo 帝堯 / 唐堯 Yiqi, Taotang and Fangxun 伊祁、陶唐、放勳
Di1 Emperor Shun (of Yu) 2255–2208 BCE Dìshùn or Yú Shùn 帝舜 / 虞舜 Yao, Youyu and Chonghua 姚、有虞、重華
1 — According to the Records of the Grand Historian.

2 — According to the Chu Ci.

3 — According to the Book of Rites.

4 — According to the Shangshu dazhuan (尚書大傳) and Baihu tongyi (白虎通義).

5 — According to the Diwang shiji (帝王世紀)

Xia dynasty (夏朝) (2070–1600 BCE) [ edit ]

Chinese convention: use "Xia" + regnal name

Name by which most commonly known Reign (according to tradition) Regnal name 1 Other names
Yu the Great 2150–2106 BCE
Qi of Xia 2106–2077 BCE
Tai Kang 2077–2048 BCE Kāng Tài Kāng 太康
Zhong Kang 2048–2036 BCE Kāng Zhòng Kāng 仲康
Xiang of Xia 2036–2008 BCE Xiāng
Interregnum (about 40 years)
Shao Kang 1968–1946 BCE Kāng Shào Kāng 少康
Zhu of Xia 1946–1929 BCE Zhù
Huai of Xia 1929–1885 BCE Huái
Mang of Xia 1885–1867 BCE Máng
Xie of Xia 1867–1851 BCE Xiè
Bu Jiang 1851–1792 BCE Jiàng
Jiong of Xia 1792–1771 BCE Jiōng
Jin of Xia 1771–1750 BCE Jǐn Yìn Jiǎ 胤甲
Kong Jia 1750–1719 BCE Kǒng Jiǎ 孔甲
Gao of Xia 1719–1708 BCE Gāo
Fa of Xia 1708–1689 BCE Hou Jin 后敬
Jie of Xia 1689–1658 BCE Jié Lǚ Guǐ 履癸

Shang dynasty (商朝) (1600–1046 BCE) [ edit ]

Chinese convention: use "Shang" + posthumous name

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign (according to tradition)1 Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Tang of Shang Zi Lü 子湯 1658–1629 BCE Tiān Yǐ 天乙 Tàizu 太祖
Wai Bing Zi Shèng 子勝 1629–1627 BCE Wài Bǐng 外丙
Zhong Ren Zi Yōng 子庸 1627–1623 BCE Zhòng Rén 仲壬
Tai Jia Zi Zhì 子至 1623–1611 BCE Tài Jiǎ 太甲 Tàizōng 太宗
Wo Ding Zi Xuàn 子絢 1611–1592 BCE Wò Dīng 沃丁
Tai Geng Zi Biàn 子辯 1592–1567 BCE Tài Gēng 太庚
Xiao Jia Zi Gāo 子高 1567–1550 BCE Xiǎo Jiǎ 小甲
Yong Ji Zi Zhòu 子伷 1550–1538 BCE Yōng Jǐ 雍己
Tai Wu Zi Mì 子密 1538–1463 BCE Tài Wù 太戊
Zhong Ding Zi Zhuāng 子莊 1463–1452 BCE Zhòng Dīng 仲丁
Wai Ren Zi Fā 子發 1452–1437 BCE Wài Rén 外壬
He Dan Jia Zi Zhěng 子整 1437–1428 BCE Jiān Jiǎ 戔甲
Zu Yi Zi Téng 子滕 1428–1409 BCE Zǔ Yǐ 祖乙 Zhōngzōng 中宗
Zu Xin Zi Dàn 子旦 1409–1393 BCE Zǔ Xīn 祖辛
Wo Jia Zi Yú 子踰 1393–1368 BCE Wò Jiǎ 沃甲
Zu Ding Zi Xīn 子新 1368–1336 BCE Zǔ Dīng 祖丁
Nan Geng Zi Gēng 子更 1336–1307 BCE Nán Gēng 南庚
Yang Jia Zi Hé 子和 1307–1290 BCE Yáng Jiǎ 陽甲
Pan Geng Zi Xún 子旬 1290–1262 BCE Pán Gēng 盤庚
Xiao Xin Zi Sòng 子颂 1262–1259 BCE Xiǎo Xīn 小辛
Xiao Yi Zi Liǎn 子敛 1259–1250 BCE Xiǎo Yǐ 小乙
Wu Ding Zi Zhāo 子昭 1250–1192 BCE Wǔ Dīng 武丁 Gāozōng 高宗
Zu Geng Zi Yuè 子躍 1192–1185 BCE Zǔ Gēng 祖庚
Zu Jia Zi Zài 子載 1185–1158 BCE Zǔ Jiǎ 祖甲
Lin Xin Zi Xiān 子先 1158–1152 BCE Lǐn Xīn 廩辛
Kang Ding Zi Xiāo 子囂 1152–1147 BCE Kāng Dīng 康丁
Wu Yi Zi Qú 子瞿 1147–1112 BCE Wǔ Yǐ 武乙
Wen Ding Zi Tuō 子托 1112–1102 BCE Wén Dīng3 文丁
Di Yi Zi Xiàn 子羡 1101–1076 BCE Dì Yǐ 帝乙
King Zhou of Shang Zi Shòu 子受 1075–1046 BCE Di Xin 帝辛
1 — The dates provided here are those put forward by The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project, the work of scholars sponsored by the Chinese government which reported in 2000. They are given only as a guide.

2 — The period of the Shang dynasty starting from Pan Geng is also frequently referred to as the Yin (殷) dynasty. because he changed capital to Yin.

3 — Also known as Tai Ding (太丁).

Zhou dynasty (周朝) (1046–256 BCE) [ edit ]

Chinese convention: use "Zhou" + posthumous name ("Wang" is the chinese term for "King")

Note: The first generally accepted date in Chinese history is 841 BC, the beginning of the Gonghe regency. All dates prior to this are the subject of often vigorous dispute.

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign1 Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Western Zhou (西周) (1046–771 BCE)
King Wu of Zhou Jī Fā 姬發 1046–1043 BCE 1 King Wǔ 武王
King Cheng of Zhou Jī Sòng 姬誦 1042–1021 BCE 1 King Chéng 成王
King Kang of Zhou Jī Zhāo 姬釗 1020–996 BCE 1 King Kāng 康王
King Zhao of Zhou Jī Xiá 姬瑕 995–977 BCE 1 King Zhāo 昭王
King Mu of Zhou Jī Mǎn 姬滿 976–922 BCE 1 King Mù 穆王
King Gong of Zhou Jī Yīhù 姬繄扈 922–900 BCE 1 King Gōng 共王
King Yi of Zhou (Jian) Jī Jiān 姬囏 899–892 BCE 1 King Yì 懿王
King Xiao of Zhou Jī Bìfāng 姬辟方 891–886 BCE 1 King Xiào 孝王
King Yi of Zhou (Xie) Jī Xiè 姬燮 885–878 BCE 1 King Yí 夷王
King Li of Zhou Jī Hú 姬胡 877–841 BCE1 King Lì 厲王
Gonghe Regency (共和) (841–827 BC)
King Xuan of Zhou Jī Jìng 姬靜 827–782 BCE King Xuān 宣王
King You of Zhou Jī Gōngshēng 姬宮湦 781–771 BCE King Yōu 幽王
Eastern Zhou (東周) (770–256 BCE)
Spring and Autumn period (春秋時代) (770–476 BCE)
King Ping of Zhou Jī Yijiu 姬宜臼 770–720 BCE King Ping 平王
King Xie of Zhou (rival claimant) (Jī Yuchen) 姬余臣 (770–750 BCE) King Xie (or Xiehui) 攜(惠)王
King Huan of Zhou Jī Lin 姬林 719–697 BCE King Huan 桓王
King Zhuang of Zhou Jī Tuo 姬佗 696–682 BCE King Zhuang 莊王
King Xi of Zhou Jī Huqi 姬胡齊 681–677 BCE King Xi 釐王
King Hui of Zhou Jī Lang 姬閬 676–652 BCE King Hui 惠王
King Xiang of Zhou Jī Zheng 姬鄭 651–619 BCE King Xiang 襄王
King Qing of Zhou Jī Renchen 姬壬臣 618–613 BCE King Qing 頃王
King Kuang of Zhou Jī Ban 姬班 612–607 BCE King Kuang 匡王
King Ding of Zhou Jī Yu 姬瑜 606–586 BCE King Ding 定王
King Jian of Zhou Jī Yi 姬夷 585–572 BCE King Jian 簡王
King Ling of Zhou Jī Xiexin 姬泄心 571–545 BCE King Ling 靈王
King Jing of Zhou (Gui) Jī Gui 姬貴 544–521 BCE King Jing 景王
King Dao of Zhou Jī Meng 姬猛 520 BCE King Dao 悼王
King Jing of Zhou (Gai) Jī Gai 姬丐 519–476 BCE King Jing 敬王
Warring States period (戰國時代) (475–221 BCE)
King Yuan of Zhou Jī Ren 姬仁 475–469 BCE King Yuan 元王
King Zhending of Zhou Jī Jie 姬介 468–442 BCE King Zhending 貞定王
King Ai of Zhou Jī Quji 姬去疾 441 BCE King Ai 哀王
King Si of Zhou Jī Shu 姬叔 441 BCE King Si 思王
King Kao of Zhou Jī Wei 姬嵬 440–426 BCE King Kao 考王
King Weilie of Zhou Jī Wu 姬午 425–402 BCE King Weilie 威烈王
King An of Zhou Jī Jiao 姬驕 401–376 BCE King An 安王
King Lie of Zhou Jī Xi 姬喜 375–369 BCE King Lie 烈王
King Xian of Zhou Jī Bian 姬扁 368–321 BCE King Xian 顯王
King Shenjing of Zhou Jī Ding 姬定 320–315 BCE King Shenjing 慎靚王
King Nan of Zhou Jī Yan 姬延 314–256 BCE King Nan 赧王
1 — The dates provided here are those put forward by The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project, the work of scholars sponsored by the Chinese government which reported in 2000. They are given only as a guide.

After King Nan was deposed by Qin, Ji Jie (姬杰), Duke Wen of the vassal duchy of Eastern Zhou was proclaimed the new king of Zhou and claimed the title until his death in 249 BCE. However, the King of Qin had taken possession of the Nine Tripod Cauldrons (九鼎), and Ji Jie's reign was not widely recognized. Historians generally considered the title of Son of Heaven to be vacant from 256 to 221 BCE.

Qin dynasty (秦朝) (221–207 BCE) [ edit ]

Chinese convention: use regnal name

Note: The State of Qin was founded in the 9th century BCE as a vassal of the Zhou dynasty. In 325 BCE, the Duke of Qing, Ying Si (嬴駟), declared himself king and was given the regnal name King Huiwen of Qin (秦惠文王). In 256 BCE, King Zhaoxiang of Qin ended the Zhou dynasty, and in 221 BCE, Ying Zheng completed the conquest of the other states (kingdoms) and declared himself Qin Shi Huang, or "First Emperor of Qin." The unification of China under the Qin dynasty in 221 BCE is usually considered to be the beginning of Imperial China.

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Regnal name
(King Zhaoxiang of Qin)1 Yíng Zé (Yíng Jì) 嬴則 (嬴稷) (306)1 (255–251 BCE) Zhaoxiang of Qin 秦昭襄王
(King Xiaowen of Qin)1 Yíng Zhù 嬴柱 (250 BCE) Xiaowen of Qin 秦孝文王
(King Zhuangxiang of Qin)1 Yíng Zǐchǔ 嬴子楚 (249–247 BCE) Zhuangxiang of Qin 秦莊襄王
Qin Shi Huang 1,2 Yíng Zhèng 嬴政 (246)2 221–210 BCE Qin Shi Huang 秦始皇
Qin Er Shi Yíng Húhài 嬴胡亥 209–207 BCE Qin Er Shi 秦二世
Ziying 3 Yíng Zǐyīng 嬴子嬰 207 BCE Qin San Shi 秦三世
1 — Zhaoxiang's reign as king of the State of Qin began in 306 BCE before the fall of Zhou. Subsequently, in the absence of a Son of Heaven, historians conventionally used Qin regnal dates to refer to the years 255 to 222 BCE.

2Qin Shi Huang began his reign as king of Qin 246 BCE, but did not unite China and proclaim himself "Emperor" until 221 BCE.

3 — Ziying is often referred to by his personal name and as king, rather than emperor, of Qin (秦王子嬰).

Han dynasty (漢朝) (202 BCE–9 CE, 25–220 CE) [ edit ]

Chinese convention: use "Han" + posthumous name (apart from Liu Bang, who is known as "Han Gaozu")

Note that the posthumous names of many Han monarchs bear the character "xiao" (孝; "filial"), but this character is usually omitted by scholars when they are used (i.e. "Emperor Xiaowu" is normally known as "Emperor Wu")

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Western Han (西漢) (202 BCE–9 CE)
Emperor Gaozu of Han Liu Bang 劉邦 202–195 BC Emperor Gao 高皇帝 Taizu 太祖
Emperor Hui of Han Liu Ying 劉盈 195–188 BC (Empress Lü regency)1 Emperor Xiaohui 孝惠皇帝
Emperor Qianshao of Han 1 Liu Gong 劉恭 188–184 BC (Empress Lü regency)1
Emperor Houshao of Han 1 Liu Hong 劉弘 184–180 BC (Empress Lü regency)1
Emperor Wen of Han Liu Heng 劉恆 179–157 BC Hòuyuán 後元 163–156 BCE Emperor Xiaowen 孝文皇帝 Taizong 太宗
Emperor Jing of Han Liu Qi 劉啟 156–141 BC Zhōngyuán 中元 149–143 BCE Emperor Xiaojing 孝景皇帝
Hòuyuán 後元 143–141 BCE
Emperor Wu of Han Liu Che 劉徹 140–87 BC Jiànyuán 建元 140–135 BCE Emperor Xiaowu 孝武皇帝 Shizong 世宗
Yuánguāng 元光 134–129 BCE
Yuánshuò 元朔 128–123 BCE
Yuánshòu 元狩 122–117 BCE
Yuándǐng 元鼎 116–111 BCE
Yuánfēng 元封 110–105 BCE
Tàichū 太初 104–101 BCE
Tiānhàn 天漢 100–97 BCE
Tàishǐ 太始 96–93 BCE
Zhēnghé 征和 92–89 BCE
Hòuyuán 後元 88–87 BCE
Emperor Zhao of Han Liu Fuling 劉弗陵 86–74 BC Shǐyuán 始元 86–80 BCE Emperor Xiaozhao 孝昭皇帝
Yuánfèng 元鳳 80–75 BCE
Yuánpíng 元平 74 BCE
Marquis of Haihun Liu He 劉賀 74 BC
Emperor Xuan of Han Liu Xun 劉詢 73–49 BC Běnshǐ 本始 73–70 BCE Emperor Xiaoxuan 孝宣皇帝 Zhongzong 中宗
Dìjié 地節 69–66 BCE
Yuánkāng 元康 65–61 BCE
Shénjué 神爵 61–58 BCE
Wǔfèng 五鳳 57–54 BCE
Gānlù 甘露 53–50 BCE
Huánglóng 黃龍 49 BCE
Emperor Yuan of Han Liu Shi 劉奭 48–33 BC Chūyuán 初元 48–44 BCE Emperor Xiaoyuan 孝元皇帝 Gaozong3 高宗3
Yǒngguāng 永光 43–39 BCE
Jiànzhāo 建昭 38–34 BCE
Jìngníng 竟寧 33 BCE
Emperor Cheng of Han Liu Ao 劉驁 32–7 BC Jiànshǐ 建始 32–28 BCE Emperor Xiaocheng 孝成皇帝 Tongzong3 統宗3
Hépíng 河平 28–25 BCE
Yángshuò 陽朔 24–21 BCE
Hóngjiā 鴻嘉 20–17 BCE
Yǒngshǐ 永始 16–13 BCE
Yuányán 元延 12–9 BCE
Suīhé 綏和 8–7 BCE
Emperor Ai of Han Liu Xin 劉欣 6–1 BC Jiànpíng 建平 6–3 BCE Emperor Xiao'ai 孝哀皇帝
Yuánshòu 元壽 2–1 BCE
Emperor Ping of Han Liu Kan 劉衎 1 BC – 5 AD Yuánshǐ 元始 1 BCE – 5 CE Emperor Xiaoping 孝平皇帝 Yuanzong3 元宗3
Ruzi Ying 2 Liu Ying 劉嬰 6–8 Jùshè 居攝 6 CE – Oct. 8 CE
Chūshǐ 初始 Nov. 8 CE – Dec. 8 CE
Interregnum (9 CE – 23 CE)
Gengshi Emperor Liu Xuan 劉玄 23–25 Gēngshǐ 更始 23–25 CE
Eastern Han (東漢) (25–220 CE)
Emperor Guangwu of Han Liu Xiu 劉秀 25–57 Jiànwǔ 建武 25–56 CE Emperor Guangwu 光武皇帝 Shizu 世祖
Jiànwǔzhōngyuán 建武中元 56–57 CE
Emperor Ming of Han Liu Zhuang 劉莊 58–75 Yǒngpíng 永平 58–75 CE Emperor Xiaoming 孝明皇帝 Xianzong 顯宗
Emperor Zhang of Han Liu Da 劉炟 76–88 Jiànchū 建初 76–84 CE Emperor Xiaozhang 孝章皇帝 Suzong 肅宗
Yuánhé 元和 84–87 CE
Zhānghé 章和 87–88 CE
Emperor He of Han Liu Zhao 劉肇 89–105 Yǒngyuán 永元 89–105 CE Emperor Xiaohe 孝和皇帝 Muzong3 穆宗3
Yuánxīng 元興 105 CE
Emperor Shang of Han Liu Long 劉隆 106 Yánpíng 延平 9 months in 106 CE Emperor Xiaoshang 孝殤皇帝
Emperor An of Han Liu Hu 劉祜 106–125 Yǒngchū 永初 107–113 CE Emperor Xiao'an 孝安皇帝 Gongzong3 恭宗3
Yuánchū 元初 114–120 CE
Yǒngníng 永寧 120–121 CE
Jiànguāng 建光 121–122 CE
Yánguāng 延光 122–125 CE
Marquess of Beixiang Liu Yi 劉懿 125
Emperor Shun of Han Liu Bao 劉保 125–144 Yǒngjiàn 永建 126–132 CE Emperor Xiaoshun 孝順皇帝 Jingzong3 敬宗3
Yángjiā 陽嘉 132–135 CE
Yǒnghé 永和 136–141 CE
Hàn'ān 漢安 142–144 CE
Jiànkāng 建康 144 CE
Emperor Chong of Han Liu Bing 劉炳 144–145 Yōngxī 永嘉 145 CE Emperor Xiaochong 孝沖皇帝
Emperor Zhi of Han Liu Zuan 劉纘 145–146 Běnchū 本初 146 CE Emperor Xiaozhi 孝質皇帝
Emperor Huan of Han Liu Zhi 劉志 146–168 Jiànhé 建和 147–149 CE Emperor Xiaohuan 孝桓皇帝 Weizong3 威宗3
Hépíng 和平 150 CE
Yuánjiā 元嘉 151–153 CE
Yǒngxīng 永興 153–154 CE
Yǒngshòu 永壽 155–158 CE
Yánxī 延熹 158–167 CE
Yǒngkāng 永康 167 CE
Emperor Ling of Han Liu Hong 劉宏 168–189 Jiànníng 建寧 168–172 CE Emperor Xiaoling 孝靈皇帝
Xīpíng 熹平 172–178 CE
Guānghé 光和 178–184 CE
Zhōngpíng 中平 184–189 CE
Prince of Hongnong Liu Bian 劉辯 189 Guīngxī 光熹 189 CE
Zhàoníng 昭寧 189 CE
Emperor Xian of Han Liu Xie 劉協 189–220 Yǒnghàn 永漢 189 CE Emperor Xiaoxian 孝獻皇帝
Chūpíng 初平 190–193 CE
Xīngpíng 興平 194–195 CE
Jiàn'ān 建安 196–220 CE
Yánkāng 延康 220 CE
1 — Emperors Qianshao and Houshao reigned as children and were subsequently deposed. Their reigns were completely dominated by Empress Dowager Lü (吕后, personal name: Lü Zhi, 吕雉), who is often listed in their place on lists of Han rulers and Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian.

2 — Ruzi was prince, rather than emperor of Han. Officially, the throne of emperor of Han was vacant during 6AD to 9AD.

3 — Temple name was subsequently withdrew.

Xin dynasty (新朝) (9–23 CE) [ edit ]

Chinese convention: use personal name

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Wang Mang Wang Mang 王莽 9–23 Shǐjiànguó 始建國 9–13 CE
Tiānfēng 天鳳 14–19 CE
Dìhuáng 地皇 20–23 CE

Three Kingdoms (三國) (220–280 CE) [ edit ]

Chinese convention: use personal name

Cao Wei (曹魏) (220–266 CE) [ edit ]

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Courtesy name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Cao Pi Cáo Pī 曹丕 Zihuan 子桓 220–226 Huángchū 黃初 220–226 Emperor Wen 文皇帝
Cao Rui Cáo Ruì 曹叡 Yuanzhong 元仲 226–239 Tàihé 太和 227–233 Emperor Ming 明皇帝
Qīnglóng 青龍 233–237
Jǐngchū 景初 237–239
Cao Fang Cáo Fāng 曹芳 Lanqing 蘭卿 239–254 Zhèngshǐ 正始 240–249 Duke Li 厲公
Jiāpíng 嘉平 249–254
Cao Mao Cáo Máo 曹髦 Yanshi 彥士 254–260 Zhèngyuán 正元 254–256
Gānlù 甘露 256–260
Cao Huan Cáo Huàn 曹奐 Jingming 景明 260–266 Jǐngyuán 景元 260–264 Emperor Yuan 元皇帝
Xiánxī 咸熙 264–266

Shu Han (蜀漢) (221–263 CE) [ edit ]

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Courtesy name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Liu Bei Liú Bèi 劉備 Xuande 玄德 221–223 Zhāngwǔ 章武 221–223 Emperor Zhaolie 昭烈皇帝
Liu Shan Liú Shàn 劉禪 Gongsi 公嗣 223–263 Jiànxīng 建興 223–237 Emperor Xiaohuai 孝懷皇帝
Yánxī 延熙 238–257
Jǐngyào 景耀 258–263
Yánxīng 炎興 263

Eastern Wu (東吳) (222–280 CE) [ edit ]

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Courtesy name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Sun Quan Sūn Quán 孫權 Zhongmou 仲謀 222–252 Huángwǔ 黃武 222–229 Emperor Da 大皇帝
Huánglóng 黃龍 229–231
Jiāhé 嘉禾 232–238
Chìwū 赤烏 238–251
Tàiyuán 太元 251–252
Shénfèng 神鳳 252
Sun Liang Sūn Liàng 孫亮 Ziming 子明 252–258 Jiànxīng 建興 252–253
Wǔfèng 五鳳 254–256
Tàipíng 太平 256–258
Sun Xiu Sūn Xiū 孫休 Zilie 子烈 258–264 Yǒngān 永安 258–264 Emperor Jing 景皇帝
Sun Hao Sūn Hào 孫皓 Yuanzong 元宗 264–280 Yuánxīng 元興 264–265
Gānlù 甘露 265–266
Bǎodǐng 寶鼎 266–269
Jiànhéng 建衡 269–271
Fènghuáng 鳳凰 272–274
Tiāncè 天冊 275–276
Tiānxǐ 天璽 276
Tiānjì 天紀 277–280

Jin dynasty (晉朝) (266–420 CE) [ edit ]

Chinese convention: Use "Jin" + posthumous name

Note that the posthumous names of some Jin monarchs bore the character "xiao" (孝; "filial"), but this character is usually omitted by scholars when referencing these monarchs by their posthumous names (i.e. "Emperor Xiaohui" is normally known as "Emperor Hui")

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號)

and their corresponding range of years
Posthumous name

(Shi Hao 諡號)
Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Western Jin (西晉) (266–316 CE)
Emperor Wu of Jin Sīmǎ Yán 司馬炎 266–290 Tàishǐ 泰始 266–274 Emperor Wu 武皇帝 Shizu 世祖
Xiánníng 咸寧 275–280
Tàikāng 太康 280–289
Tàixī 太熙 290
Emperor Hui of Jin Sīmǎ Zhōng 司馬衷 290–306 Yǒngxī 永熙 290 Emperor Xiaohui 孝惠皇帝
Yǒngpīng 永平 291
Yuánkāng 元康 291–299
Yǒngkāng 永康 300–301
Yǒngníng 永寧 301–302
Tàiān 太安 302–303
Yǒngān 永安 304
Jiànwǔ 建武 304
Yǒngān 永安 304
Yǒngxīng 永興 304–306
Guāngxī 光熙 306
Emperor Huai of Jin Sīmǎ Chì 司馬熾 307–313 Yǒngjiā 永嘉 307–313 Emperor Xiaohuai 孝懷皇帝
Emperor Min of Jin Sīmǎ Yè 司馬鄴 313–317 Jiànxīng 建興 313–317 Emperor Xiaomin 孝愍皇帝
Eastern Jin (東晉) (317–420 CE)
Emperor Yuan of Jin Sīmǎ Ruì 司馬睿 317–322 Jiànwǔ 建武 317–318 Emperor Yuan 元皇帝 Zhōngzōng 中宗
Dàxīng 大興 318–321
Yǒngchāng 永昌 321–322
Emperor Míng of Jin Sīmǎ Shào 司馬紹 322–325 Yǒngchāng 永昌 322–323 Emperor Ming 明皇帝 Suzu 肅祖
Tàiníng 太寧 323–325
Emperor Cheng of Jin Sīmǎ Yǎn 司馬衍 325–342 Tàiníng 太寧 325 Emperor Cheng 成皇帝 Xianzong 顯宗
Xiánhé 咸和 326–334
Xiánkāng 咸康 335–342
Emperor Kang of Jin Sīmǎ Yuè 司馬岳 342–344 Jiànyuán 建元 343–344 Emperor Kang 康皇帝
Emperor Mu of Jin Sima Dān 司馬聃 345–361 Yǒnghé 永和 345–356 Emperor Mu 穆皇帝 Xianzong 顯宗
Shēngpíng 升平 357–361
Emperor Ai of Jin Sīmǎ Pī 司馬丕 361–365 Lónghé 隆和 362–363 Emperor Ai 哀皇帝
Xīngníng 興寧 363–365
Emperor Fei of Jin Sīmǎ Yì 司馬奕 365–371 Tàihé 太和 365–371
Emperor Jianwen of Jin Sīmǎ Yù 司馬昱 371–372 Xiánān 咸安 371–372 Emperor Jianwen 簡文皇帝 Taizong 太宗
Emperor Xiaowu of Jin Sīmǎ Yào 司馬曜 372–396 Níngkāng 寧康 373–375 Emperor Xiaowu 孝武皇帝 Lièzōng 烈宗
Tàiyuán 太元 376–396
Emperor An of Jin Sīmǎ Dézōng 司馬德宗 396–418 Lóngān 隆安 397–401 Emperor An 安皇帝
Yuánxīng 元興 402–404
Yìxī 義熙 405–418
Emperor Gong of Jin Sīmǎ Déwén 司馬德文 419–420 Yuánxī 元熙 419–420 Emperor Gong 恭皇帝

Sixteen Kingdoms (十六國) (304–439 CE) [ edit ]

Chinese convention: use personal name

Han Zhao (漢趙) (304–329 CE) [ edit ]

Note: addressed separately in traditional texts as Han (漢) and Qian (Former) Zhao (前趙)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Northern Han (北漢) (304–318 CE)
Liu Yuan 劉淵 304–310 Jiànxīng 建興 304–307 Emperor Guangwen 光文皇帝 Gao Zu 高祖
Yǒngfèng 永鳳 308
Héruì 河瑞 309
Guāngxīng 光興 310
Liu He 劉和 7 days in 310
Liu Cong 劉聰 310–318 Emperor Zhaowu 昭武皇帝 Lie Zong 烈宗
Jiāpíng 嘉平 311–315
Jiànyuán 建元 316
Línjiā 麟嘉 317–318
Liu Can 劉粲 a month and some days in 318 Hànchāng (until renaming as Former Zhao) 漢昌 318 Emperor Yin 隱皇帝
Former Zhao (前趙) (318–329 CE)
Liu Yao 劉曜 318–329 Guāngchū (until conquest by Later Zhao) 光初 318–329

Cheng Han (成漢) (304–347 CE) [ edit ]

Note: addressed separately in traditional texts as Cheng (成) and Han (漢)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Cheng (成) (304–338 CE)
Li Te 李特 303 Jiànchū

or

Jǐngchū

建初

or

景初

303 Emperor Jing 景皇帝 Shǐzu

or

Shìzu
始祖

or

世祖

Li Liu 李流 several months in 303 Prince Wen of Qin 秦文王
Li Xiong 李雄 303–334 Emperor Wu 武皇帝 Taizong 太宗
Jiànxīng 建興 304–305
Yànpīng 晏平 306–310
Yùhéng 玉衡 311–334
Li Ban 李班 7 months in 334 Emperor Ai 哀皇帝
Li Qi 李期 334–338 Hànxīng 漢興 337–338 Duke You 幽公
Han (漢) (338–347 CE)
Li Shou 李壽 338–343 Hànxīng (漢興) 338–343 (continuation) 漢興 338–343 (continuation) Emperor Zhaowen 昭文皇帝 Zhongzong 中宗
Li Shi 李勢 343–347 Tàihé 太和 344–345
Jiāníng 嘉寧 346–347 (until conquest by Eastern Jin)

Later Zhao (後趙) (319–351 CE) [ edit ]

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Shi Le 石勒 319–333 Prince Zhao 趙王 319–327 Emperor Ming 明皇帝 Gaozu 高祖
Tàihé 太和 328–329
Jiànpíng 建平 330–332
Yánxī 延熙 333
Shi Hong 石弘 333–334 Yánxī 延熙 333
Jiànwǔ 建武 334
Shi Hu 石虎 334–349 Jiànwǔ 建武 335–348 Emperor Wu 武皇帝 Taizu 太祖
Taìníng 太寧 349
Shi Shi 石世 73 days in 349
Shi Zun 石遵 183 days in 349
Shi Jian 石鑒 103 days within 349–350 Qīnglóng 青龍 (changed mid-year)
Shi Zhi 石祗 350–351 Yǒngníng 永寧 350–351 (until Ran Min's coup)

Former Liang (前涼) (320–376 CE) [ edit ]

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Zhang Mao 張茂 320–324 Jianxing 建興 320–354 Prince Cheng 成王
Zhang Jun 張駿 324–346 Prince Wen 文王
Zhang Chonghua 張重華 346–353 Prince Huan 桓王
Zhang Yaoling 張曜靈 3 months (the ninth to the twelfth month) in 353 Duke Ai 哀公
Zhang Zuo 張祚 353–355 Prince Wei 威王
Heping 和平 354–355
Zhang Xuanjing 張玄靚 355–363 Jianxing 建興 355–361 Duke Jingdao

or

Prince Chong
敬悼公

or

沖王

Shengping 升平 361–376
Zhang Tianxi 張天錫 364–376 Duke Dao 悼公

Former Yan (前燕) (337–370 CE) [ edit ]

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Murong Huang 慕容皝 337–348 Yànwáng 燕王 337–348 Emperor Wenming 文明皇帝 Taizu 太祖
Murong Jun 慕容俊 348–360 Yànyuán 燕元 349–351 Emperor Jingzhao 景昭皇帝 Liezong 烈宗
Yuánxǐ 元璽 352–357
Shēngpíng 升平 357 (as vassal of Jin)
Guāngshòu 光壽 357–359
Murong Wei 慕容暐 360–370 Jiànxī 建熙 359–365 Emperor You 幽皇帝
Jiànyuán 建元 366–370

Former Qin (前秦) (351–394 CE) [ edit ]

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Fu Jian 苻健 351–355 Huangshi 皇始 351–355 Emperor Jingming 景明皇帝 Gaozu 高祖
Fu Sheng 苻生 355–357 Shouguang 壽光 355–357 Prince Li 厲王
Fu Jian 苻堅 357–385 Yongxing 永興 357–359 Emperor Xuanzhao 宣昭皇帝 Shizu 世祖
Ganlu 甘露 359–364
Jianyuan 建元 365–385
Fu Pi 苻丕 385–386 Taian 太安 385–386 Emperor Aiping 哀平皇帝
Fu Deng 苻登 386–394 Taichu 太初 385–394 Emperor Gao 高皇帝 Taizong 太宗
Fu Chong 苻崇 several months in 394 Yanchu 延初 394

Later Yan (後燕) (384–409 CE) [ edit ]

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Murong Chui 慕容垂 384–396 Yànwáng 燕王 384–385 Emperor Chengwu 成武皇帝 Shizu 世祖
Jianxing 建興 386–396
Murong Bao 慕容寶 396–398 Yongkang 永康 396–398 Emperor Huimin 惠愍皇帝 Liezong 烈宗
Murong Sheng 慕容盛 398–401 Jianping 建平 398 Emperor Zhaowu 昭武皇帝 Zhongzong 中宗
Changle 長樂 399–401
Murong Xi 慕容熙 401–407 Guangshi 光始 401–406 Emperor Zhaowen 昭文皇帝
Jianshi 建始 407

Later Qin (後秦) (384–417 CE) [ edit ]

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Yao Chang 姚萇 384–393 Baique 白雀 384–386 Emperor Wuzhao 武昭皇帝 Taizu 太祖
Jianchu 建初 386–393
Yao Xing 姚興 394–416 Huangchu 皇初 394–399 Emperor Wenhuan 文桓皇帝 Gaozu 高祖
Hongshi 弘始 399–416
Yao Hong 姚泓 416–417 Yonghe 永和 416–417

Western Qin (西秦) (385–400 CE, 409–431 CE) [ edit ]

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Qifu Guoren 乞伏國仁 385–388 Jianyi 建義 385–388 Prince Xuanlie 宣烈王 Liezu 烈祖
Qifu Gangui 乞伏乾歸 388–400 Taichu 太初 388–400 Prince Wuyuan 武元王 Gaozu 高祖
409–412 Gengshi 更始 409–412
Qifu Chipan 乞伏熾磐 412–428 Yongkang 永康 412–419 Prince Wenzhao 文昭王 Taizu 太祖
Jianhong 建弘 420–428
Qifu Mumo 乞伏暮末 428–431 Yonghong 永弘 428–431

Later Liang (後涼) (386–403 CE) [ edit ]

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Lü Guang 呂光 386–399 Taian 太安 386–389 Emperor Yiwu 懿武皇帝 Taizu 太祖
Linjia 麟嘉 389–396
Longfei 龍飛 396–399
Lü Shao 呂紹 399 Prince Yin 隱王
Lü Zuan 呂纂 399–401 Xianning 咸寧 399–401 Emperor Ling 靈皇帝
Lü Long 呂隆 401–403 Shending 神鼎 401–403

Southern Liang (南涼) (397–414 CE) [ edit ]

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Tufa Wugu 禿髮烏孤 397–399 Taichu 太初 397–399 Prince Wu 武王 Liezu 烈祖
Tufa Lilugu 禿髮利鹿孤 399–402 Jianhe 建和 399–402 Prince Kang 康王
Tufa Rutan 禿髮傉檀 402–414 Hongchang 弘昌 402–404 Prince Jǐng 景王
Jiaping 嘉平) 409–414

Northern Liang (北涼) (397–439 CE) [ edit ]

Note: The Northern Liang was re-established at Gaochang in 442 CE.

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Duan Ye 段業 397–401 Shenxi 神璽 397–399
Tianxi 天璽 399–401
Juqu Mengxun 沮渠蒙遜 401–433 Yongan 永安 401–412 Prince Wuxuan 武宣王 Taizu 太祖
Xuanshi 玄始 412–428
Chengxuan 承玄 428–430
Yihe 義和 430–433
Juqu Mujian 沮渠牧犍 433–439 Yonghe 永和 433–439 Prince Ai 哀王
Juqu Wuhui 沮渠無諱 442–444 Chengping 承平 442–443
Qianshou 乾壽 443–444
Juqu Anzhou 沮渠安周 444–460 Chengping 承平 444–460

Southern Yan (南燕) (398–410 CE) [ edit ]

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Murong De 慕容德 398–405 Yanwang 燕王 398–400 Emperor Xianwu 獻武皇帝 Shizong 世宗
Jianping 建平 400–405
Murong Chao 慕容超 405–410 Taishang 太上 405–410

Western Liang (西涼) (400–421 CE) [ edit ]

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Li Gao 李暠 400–417 Gengzi 庚子 400–405 Prince Wuzhao 武昭王 Taizu 太祖
Jianchu 建初 406–416
Li Xin 李歆 417–420 Jiaxing 嘉興 417–420
Li Xun 李恂 420–421 Yongjian 永建 420–421

Hu Xia (胡夏) (407–431 CE) [ edit ]

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Helian Bobo 赫連勃勃 407–425 Longsheng 龍升 407–413 Emperor Wulie 武烈皇帝 Shizu 世祖
Fengxiang 鳳翔 413–418
Changwu 昌武 418–419
Zhenxing 真興 419–425
Helian Chang 赫連昌 425–428 Chengguang 承光 425–428
Helian Ding 赫連定 428–431 Shengguang 勝光 425–428

Northern Yan (北燕) (407–436 CE) [ edit ]

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Gao Yun 高雲/慕容雲 407–409 Zhengshi 正始 407–409 Emperor Huiyi 惠懿皇帝
Feng Ba 馮跋 409–430 Taiping 太平 409–430 Emperor Wencheng 文成皇帝 Taizu 太祖
Feng Hong 馮弘 430–436 Daxing 大興 430–436 Emperor Zhaocheng 昭成皇帝

Other sovereignties traditionally not counted among the Sixteen Kingdoms [ edit ]

Convention: use personal name

Ran Wei (冉魏) (350–352 CE) [ edit ]

Note: addressed as Wei in traditional texts

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Ran Min 冉閔 350–352 Yongxing 永興 350–352 Heavenly King Wudao

or

Emperor Ping
武悼天王

or

平皇帝

Western Yan (西燕) (384–394 CE) [ edit ]

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Murong Hong 慕容泓 384 Yanxing 燕興 384–385 Emperor Wei 威皇帝
Murong Chong 慕容沖 384–386
Gengshi 更始 385–386
Duan Sui 段隨 386 Changping 昌平 386
Murong Yi 慕容顗 386 Jianming 建明 386
Murong Yao 慕容瑤 386 Jianping 建平 386
Murong Zhong 慕容忠 386 Jianwu 建武 386
Murong Yong 慕容永 386–394 Zhongxing 中興 386–394

Western Shu (西蜀) (405–413 CE) [ edit ]

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Qiao Zong 譙縱 405–413

Tiefu tribe (匈奴 鐵弗部) (mid 3rd century–391 CE) [ edit ]

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Liu Qubei 劉去卑 mid-3rd century
Liu Gaoshengyuan 劉誥升爰 mid-3rd century – late 3rd century
Liu Hu 劉虎 early 4th century (309?) – 341
Liu Wuheng 劉務恒 341–356
Liu Eloutou 劉閼陋頭 356–358
Liu Xiwuqi 劉悉勿祈 358–359
Liu Weichen 劉衛辰 359–391

Yuwen tribe (鮮卑 宇文部) (late 3rd century–345 CE) [ edit ]

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Yuwen Mohuai 宇文莫槐 late 3rd century – 293
Yuwen Puhui

or

Yuwen Pubo
宇文普回

or

宇文普撥

293 – late 3rd century
Yuwen Qiubuqin 宇文丘不勤 late 3rd century
Yuwen Mogui 宇文莫圭 late 3rd century (299?) early 4th century (302?)
Yuwen Xiduguan 宇文悉獨官 early 3rd century
Yuwen Qidegui 宇文乞得歸 early 3rd century – 333
Yuwen Yidougui 宇文逸豆歸 333–345

Duan tribe (鮮卑 段部) (303–338 CE) [ edit ]

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Duan Wuwuchen 段務勿塵 303 – 310 or 311
Duan Jilujuan 段疾陸眷 310 or 311 – 318
Duan Shefuchen 段涉復辰 318
Duan Pidi 段匹磾 318–321
Duan Mopei 段末柸 318–325
Duan Ya 段牙 325
Duan Liao 段遼 326–338

Chouchi (仇池) (296–371 CE, 385–443 CE) [ edit ]

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Former Chouchi (前仇池) (296–371 CE)
Yang Teng 楊騰 late 2nd century early 3rd century
Yang Ju 楊駒 early 3rd century
Yang Qianwan 楊千萬 early 3rd century – mid-3rd century
Yang Feilong 楊飛龍 mid-3rd century – late 3rd century
Yang Maosou 楊茂搜 late 3rd century – 317
Yang Nandi 楊難敵 317–334
Yang Yi 楊毅 334–337
Yang Chu 楊初 337–355
Yang Guo 楊國 355–356
Yang Jun 楊俊 356–360
Yang Shi 楊世 360–370
Yang Cuan 楊篡 370–371
Later Chouchi (後仇池) (385–473 CE)
Yang Ding 楊定 385–394 King Wǔ 武王
Yang Sheng 楊盛 394–425 King Huìwén 惠文王
Yang Xuan 楊玄 425–429 King Xiàozhāo 孝昭王
Yang Baozong 楊保宗 429 and 443
Yang Nandang 楊難當 429–441 Jianyi 建義 436–440
Yang Baochi 楊保熾 442–443
Yang Wende 楊文德 443–454
Yang Yuanhe 楊元和 455–466
Yang Sengsi 楊僧嗣 466–473

Wuxing (武興) (473–506 CE, 534–555 CE) [ edit ]

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Yang Wendu 楊文度 473–477
Yang Wenhong 楊文弘 477–482
Yang Houqi 楊後起 482–486
Yang Jishi 楊集始 482–503 King An 安王
Yang Shaoxian 楊紹先 503–506, 534–535
Yang Zhihui1 楊智慧 535–545
Yang Bixie1 楊辟邪 545–553
1 — Yang Zhihui and Yang Bixie could be the same person.

Yinping (陰平) (477–mid-6th century CE) [ edit ]

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Yang Guangxiang 楊廣香 477–483?
Yang Jiong 楊炯 483–495
Yang Chongzu 楊崇祖 495-before 502
Yang Mengsun 楊孟孫 before 502–511
Yang Ding 楊定 511- ?

Tuoba tribe (鮮卑 拓拔部) (219–376 CE) & Dai (代) (310–376 CE) [ edit ]

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Tuoba Liwei3 拓拔力微 219–277 Emperor Shényuán 神元皇帝
Tuoba Xilu 拓拔悉鹿 277–286 Emperor Zhāng 章皇帝
Tuoba Chuo 拓拔綽 286–293 Emperor Píng 平皇帝
Tuoba Fu 拓拔弗 293–294 Emperor Sī 思皇帝
Tuoba Luguan 拓拔祿官 294–307 Emperor Zhāo 昭皇帝
Tuoba Yituo 拓拔猗㐌 295–305 Emperor Huán 桓皇帝
Tuoba Yilu 拓拔猗盧 295–316 Emperor Mù 穆皇帝
Tuoba Liugen 拓跋六根 316
Tuoba Pugen 拓拔普根 316
Tuoba Shisheng 拓跋始生 316
Tuoba Yulü 拓拔鬱律 316–321 Emperor Píngwén 平文皇帝
Tuoba Heru 拓拔賀傉 321–325 Emperor Huì 惠皇帝
Tuoba Hena 拓拔紇那 325–329 and 335–337 Emperor Yáng 煬皇帝
Tuoba Yihuai 拓拔翳槐 329–335 and 337–338 Emperor Liè 烈皇帝
Tuoba Shiyijian 拓拔什翼健 338–376 Jianguo 建國 338–376 Emperor Zhāochéng 昭成皇帝
1 — All chieftains were revered as emperors in Weishu and Beishi which they never were. They were denoted here as king (wáng) (王) which was inherited by all successors of Tuoba Yi Lu.

2 — The Tuoba clan was the ruling family of Northern Wei dynasty, founded by Tuoba Gui. Hence the Table of Northern Wei dynasty will start with him, not as a continuation of this table.

3 — Tuoba Liwei had the temple name Shizu (始祖). He was the only chieftain before Tuoba Gui revered with a temple name

Northern and Southern Dynasties (南北朝) (386–589 CE) [ edit ]

Northern dynasties (北朝) (386–581 CE) [ edit ]

Chinese convention: use dynasty name + posthumous name

Northern Wei (北魏) (386–535 CE) [ edit ]

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Emperor Daowu of Northern Wei Tuoba Gui 拓拔珪 386–409 Dengguo 登國 386–396 Emperor Daowu 道武皇帝
Huangsh 皇始 396–398
Tianxing 天興 398–404
Tianci 天賜 404–409
Emperor Mingyuan of Northern Wei Tuoba Si 拓拔嗣 409–423 Yongxing 永興 409–413 Emperor Mingyuan 明元皇帝
Shenrui 神瑞 414–416
Taichang 泰常 416–423
Emperor Taiwu of Northern Wei Tuoba Tao 拓拔燾 424–452 Shiguang 始光 424–428 Emperor Taiwu 太武皇帝
Shenjia 神䴥 428–431
Yanhe 延和 432–434
Taiyan 太延 435–440
Taipingzhenjun 太平真君 440–451
Zhengping 正平 451–452
Tuoba Yu Tuoba Yu 拓拔余 452 Chengping 承平 452 Prince Yin 隱王
Emperor Wencheng of Northern Wei Tuoba Jun 拓拔濬 452–465 Xingan 興安 452–454 Emperor Wencheng 文成皇帝
Xingguang 興光 454–455
Tai'an 太安 455–459
Heping 和平 460–465
Emperor Xianwen of Northern Wei Tuoba Hong 拓拔弘 466–471 Tian'an 天安 466–467 Emperor Xianwen 獻文皇帝
Huangxing 皇興 467–471
Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei Yuan1 Hong (Tuoba Hong) 元宏 (拓跋宏) 471–499 Yanxing 延興 471–476 Emperor Xiaowen 孝文皇帝
Chengming 承明 476
Taihe 太和 477–499
Emperor Xuanwu of Northern Wei Yuan Ke 元恪 499–515 Jingming 景明 500–503 Emperor Xuanwu 宣武皇帝
Zhengshi 正始 504–508
Yongping 永平 508–512
Yanchang 延昌 512–515
Emperor Xiaoming of Northern Wei Yuan Xu 元詡 516–528 Xiping 熙平 516–518 Emperor Xiaoming 孝明皇帝
Shengui 神龜 518–520
Zhengguang 正光 520–525
Xiaochang 孝昌 525–527
Wutai 武泰 528
Yuan Zhao Yuan Zhao 元釗 528
Emperor Xiaozhuang of Northern Wei Yuan Ziyou 元子攸 528–530 Jianyi 建義 528 Emperor Xiaozhuang 孝莊皇帝
Yong'an 永安 528–530
Yuan Ye Yuan Ye 元曄 530–531 Jianming (建明) 530–531 建明 530–531
Emperor Jiemin of Northern Wei Yuan Gong 元恭 531–532 Putai (普泰) 531–532 普泰 531–532 Emperor Jiemin 節閔皇帝
Yuan Lang Yuan Lang 元朗 531–532 Zhongxing (中興) 531–532 中興 531–532
Emperor Xiaowu of Northern Wei Yuan Xiu 元脩 532–535 Taichang 太昌 532 Emperor Xiaowu 孝武皇帝
Yongxing 永興 532
Yongxi 永熙 532–535
1 – The Tuoba family changed their family name to 元 (yuán) during the reign of the Emperor Xiaowen in 496 so that is reflected in the table as well.

Eastern Wei (東魏) (534–550 CE) [ edit ]

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Emperor Xiaojing of Eastern Wei Yuan Shanjian 元善見 534–550 Tianping 天平 534–537 Emperor Xiaojing 孝靜皇帝
Yuanxiang 元象 538–539
Xinghe 興和 539–542
Wuding 武定 543–550

Western Wei (西魏) (535–557 CE) [ edit ]

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Emperor Wen of Western Wei Yuan Baoju 元寶炬 535–551 Datong 大統 535–551 Emperor Wen 文皇帝
Emperor Fei of Western Wei Yuan Qin 元欽 552–554
Emperor Gong of Western Wei Tuoba Kuo 拓拔廓 554–557 Emperor Gong 恭皇帝

Northern Qi (北齊) (550–577 CE) [ edit ]

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reigns Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi Gao Yang 高洋 550–559 Tianbao 天保 550–559 Emperor Wenxuan 文宣皇帝
Emperor Fei of Northern Qi Gao Yin 高殷 559–560 Qianming 乾明 560
Emperor Xiaozhao of Northern Qi Gao Yan 高演 560–561 Huangjian 皇建 560–561 Emperor Xiaozhao 孝昭皇帝
Emperor Wucheng of Northern Qi Gao Zhan 高湛 561–565 Taining 太寧 561–562 Emperor Wucheng 武成皇帝
Heqing 河清 562–565
Gao Wei Gao Wei 高緯 565–577 Tiantong 天統 565–569
Wuping 武平 570–576
Longhua 隆化 576
Gao Heng Gao Heng 高恆 577 Chengguang 承光 577
Gao Shaoyi Gao Shaoyi 高紹義 577–579?

Northern Zhou (北周) (557–581 CE) [ edit ]

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reigns Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Emperor Xiaomin of Northern Zhou Yuwen Jue 宇文覺 557 Emperor Xiaomin 孝閔皇帝
Emperor Ming of Northern Zhou Yuwen Yu 宇文毓 557–560 Wucheng 武成 559–560 Emperor Ming

or

Emperor Xiaoming
明皇帝

or

孝明皇帝

Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou Yuwen Yong 宇文邕 561–578 Baoding 保定 560–565 Emperor Wu 武皇帝
Tianhe 天和 566–572
Jiande 建德 572–578
Xuanzheng 宣政 578
Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou Yuwen Yun 宇文贇 578–579 Dacheng 大成 579 Emperor Xuan 宣皇帝
Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou Yuwen Chan 宇文闡 579–581 Daxiang 大象 579–581 Emperor Jing 靜皇帝
Dading 大定 581

Southern dynasties (南朝) (420–589 CE) [ edit ]

Chinese convention: use dynasty name + posthumous name

Liu Song (劉宋) (420–479 CE) [ edit ]

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Emperor Wu of Liu Song Liu Yu 劉裕 420–422 Yongchu 永初 420–422 Emperor Wu 武皇帝
Emperor Shao of Liu Song Liu Yifu 劉義符 423–424 Jingping 景平 423–424
Emperor Wen of Liu Song Liu Yilong 劉義隆 424–453 Yuanjia 元嘉 424–453 Emperor Wen 文皇帝
Emperor Xiaowu of Liu Song Liu Jun 劉駿 454–464 Xiaojian 元嘉 454–456 Emperor Xiaowu 孝武皇帝
Daming 大明 457–464
Emperor Qianfei of Liu Song Liu Ziye 劉子業 465 Yongguang 永光 465
Jinghe 景和 465
Emperor Ming of Liu Song Liu Yu 劉彧 465–472 Taishi 泰始 465–471 Emperor Ming

明皇帝
Taiyu 泰豫 472
Emperor Houfei of Liu Song Liu Yu 劉昱 473–477 Yuanhui 元徽 473–477 Prince Cangwu 蒼梧王
Emperor Shun of Liu Song Liu Zhun 劉準 477–479 Shengming 昇明 477–479 Emperor Shun 順皇帝

Southern Qi (南齊) (479–502 CE) [ edit ]

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Emperor Gao of Southern Qi Xiao Daocheng 蕭道成 479–482 Jianyuan 建元 479–482 Emperor Gao 高皇帝
Emperor Wu of Southern Qi Xiao Ze 蕭賾 482–493 Yongming 永明 483–493 Emperor Wu 武皇帝
Xiao Zhaoye Xiao Zhaoye 蕭昭業 493–494 Longchang 隆昌 494
Xiao Zhaowen Xiao Zhaowen 蕭昭文 494 Yanxing 延興 494 Prince Gong 恭王
Emperor Ming of Southern Qi Xiao Luan 蕭鸞 494–498 Jianwu 建武 494–498 Emperor Ming 明皇帝
Yongtai 永泰 498
Xiao Baojuan Xiao Baojuan 蕭寶卷 499–501 Yongyuan 永元 499–501 Marquess Yang 煬侯
Emperor He of Southern Qi Xiao Baorong 蕭寶融 501–502 Zhongxing 中興 501–502 Emperor He 和皇帝

Liang dynasty (梁朝) (502–557 CE) [ edit ]

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Emperor Wu of Liang Xiao Yan 蕭衍 502–549 Tianjian 天監 502–519 Emperor Wu 武皇帝
Putong 普通 520–527
Datong 大通 527–529
Zhongdatong 中大通 529–534
Datong 大同 535–546
Zhongdatong 中大同 546–547
Taiqing 太清 547–549
Emperor Jianwen of Liang Xiao Gang 蕭綱 549–551 Dabao 大寶 550–551 Emperor Jianwen 簡文皇帝
Xiao Dong Xiao Dong 蕭棟 551–552 Tianzheng 天正 551–552
Emperor Yuan of Liang Xiao Yi 蕭繹 552–555 Chengsheng 承聖 552–555 Emperor Xiaoyuan 孝元皇帝
Xiao Yuanming Xiao Yuanming 蕭淵明 555 Tiancheng 天成 555 Emperor Min 閔皇帝
Emperor Jing of Liang Xiao Fangzhi 蕭方智 555–557 Shaotai 紹泰 555–556 Emperor Jing 敬皇帝
Taiping 太平 556–557
Western Liang (西梁) (555–587 CE)
Emperor Xuan of Western Liang Xiao Cha 蕭詧 555–562 Dading 大定 555–562 Emperor Xuan 宣皇帝
Emperor Ming of Western Liang Xiao Kui 蕭巋 562–585 Tianbao 天保 562–585 Emperor Xiaoming 孝明皇帝
Emperor Jing of Western Liang Xiao Cong 蕭琮 585–587 Guangyun 廣運 562–585 Emperor Xiaojing 孝靖皇帝

Chen dynasty (陳朝) (557–589 CE) [ edit ]

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Emperor Wu of Chen Chen Baxian 陳霸先 557–559 Yongding 永定 557–559 Emperor Wu 武皇帝
Emperor Wen of Chen Chen Qian 陳蒨 559–566 Tianjia 天嘉 560–566 Emperor Wen 文皇帝
Tiankang 天康 566
Emperor Fei of Chen Chen Bozong 陳伯宗 566–568 Guangda 光大 566–568
Emperor Xuan of Chen Chen Xu 陳頊 569–582 Taijian 太建 569–582 Emperor Xiaoxuan 孝宣皇帝
Chen Shubao Chen Shubao 陳叔寶 583–589 Zhide 至德 583–586
Zhenming 禎明 587–589

Sui dynasty (隋朝) (581–619 CE) [ edit ]

Chinese convention: use "Sui" + posthumous name

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) (and the corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Emperor Wen of Sui Yáng Jiān 楊堅 581–604 Kāihuáng 開皇 581–600 Emperor Wen 文皇帝
Rénshòu 仁壽 601–604
Emperor Yang of Sui Yáng Guǎng 楊廣 605–617 Dàyè 大業 605–617 Emperor Yang 煬皇帝
Yang You 1 Yáng Yòu 楊侑 617–618 Yìníng 義寧 617–618 Emperor Gong 恭皇帝
Yang Hao 2 Yáng Hào 楊浩 618 Huángtài 皇泰 618–619
Yang Tong 3 Yáng Tóng 楊侗 618–619 Emperor Gong 恭皇帝

1 — Declared emperor by Li Yuan (the later Emperor Gaozu of Tang), implying a retirement for Emperor Yang (whom he "honoured" as Taishang Huang, or retired emperor) at the western capital Daxing (Chang'an), but only the commanderies under Li's control recognized this change; for the other commanderies under Sui control, Emperor Yang was still regarded as emperor, not as retired emperor. Now generally regarded as a legitimate emperor, due to his recognition by Li Yuan.

2 — Declared emperor by Yuwen Huaji, the general under whose leadership the plot to kill Emperor Yang was carried out, but killed by him later in 618; Yuwen Huaji then declared himself emperor of a brief Xu (許) state. As Yang Hao was completely under Yuwen's control and only "reigned" briefly, he is not usually regarded as a legitimate emperor.

3 — After news of Emperor Yang's death in 618 reached Daxing and the eastern capital Luoyang, Li Yuan deposed Emperor Gong and took the throne himself, establishing Tang dynasty, but the Sui officials at Luoyang declared Emperor Gong's brother Yang Tong (later also known as Emperor Gong) emperor. The legitimacy of his reign is disputed.

Tang dynasty (唐朝) (618–690 CE, 705–907 CE) [ edit ]

Chinese convention: use "Tang" + temple name (except for Emperor Shang and Emperor Ai; Emperor Xuanzong (唐玄宗) is sometimes referred as Emperor Ming of Tang Dynasty (唐明皇))

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) (and the corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple name (Miao Hao 庙号)
Emperor Gaozu of Tang Lǐ Yuān 李渊 618–626 Wude 武德 618–626 Emperor Shenyao Dasheng Daguang Xiao 神堯大聖大光孝皇帝 Gaozu 高祖
Emperor Taizong of Tang Lǐ Shìmín 李世民 627–649 Zhenguan 貞觀 627–649 Emperor Wenwu Dasheng Daguang Xiao 文武大聖大廣孝皇帝 Taizong 太宗
Emperor Gaozong of Tang Lǐ Zhì 李治 650–683 Yonghui 永徽 650–655 Emperor Tianhuang Dasheng Dahong Xiao 天皇大聖大弘孝皇帝 Gaozong 高宗
Xianqing 顯慶 656–661
Longshuo 龍朔 661–663
Linde 麟德 664–665
Qianfeng 乾封 666–668
Zongzhang 總章 668–670
Xianheng 咸亨 670–674
Shangyuan 上元 674–676
Yifeng 儀鳳 676–679
Tiaolu 調露 679–680
Yonglong 永隆 680–681
Kaiyao 開耀 681–682
Yongchun 永淳 682–683
Hongdao 弘道 683
Emperor Zhongzong of China Li Xian

or

Li Zhe

李显

or

李哲

684

and

705–710

Sisheng 嗣聖 684 Emperor Dahe Dasheng Dazhao Xiao 大和大聖大昭孝皇帝 Zhongzong 中宗
Shenlong 神龍 705–707
Jinglong 景龍 707–710
Emperor Ruizong of Tang Li Dan 李旦 684–690

and

710–712

Wenming 文明 684–690 Emperor Xuanzhen Dasheng Daxing Xiao 玄真大聖大興孝皇帝 Ruizong 睿宗
Jingyun 景雲 710–711
Taiji 太極 712
Yanhe 延和 712
Interregnum (690–705)
Emperor Shang of Tang Li Chongmao 李重茂 710 Tanglong 唐隆 710 Emperor Shang 殤皇帝
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Li Longji 李隆基 712–756 Xiantian 先天 712–713 Emperor Zhidao Dasheng Daming Xiao 至道大聖大明孝皇帝 Xuanzong 玄宗
Kaiyuan 開元 713–741
Tianbao 天寶 742–756
Emperor Suzong of Tang Li Heng 李亨 756–762 Jide 至德 756–758 Emperor Wenming Wude Dasheng Daxuan Xiao 文明武德大聖大宣孝皇帝 Suzong 肅宗
Qianyuan 乾元 758–760
Shangyuan 上元 760–761
Emperor Daizong of Tang Li Yu 李豫 762–779 Baoying 寶應 762–763 Emperor Ruiwen Xiaowu 睿文孝武皇帝 Daizong 代宗
Guangde 廣德 763–764
Yongtai 永泰 765–766
Dali 大曆 766–779
Emperor Dezong of Tang Li Gua 李适 780–805 Jianzhong 建中 780–783 Emperor Shenwu Xiaowen 神武孝文皇帝 Dezong 德宗
Xingyuan 興元 784
Zhenyuan 貞元 785–805
Emperor Shunzong of Tang Li Song 李誦 805 Yongzhen 永貞 805 Emperor Zhide Hongdao Dasheng Da'an Xiao 至德弘道大聖大安孝皇帝 Shunzong 順宗
Emperor Xianzong of Tang Li Chun 李純 806–820 Yuanhe 元和 806–820 Emperor Zhaowen Zhangwu Dasheng Zhishen Xiao 昭文章武大聖至神孝皇帝 Xianzong 憲宗
Emperor Muzong of Tang Li Heng 李恆 821–824 Changqing 長慶 821–824 Emperor Ruisheng Wenhui Xiao 睿聖文惠孝皇帝 Muzong 穆宗
Emperor Jingzong of Tang Li Zhan 李湛 824–826 Baoli 寶曆 824–826 Emperor Ruiwu Zhaomin Xiao 睿武昭愍孝皇帝 Jingzong 敬宗
Emperor Wenzong of Tang Li Ang 李昂 826–840 Emperor Yuansheng Zhaoxian Xiao 元聖昭獻孝皇帝 Wenzong 文宗
Dahe

or

Taihe

大和

or

太和

827–835
Kaicheng 開成 836–840
Emperor Wuzong of Tang Li Yan 李炎 840–846 Huichang 會昌 841–846 Emperor Zhidao Zhaosu Xiao 至道昭肅孝皇帝 Wuzong 武宗
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Li Chen 李忱 846–859 Dachong 大中 847–859 Emperor Yuansheng Zhiming Chengwu Xianwen Ruizhi Zhangren Shencong Yidao Daxiao 元聖至明成武獻文睿智章仁神聰懿道大孝皇帝 Xuanzong 宣宗
Emperor Yizong of Tang Li Cui 李漼 859–873 Emperor Zhaosheng Gonghui Xiao 昭聖恭惠孝皇帝 Yizong 懿宗
Xiantong 咸通 860–874
Emperor Xizong of Tang Li Xuan 李儇 873–888 Emperor Huisheng Gongding Xiao 惠聖恭定孝皇帝 Xizong 僖宗
Qianfu 乾符 874–879
Guangming 廣明 880–881
Zhonghe 中和 881–885
Guangqi 光啟 885–888
Wende 文德 888
Emperor Zhaozong of Tang Li Ye 李曄 888–904 Longji 龍紀 889 Emperor Shengmu Jingwen Xiao 聖穆景文孝皇帝 Zhaozong 昭宗
Dashun 大順 890–891
Jingfu 景福 892–893
Qianning 乾寧 894–898
Guanghua 光化 898–901
Tianfu 天復 901–904
Tianyou 天佑 904
Emperor Ai of Tang Li Zhu 李柷 904–907 Tianyou 天佑 904–907 Emperor Ai

or

Emperor Zhaoxuan Guanglie Xiao
哀皇帝

or

昭宣光烈孝皇帝
Jingzong 景宗

Wu Zhou (武周) (690–705 CE) [ edit ]

Name by which most commonly known Personal Name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Regnal name (Zun Hao 尊號) Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Wu Zetian Wǔ Zhào 武曌 690–705 Tianshou 天授 690–692 Empress Regnant Tiance Jinlun Shengshen 天冊金輪聖神皇帝 Empress Consort Zetian Shunsheng1 則天順聖皇后1
Ruyi 如意 692
Changshou 長壽 692–694
Yanzai 延載 694
Zhengsheng 證聖 695
Tiancewansui 天冊萬歲 695–696
Wansuidengfeng 萬歲登封 696
Wansuitongtian 萬歲通天 696–697
Shengong 神功 697
Shengli 聖曆 698–700
Jiushi 久視 700
Dazu 大足 701
Chang'an 長安 701–705
1 — While Wu Zetian was empress regnant from 690 to 705, she was posthumously honored as empress consort of the Emperor Gaozong of Tang.

Huang Qi (黃齊) (881–884 CE) [ edit ]

Name by which most commonly known Personal Name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Huang Chao Huang Chao 黃巢 881–884 Wángbà 王霸 878–880
Jīntǒng 金統 881–884

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (五代十國) (907–979 CE) [ edit ]

Five Dynasties (五代) (907–960 CE) [ edit ]

Chinese convention: name of dynasty + temple name or posthumous name

Later Liang (後梁) (907–923 CE) [ edit ]

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Zhū Wēn 朱溫 907–912 Emperor Shenwu Yuansheng Xiao 神武元聖孝皇帝 Kaīpíng 開平 907–911 Taizu 太祖
Qiánhuà 乾化 911–912
Zhu Yougui 朱友珪 912–913 Qiánhuà 乾化 912–913
Fengli 鳳曆 913
Zhū Zhèn 朱瑱 913–923 Qiánhuà 乾化 913–915
Zhēnmíng 貞明 915–921
Lóngdé 龍德 921–923

Later Tang (後唐) (923–937 CE) [ edit ]

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Lǐ Cúnxù 李存勗 923–926 Emperor Guangsheng Shenmin Xiao 光聖神閔孝皇帝 Tongguang 同光 923–926 Zhuangzong 莊宗
Lǐ Sìyuán

or

Lǐ Dǎn

李嗣源

or

李亶

926–933 Emperor Shengde Hewu Qinxiao 聖德和武欽孝皇帝 Tiancheng 天成 926–930 Mingzong 明宗
Changxing 長興 930–933
Lǐ Cónghòu 李從厚 933–934 Emperor Min 閔皇帝 Yingshun 應順 933–934
Lǐ Cóngkē 李從珂 934–937 Qingtai 清泰 934–936

Later Jin (後晉) (936–947 CE) [ edit ]

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Shi Jingtang 石敬瑭 936–942 Emperor Shengwen Zhangwu Mingde Xiao 聖文章武明德孝皇帝 Tianfu 天福 936–944 Gaozu 高祖
Shi Chonggui 石重貴 942–947 Emperor Chu 出皇帝
Kaiyun 開運 944–947

Later Han (後漢) (947–951 CE) [ edit ]

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Liu Zhiyuan 劉知遠 947–948 Emperor Ruiwen Shengwu Zhaosu Xiao 睿文聖武昭肅孝皇帝 Tianfu 天福 947 Gaozu 高祖
Liu Chengyou 劉承祐 948–951 Emperor Yin 隱皇帝 Qianyou 乾祐 948–951

Later Zhou (後周) (951–960 CE) [ edit ]

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Guo Wei 郭威 951–954 Emperor Shengshen Gongsu Wenwu Xiao 聖神恭肅文武孝皇帝 Guangshun 廣順 951–954 Taizu 太祖
Chai Rong 柴榮 954–959 Emperor Ruiwu Xiaowen 睿武孝文皇帝 Xiande 顯德 954–960 Shizong 世宗
Chai Zongxun 柴宗訓 959–960 Emperor Gong 恭皇帝

Ten Kingdoms (十國) (907–979 CE) [ edit ]

Chinese convention: use personal names, noted otherwise

Former Shu (前蜀) (907–925 CE) [ edit ]

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Wang Jian 王建 907–918 Emperor Shenwu Shengwen Xiaode Minghui 神武圣文孝德明惠皇帝 Tianfu 天復 907 Gaozu 高祖
Wucheng 武成 908–910
Yongping 永平 911–915
Tongzheng 通正 916
Tianhan 天漢 917
Guangtian 光天 918
Wang Zongyan 王宗衍 918–925 Qiande 乾德 918–925
Xiankang 咸康 925

Yang Wu (楊吳) (907–937 CE) [ edit ]

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Yang Xingmi 楊行密 904–905 Emperor Wu 武皇帝 Tianyou 天祐 904–919 Taizu 太祖
Yang Wo 楊渥 905–908 Emperor Jing 景皇帝 Liezong 烈宗
Yang Longyan 楊隆演 908–921 Emperor Xuan 宣皇帝 Gaozu 高祖
Wuyi 武義 919–921
Yang Pu 楊溥 921–937 Emperor Rui 睿皇帝 Shunyi 順義 921–927
Qianzhen 乾貞 927–929
Dahe 大和 929–935
Tianzuo 天祚 935–937

Ma Chu (馬楚) (907–951 CE) [ edit ]

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Ma Yin 馬殷 897–930 King Wumu 武穆王
Ma Xisheng 馬希聲 930–932
Ma Xifan 馬希範 932–947 King Wenzhao 文昭王
Ma Xiguang 馬希廣 947–950
Ma Xi'e 馬希萼 950 King Gongxiao 恭孝王
Ma Xichong 馬希崇 950–951

Wuyue (吳越) (907–978 CE) [ edit ]

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Qian Liu 錢鏐 904–932 King Wusu 武肅王 Tianbao 天寶 908–923 Taizu 太祖
Baoda 寶大 923–925
Baozheng 寶正 925–932
Qian Yuanguan 錢元瓘 932–941 King Wenmu 文穆王 Shizong 世宗
Qian Hongzuo 錢弘佐 941–947 King Zhongxian 忠獻王 Chengzong 成宗
Qian Hongzong 錢弘倧 947 King Zhongxun 忠遜王
Qian Chu (Qian Hongchu) 錢俶 (錢弘俶) 947–978 King Zhongyi 忠懿王

Min (閩) (909–945 CE) & Yin (殷) (943–945 CE) [ edit ]

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Wang Shenzhi 王審知 909–925 Emperor Zhaowu Xiao 昭武孝皇帝 Taizu 太祖
Wang Yanhan 王延翰 925–926
Wang Yanjun 王延鈞 926–935 Emperor Qisu Mingxiao 齊肅明孝皇帝 Longqi 龍啟 933–935 Huizong 惠宗
Yonghe 永和 935
Wang Jipeng 王繼鵬 935–939 Emperor Shengshen Yingrui Wenming Guangwu Yingdao Dahong Xiao 聖神英睿文明廣武應道大弘孝皇帝 Tongwen 通文 936–939 Kangzong 康宗
Wang Yanxi 王延羲 939–944 Emperor Ruiwen Guangwu Mingsheng Yuande Longdao Daxiao 睿文廣武明聖元德隆道大孝皇帝 Yonglong 永隆 939–944 Jingzong 景宗
Wang Yanzheng 王延政 943–945 Prince Gongyi 恭懿王 Tiande 天德 943–945

Southern Han (南漢) (917–971 CE) [ edit ]

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Liú Yán

or

Liú Yǎn
劉巖

or

劉龑

917–925 Emperor Tianhuang Da 天皇大帝 Qiánhēng 乾亨 917–925 Gaozu 高祖
Báilóng 白龍 925–928
Dàyǒu 大有 928–941
Liú Bīn 劉玢 941–943 Emperor Shang 殤皇帝 Guāngtiān 光天 941–943
Liú Shèng 劉晟 943–958 Emperor Wenwu Guangsheng Mingxiao 文武光圣明孝皇帝 Yìngqián 應乾 943 Zhongzong 中宗
Qiánhé 乾和 943–958
Liú Chǎng 劉鋹 958–971 Dàbǎo 大寶 958–971

Jingnan (荊南) (924–963 CE) [ edit ]

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Gao Jixing 高季興 909–928 King Wuxin 武信王
Gao Conghui 高從誨 928–948 King Wenxian 文獻王
Gao Baorong 高寶融 948–960 King Zhenyi 貞懿王
Gao Baoxu 高寶勗 960–962
Gao Jichong 高繼沖 962–963

Later Shu (後蜀) (934–965 CE) [ edit ]

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Meng Zhixiang 孟知祥 934 Emperor Wenwu Shengde Yinglie Mingxiao 文武聖德英烈明孝皇帝 Mingde 明德 934–938 Gaozu 高祖
Meng Chang 孟昶 938–965 Prince Gongxiao 恭孝王 Guangzheng 廣政 938–965

Southern Tang (南唐) (937–976 CE) [ edit ]

Chinese convention for this dynasty only: Use Nan (Southern) Tang + "Qianzhu" (lit. "first lord"), "Zhongzhu" (lit. "middle lord") or "Houzhu" (lit. "last lord").

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Li Bian 李昪 937–943 Emperor Guangwen Suwu Xiaogao 光文肅武孝高皇帝 Shengyuan 昇元 937–943 Liezu 烈祖
Li Jing 李璟 943–961 Emperor Mingdao Chongde Wenxuan Xiao 明道崇德文宣孝皇帝 Baoda 保大 943–958 Yuanzong 元宗
Jiaotai 交泰 958
Zhongxing 中興 958
Li Yu 李煜 961–976

Northern Han (北漢) (951–979 CE) [ edit ]

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Liu Min 劉旻 951–954 Emperor Shenwu 神武皇帝 Qianyou 乾祐 951–957 Shizu 世祖
Liu Chengjun 劉承鈞 954–970 Emperor Xiaohe 孝和皇帝 Ruizong 睿宗
Tianhui 天會 957–970
Liu Ji'en 劉繼恩 970
Liu Jiyuan 劉繼元 970–982 Emperor Yingwu 英武皇帝 Guangyun 廣運 970–982

Independent regimes during Ten Kingdoms [ edit ]

(local independent regimes during Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period traditionally not counted in the Ten Kingdoms)

Qingyuan Jiedushi (清源節度使) (949–978 CE) [ edit ]

Personal name Name of posts Period on post
Liu Congxiao 留從效 Commander-in-Chief of Quanzhang 泉漳都指揮使 945–962
Liu Shaozi 留紹鎡 Regent of Quanzhang 泉漳留守 962
Zhang Hansi 張漢思 Military Commissioner of Quanzhang 泉漳節度使 962–963
Chen Hongjin 陳洪進 963–978

Wuping Jiedushi (武平節度使) (950–963 CE) [ edit ]

Personal name Name of posts Period on post
Liu Yan 劉言 Military Commissioner of Wuping 武平節度使 950–953
Wang Kui

or

Wang Jinkui

王逵

or

王進逵

953–956
Zhou Xingfeng 周行逢 Military Commissioner of Hunan 湖南節度使 956–962
Zhou Baoquan 周保權 962–963

Liao dynasty (遼朝) (916–1125 CE) [ edit ]

Chinese convention: use "Liao" + temple name except Liao Tianzuodi who is referred using "Liao" + regnal name

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Era names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years) Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Emperor Taizu of Liao Yēlǜ Ābǎojī 耶律阿保機 916–926 Emperor Dasheng Daming Shenlie Tian 大聖大明神烈天皇帝 Shence 神冊 916–922 Taizu 太祖
Tianzan 天贊 922–926
Tianxian 天顯 926
Emperor Taizong of Liao Yēlǜ Déguāng 耶律德光 926–947 Emperor Xiaowu Huiwen 孝武惠文皇帝 Tianxian 天顯 927–938 Taizong 太宗
Huitong 會同 938–947
Datong 大同 947
Emperor Shizong of Liao Yēlǜ Ruǎn 耶律阮 947–951 Emperor Xiaohe Zhuangxian 孝和莊憲皇帝 Tianlu 天祿 947–951 Shizong 世宗
Emperor Muzong of Liao Yēlǜ Jǐng 耶律璟 951–969 Emperor Xiao'an Jingzheng 孝安敬正皇帝 Yingli 應曆 951–969 Muzong 穆宗
Emperor Jingzong of Liao Yēlǜ Xián 耶律賢 969–982 Emperor Xiaocheng Kangjing 孝成康靖皇帝 Baoning 保寧 969–979 Jingzong 景宗
Qianheng 乾亨 979–982
Emperor Shengzong of Liao Yēlǜ Lóngxù 耶律隆緒 982–1031 Emperor Wenwu Daxiao Xuan 文武大孝宣皇帝 Qianheng 乾亨 982 Shengzong 聖宗
Tonghe 統和 983–1012
Kaitai 開泰 1012–1021
Taiping 太平 1021–1031
Emperor Xingzong Liao Yēlǜ Zōngzhēn 耶律宗真 1031–1055 Emperor Shensheng Xiaozhang 神聖孝章皇帝 Jingfu 景福 1031–1032 Xingzong 興宗
Chongxi 重熙 1032–1055
Emperor Daozong of Liao Yēlǜ Hóngjī 耶律洪基 1055–1101 Emperor Rensheng Daxiao Wen 仁聖大孝文皇帝 Qingning 清寧 1055–1064 Daozong 道宗
Xianyong 咸雍 1065–1074
Taikang

or

Dakang

太康

or

大康

1075–1084
Da'an 大安 1085–1094
Shouchang

or

Shoulong

壽昌

or

壽隆

1095–1101
Emperor Tianzuo of Liao 1 Yēlǜ Yánxǐ 耶律延禧 1101–1125 Qiantong 乾統 1101–1110
Tianqing 天慶 1111–1120
Baoda 保大 1121–1125
1 — "Emperor Tianzuo" was the regnal name (尊號) of Yelü Yanxi.

Northern Liao (北遼) (1122–1123 CE) [ edit ]

Chinese convention: use personal name or "Northern Liao" + temple name

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Era names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years) Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Yelü Chun Yelü Chun 耶律淳 1122 Emperor Xiaozhang 孝章皇帝 Jianfu 建福 1122 Xuanzong 宣宗
Xiao Puxiannü

(regent)
Xiao Puxiannü 蕭普賢女 1122–1123 Dexing 德興 1122–1123

Western Liao (西遼) (1124–1218 CE) [ edit ]

Chinese convention: use personal name or "Western Liao" + posthumous name

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Era names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years) Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Yelü Dashi Yēlǜ Dàshí

or

Yēlǜ Dáshí1

耶律大石

or

耶律達實

1124–1144 Emperor Tianyou Wulie 天祐武烈皇帝 Yanqing 延慶 1124 or 1125–1134 Dezong 德宗
Kangguo 康國 1134–1144
Xiao Tabuyan

(regent)
Xiāo Tǎbùyān 蕭塔不煙 1144–1150 Empress Consort Gantian 感天皇后 Xianqing 咸清 1144–1150
Yelü Yilie Yēlǜ Yíliè 耶律夷列 1150–1164 Shaoxing

or

Xuxing2

紹興

or

續興

1150–1164 Renzong 仁宗
Yelü Pusuwan

(regent)
Yēlǜ Pǔsùwán 耶律普速完 1164–1178 Empress Dowager Chengtian 承天太后 Chongfu (崇福 Chóngfú) 1164–1178 崇福 1164–1178
Yelü Zhilugu Yēlǜ Zhílǔgǔ 耶律直魯古 1178–1211 Tianxi (天禧 Tiānxī) 1178–1218 天禧 1178–1218
Kuchlug Qūchūlǜ 屈出律 1211–1218
1 — "Dashi" might be the Chinese title "Taishi", meaning "vizier"; or, it could mean "Stone" in Turkish, as the Chinese transliteration suggests.

2 — Recently discovered Western Liao coins have the era name "Xuxing", suggesting that the era name "Shaoxing" recorded in Chinese sources may be incorrect.[1]

Dongdan (東丹) (926–952 CE) [ edit ]

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Era names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years) Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Yelü Bei Yelü Bei 耶律倍 926–930 Emperor Wenxian Qinyi 文獻欽義皇帝 Ganlu 甘露 926–936 Yizong 義宗
Empress Consort Duanshun Lady Xiao

(name unknown)

(regent)
蕭氏 930–940 Empress Consort Duanshun 端順皇后
Emperor Shizong of Liao

(same person as the third Liao emperor)
Yelü Ruan 耶律阮 940–947 Emperor Xiaohe Zhuangxian 孝和莊憲皇帝
Yelü Anduan Yelü Anduan 耶律安端 947–952

Song dynasty (宋朝) (960–1279 CE) [ edit ]

Chinese convention: use "Song" + temple name or posthumous name (except last emperor who was revered as Song Di Bing (宋帝昺 Sòng Dì Bǐng))

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Northern Song (北宋) (960–1127 CE)
Emperor Taizu of Song Zhao Kuangyin 趙匡胤 960–976 Emperor Qiyun Liji Yingwu Ruiwen Shende Shenggong Zhiming Daxiao 啟運立極英武睿文神德聖功至明大孝皇帝 Jianlong 建隆 960–963 Taizu 太祖
Qiande 乾德 963–968
Kaibao 開寶 968–976
Emperor Taizong of Song Zhao Kuangyi

or Zhao Guangyi

or

Zhao Jiong

趙匡義

or

趙光義

or

趙炅

976–997 Emperor Zhiren Yingdao Shengong Shengde Wenwu Ruilie Daming Guangxiao 至仁應道神功聖德文武睿烈大明廣孝皇帝 Taipingxingguo 太平興國 976–984 Taizong 太宗
Yongxi 雍熙 984–987
Duangong 端拱 988–989
Chunhua 淳化 990–994
Zhidao 至道 995–997
Emperor Zhenzong of Song Zhao Heng 趙恆 997–1022 Emperor Yingfu Jigu Shengong Rangde Wenming Wuding Zhangsheng Yuanxiao 應符稽古神功讓德文明武定章聖元孝皇帝 Xianping 咸平 998–1003 Zhenzong 真宗
Jingde 景德 1004–1007
Dazhongxiangfu 大中祥符 1008–1016
Tianxi 天禧 1017–1021
Qianxing 乾興 1022
Emperor Renzong of Song Zhao Zhen 趙禎 1022–1063 Emperor Titian Fadao Jigong Quande Shenwen Shengwu Ruizhe Mingxiao 體天法道極功全德神文聖武睿哲明孝皇帝 Tiansheng 天聖 1023–1032 Renzong 仁宗
Mingdao 明道 1032–1033
Jingyou 景祐 1034–1038
Baoyuan 寶元 1038–1040
Kangding 康定 1040–1041
Qingli 慶曆 1041–1048
Huangyou 皇祐 1049–1054
Zhihe 至和 1054–1056
Jiayou 嘉祐 1056–1063
Emperor Yingzong of Song Zhao Shu 趙曙 1063–1067 Emperor Tiqian Yingli Longgong Shengde Xianwen Suwu Ruisheng Xuanxiao 體乾應曆隆功盛德憲文肅武睿聖宣孝皇帝 Zhiping 治平 1064–1067 Yingzong 英宗
Emperor Shenzong of Song Zhao Xu 趙頊 1067–1085 Emperor Tiyuan Xiandao Fagu Lixian Dide Wanggong Yingwen Liewu Qinren Shengxiao 體元顯道法古立憲帝德王功英文烈武欽仁聖孝皇帝 Xining 熙寧 1068–1077 Shenzong 神宗
Yuanfeng 元豐 1078–1085
Emperor Zhezong of Song Zhao Xu 趙煦 1085–1100 Emperor Xianyuan Jidao Shede Yanggong Qinwen Ruiwu Qisheng Zhaoxiao 憲元繼道世德揚功欽文睿武齊聖昭孝皇帝 Yuanyou 元祐 1086–1094 Zhezong 哲宗
Shaosheng 紹聖 1094–1098
Yuanfu 元符 1098–1100
Emperor Huizong of Song Zhao Ji 趙佶 1100–1125 Emperor Tishen Hedao Junlie Xungong Shengwen Rende Cixian Xianxiao 體神合道駿烈遜功聖文仁德慈憲顯孝皇帝 Jianzhongjingguo 建中靖國 1101 Huizong 徽宗
Chongning 崇寧 1102–1106
Daguan 大觀 1107–1110
Zhenghe 政和 1111–1118
Chonghe 重和 1118–1119
Xuanhe 宣和 1119–1125
Emperor Qinzong of Song Zhao Huan 趙桓 1126–1127 Emperor Gongwen Shunde Renxiao 恭文順德仁孝皇帝 Jingkang 靖康 1125–1127 Qinzong 欽宗
Southern Song (南宋) (1127–1279 CE)
Emperor Gaozong of Song Zhao Gou 趙構 1127–1162 Emperor Shouming Zhongxing Quangong Zhide Shengshen Wuwen Zhaoren Xianxiao 受命中興全功至德聖神武文昭仁憲孝皇帝 Jianyan 建炎 1127–1130 Gaozong 高宗
Shaoxing 紹興 1131–1162
Emperor Xiaozong of Song Zhao Shen 趙昚 1162–1189 Emperor Shaotong Tongdao Guande Zhaogong Zhewen Shenwu Mingsheng Chengxiao 紹統同道冠德昭功哲文神武明聖成孝皇帝 Longxing 隆興 1163–1164 Xiaozong 孝宗
Qiandao 乾道 1165–1173
Chunxi 淳熙 1174–1189
Emperor Guangzong of Song Zhao Dun 趙惇 1189–1194 Emperor Xundao Xianren Minggong Maode Wenwen Shunwu Shengzhe Cixiao 循道憲仁明功茂德溫文順武聖哲慈孝皇帝 Shaoxi 紹熙 1190–1194 Guangzong 光宗
Emperor Ningzong of Song Zhao Kuo 趙擴 1194–1224 Emperor Fatian Beidao Chunde Maogong Renwen Zhewu Shengrui Gongxiao 法天備道純德茂功仁文哲武聖睿恭孝皇帝 Qingyuan 慶元 1195–1200 Ningzong 寧宗
Jiatai 嘉泰 1201–1204
Kaixi 開禧 1205–1207
Jiading 嘉定 1208–1224
Emperor Lizong of Song Zhao Yun 趙昀 1224–1264 Emperor Jiandao Beide Dagong Fuxing Liewen Renwu Shengming Anxiao 建道備德大功復興烈文仁武聖明安孝皇帝 Baoqing 寶慶 1225–1227 Lizong 理宗
Shaoding 紹定 1228–1233
Duanping 端平 1234–1236
Jiaxi 嘉熙 1237–1240
Chunyou 淳祐 1241–1252
Baoyou 寶祐 1253–1258
Kaiqing 開慶 1259
Jingding 景定 1260–1264
Emperor Duzong of Song Zhao Qi 趙禥 1264–1274 Emperor Duanwen Mingwu Jingxiao 端文明武景孝皇帝 Xianchun 咸淳 1265–1274 Duzong 度宗
Emperor Gong of Song Zhao Xian 趙顯 1274–1276 Deyou 德祐 1275–1276
Emperor Duanzong of Song Zhao Shi 趙昰 1276–1278 Emperor Yuwen Zhaowu Minxiao 裕文昭武愍孝皇帝 Jingyan 景炎 1276–1278 Duanzong 端宗
Zhao Bing Zhao Bing 趙昺 1278–1279 Xiangxing 祥興 1278–1279

Dali Kingdom (大理) (937–1094 CE, 1096–1253 CE) [ edit ]

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Era names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years) Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Former Dali (前大理) (937–1094 CE)
Duan Siping Duan Siping 段思平 937–944 Emperor Shengshen Wenwu 聖神文武皇帝 Wende 文德 938–? Taizu 太祖
Shenwu 神武 ?–944
Duan Siying Duan Siying 段思英 944–945 Wenjing 文經 945
Duan Siliang Duan Siliang 段思良 945–952 Emperor Shengci Wenwu 聖慈文武皇帝 Zhizhi 至治 946–951
Duan Sicong Duan Sicong 段思聰 952–968 Emperor Zhidao Guangci 至道廣慈皇帝 Mingde 明德 952–?
Guangde 廣德 ?–967
Shunde 順德 968
Duan Sushun Duan Sushun 段素順 968–985 Emperor Yingdao 應道皇帝 Mingzheng 明政 969–985
Duan Suying Duan Suying 段素英 985–1009 Emperor Zhaoming 昭明皇帝 Guangming 廣明 986–?
Mingying 明應 ?
Mingtong 明統 ?
Mingsheng 明聖 ?
Mingzhi 明治 ?
Duan Sulian Duan Sulian 段素廉 1009–1022 Emperor Xuansu 宣肅皇帝 Mingqi 明啟 1010–1022
Duan Sulong Duan Sulong 段素隆 1022–1026 Emperor Bingyi 秉義皇帝 Mingtong 明通 1023–1026
Duan Suzhen Duan Suzhen 段素真 1026–1041 Emperor Shengde 聖德皇帝 Zhengzhi 正治 1027–1041
Duan Suxing Duan Suxing 段素興 1041–1044 Shengming 聖明 1042–?
Tianming 天明 ?–1044
Duan Silian Duan Silian 段思廉 1044–1075 Emperor Xiaode 孝德皇帝 Bao'an 保安 1045–1052 Xingzong 興宗
Zheng'an 政安 1053–?
Zhengde 正德 ?
Baode 保德 ?–1074
Minghou 明侯 ?
Duan Lianyi Duan Lianyi 段廉義 1075–1080 Shangde 上德 1076
Duan Shouhui Duan Shouhui 段壽輝 1080–1081 Shangming 上明 1081
Duan Zhengming Duan Zhengming 段正明 1081–1094 Emperor Baoding 保定皇帝 Baoli 保立 1082
Jian'an 建安 1083–1091
Tianyou 天祐 1091–1094
Later Dali (後大理) (1096–1253 CE)
Duan Zhengchun Duan Zhengchun 段正淳 1096–1108 Emperor Wen'an 文安皇帝 Tianshou 天授 1096 Zhongzong 中宗
Mingkai 明開 1097–1103
Tianzheng 天政 1103–1104
Wen'an 文安 1104–1108
Duan Zhengyan Duan Zhengyan 段正嚴 1108–1147 Emperor Xuanren 宣仁皇帝 Rixin 日新 1109–1110 Xianzong 憲宗
Wenzhi 文治 1110–?
Yongjia 永嘉 ?–1128
Baotian 保天 1129–1137
Guangyun 廣運 1138–1147
Duan Zhengxing Duan Zhengxing 段正興 1147–1171 Emperor Zhengkang 正康皇帝 Yongzhen 永貞 1148 Jingzong 景宗
Dabao 大寶 1149–1156
Longxing 龍興 1157–1161
Shengming 盛明 1162–?
Jiande 建德 ?–1171
Duan Zhixing Duan Zhixing 段智興 1171–1200 Emperor Gongji 功極皇帝 Lizhen 利貞 1172–1174 Xuanzong 宣宗
Shengde 盛德 1176–1180
Jiahui 嘉會 1181–1184
Yuanheng 元亨 1185–1195
Ding'an 定安 1195–1200
Duan Zhilian Duan Zhilian 段智廉 1200–1204 Emperor Hengtian 亨天皇帝 Fengli 鳳曆 1200–? Yingzong 英宗
Yuanshou 元壽 ?–1204
Duan Zhixiang Duan Zhixiang 段智祥 1204–1238 Tiankai 天開 1205–1225 Shenzong 神宗
Tianfu 天輔 1226
Tianshou 仁壽 1227–1238
Duan Xiangxing Duan Xiangxing 段祥興 1238–1251 Emperor Xiaoyi 孝義皇帝 Daolong 道隆 1239–1251
Duan Xingzhi Duan Xingzhi 段興智 1251–1254 Tianding 天定 1251–1254



Western Xia (西夏) (1038–1227 CE) [ edit ]

Chinese convention: use "Western Xia" + temple name (or use personal name)

The Tangut names for about half of the Western Xia eras are known from Tangut texts or monumental inscriptions, or from Western Xia coins.

Name by which most commonly known Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Emperor Jǐngzōng of Western Xia Lǐ Yuánhào 李元昊 1032–1048 Emperor Wǔliè 武烈皇帝 Xiǎndào 顯道 1032–1034 Jǐngzōng 景宗
Kāiyùn 開運 1034
Guǎngpíng 廣平 1035–1036
Dàqìng 大慶 1036–1038
Tiānshòulǐfǎyánzuò 天授禮法延祚 1038–1048
Emperor Yìzōng of Western Xia Lǐ Liàngzuò 李諒祚 1048–1067 Emperor Zhāoyīng 昭英皇帝 Yánsìníngguó 延嗣寧國 1048–1049 Yìzōng 毅宗
Tiānyòuchuíshèng 天祐垂聖 1050–1052
Fúshèngchéngdào 福聖承道 1053–1056
Duǒdū 奲都 1057–1063
Gǒnghuà 拱化 1063–1067
Emperor Huìzōng of Western Xia Lǐ Bǐngcháng 李秉常 1067–1086 Emperor Kāngjìng 康靖皇帝 Qiándào 乾道 1067–1069 Huìzōng 惠宗
Tiāncìlǐshèngguóqìng 天賜禮盛國慶 1070–1074
Dà'ān 大安

𘜶𗵐
1075–1085
Tiān'ānlǐdìng 天安禮定

𘓺𗪚𗅲𗧯
1085–1086
Emperor Chóngzōng of Western Xia Lǐ Qiánshùn 李乾順 1086–1139 Emperor Shèngwén 聖文皇帝 Tiānyízhìpíng 天儀治平 1086–1089 Chóngzōng 崇宗
Tiānyòumín'ān 天祐民安

𘓺𗼕𘂀𗴴
1090–1097
Yǒng'ān 永安 1098–1100
Zhēnguān 貞觀

𗣼𘝯
1101–1113
Yōngníng 雍寧

𗖠𗪚
1114–1118
Yuándé 元德

𗣼𗪘
1119–1127
Zhèngdé 正德

𗣼𘇚
1127–1134
Dàdé 大德

𘜶𗣼
1135–1139
Emperor Rénzōng of Western Xia Lǐ Rénxiào 李仁孝 1139–1193 Emperor Shengde 聖德皇帝 Dàqìng 大慶

𘜶𘅝
1139–1143 Rénzōng 仁宗
Rénqìng 人慶

𗸦𘅝
1144–1148
Tiānshèng 天盛

𘓺𘃸
1149–1170
Qiányòu 乾祐

𘀗𘑨
1170–1193
Emperor Huánzōng of Western Xia Lǐ Chúnyòu 李純佑 1193–1206 Emperor Zhāojiǎn 昭簡皇帝 Tiānqìng 天慶

𘓺𘅝
1193–1206 Huánzōng 桓宗
Emperor Xiāngzōng of Western Xia Lǐ Ānquán 李安全 1206–1211 Emperor Jingmu 敬穆皇帝 Yīngtiān 應天 1206–1209 Xiāngzōng 襄宗
Huángjiàn 皇建

𘓺𘚪
1210–1211
Emperor Shénzōng of Western Xia Lǐ Zūnxū 李遵頊 1211–1223 Emperor Yīngwén 英文皇帝 Guāngdìng 光定

𗪚𗏴
1211–1223 Shénzōng 神宗
Emperor Xiànzōng of Western Xia Lǐ Déwàng 李德旺 1223–1226 Emperor Xiao'ai 孝哀皇帝 Qiándìng 乾定 1223–1226 Xiànzōng 獻宗
Emperor Mò of Western Xia Lǐ Xiàn 李晛 1226–1227 Bǎoyì 寶義 1226–1227

Jin dynasty (金朝) (1115–1234 CE) [ edit ]

Chinese convention: use "Jin" + temple name or posthumous name in Chinese

Jin dynasty 1115–1234
Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Emperor Taizu of Jin Āgǔdǎ

or

Wányán Mǐn
阿骨打

or

完顏旻
1115–1123 Shōuguó 收國 1115–1116 Emperor Yingqian Xingyun Zhaode Dinggong Renming Zhuangxiao Dasheng Wuyuan 應乾興運昭德定功仁明莊孝大聖武元皇帝 Tàizǔ 太祖
Tiānfǔ 天輔 1117–1123
Emperor Taizong of Jin Wúqǐmǎi

or

Wányán Shèng
吳乞買

or

完顏晟
1123–1134 Tiānhuì 天會 1123–1134 Emperor Tiyuan Yingyun Shide Zhaogong Zhehui Rensheng Wenlie 體元應運世德昭功哲惠仁聖文烈皇帝 Tàizōng 太宗
Emperor Xizong of Jin Hélá

or

Wányán Dǎn
合剌

or

完顏亶
1135–1149 Tiānhuì 天會 1135–1138 Emperor Hongji Zuanwu Zhuangjing Xiaocheng 弘基纘武莊靖孝成皇帝 Xīzōng 熙宗
Tiānjuàn 天眷 1138–1141
Huángtǒng 皇統 1141–1149
Wanyan Liang Dígǔnǎi

or

Wányán Liàng
迪古乃

or

完顏亮
1149–1161 Tiāndé 天德 1149–1153 Prince Yáng 煬王
Zhènyuán 貞元 1153–1156
Zhènglóng 正隆 1156–1161
Emperor Shizong of Jin Wūlù

or

Wányán Yōng
烏祿

or

完顏雍
1161–1189 Dàdìng 大定 1161–1189 Emperor Guangtian Xingyun Wende Wugong Shengming Renxiao 光天興運文德武功聖明仁孝皇帝 Shìzōng 世宗
Emperor Zhangzong of Jin Mádágě

or

Wányán Jǐng
麻達葛

or

完顏璟
1190–1208 Míngchāng 明昌 1190–1196 Emperor Xiantian Guangyun Renwen Yiwu Shensheng Yingxiao 憲天光運仁文義武神聖英孝皇帝 Zhāngzōng 章宗
Chéng'ān 承安 1196–1200
Tàihé 泰和 1200–1208
Wanyan Yongji Wányán Yǒngjì 完顏永濟 1209–1213 Dà'ān 大安 1209–1212 Prince Shào 紹王
Chóngqìng 崇慶 1212–1213
Zhìníng 至寧 1213
Emperor Xuanzong of Jin Wúdúbǔ

or

Wányán Xú
吾睹補

or

完顏珣
1213–1223 Zhēnyòu 貞祐 1213–1217 Emperor Jitian Xingtong Shudao Qinren Yingwu Shengxiao 繼天興統述道勤仁英武聖孝皇帝 Xuānzōng 宣宗
Xīngdìng 興定 1217–1222
Yuánguāng 元光 1222–1223
Emperor Aizong of Jin Níngjiǎsù

or

Wányán Shǒuxù
寧甲速

or

完顏守緒
1224–1234 Zhèngdà 正大 1224–1232 Emperor Zhuang 莊皇帝 Āizōng 哀宗
Kāixīng 開興 1232
Tiānxīng 天興 1232–1234
Emperor Mo of Jin Hūdūn

or

Wányán Chénglín
呼敦

or

完顏承麟
1234

Yuan dynasty (元朝) (1271–1368 CE) [ edit ]

Chinese convention: for rulers before Kublai Khan use given name (e.g. Temüjin) or Khan names, use "Yuan" + temple name or posthumous name after

Note:

1) The Mongol Great Khans before Khublai were only declared Yuan emperors after the creation of Yuan dynasty in 1271

2) To non-Chinese readers, usually the khan names are the most familiar names.

3) Timur or Temür means the same Mongolian words but Temür will be used for avoiding confusion with Timur the lame (Tamerlane).

Khan Name Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Regnal name (Zun Hao 尊號) Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Genghis Khan Borjigin Temüjin 孛兒只斤鐵木真 1206–1227 Emperor Fatian Qiyun Shengwu 法天啟運聖武皇帝 Tàizǔ 太祖
Tolui Borjigin Tolui 孛兒只斤拖雷 1228 Emperor Rensheng Jingxiang 仁聖景襄皇帝 Ruìzōng 睿宗
Ögedei Khan Borjigin Ögedei 孛兒只斤窩闊台 1229–1241 Emperor Yingwen 英文皇帝 Tàizōng 太宗
Güyük Khan Borjigin Güyük 孛兒只斤貴由 1246–1248 Emperor Jianping 簡平皇帝 Dìngzōng 定宗
Möngke Khan Borjigin Möngke 孛兒只斤蒙哥 1251–1259 Emperor Huansu 桓肅皇帝 Xiànzōng 憲宗
Kublai Khan Borjigin Kublai 孛兒只斤忽必烈 1260–1294 Zhōngtǒng 中統 1260–1264 Emperor Xiantian Shudao Renwen Yiwu Daguang Xiao 憲天述道仁文義武大光孝皇帝 Emperor Shengde Shengong Wenwu 聖德神功文武皇帝 Shìzǔ 世祖
Zhìyuán 至元 1264–1294
Temür Khan Borjigin Temür 孛兒只斤鐵穆耳 1294–1307 Yuánzhēn 元貞 1295–1297 Emperor Qinming Guangxiao 欽明廣孝皇帝 Chéngzōng 成宗
1307–1308 Dàdé 大德 1297–1307
Külüg Khan Borjigin Qayshan 孛兒只斤海山 1308–1311 Zhìdà 至大 1308–1311 Emperor Tongtian Jisheng Qinwen Yingwu Dazhang Xiao 統天繼聖欽文英武大章孝皇帝 Emperor Renhui Xuanxiao 仁惠宣孝皇帝 Wǔzōng 武宗
Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan Borjigin Ayurparibhadra 孛兒只斤愛育黎拔力八達 1311–1320 Huángqìng 皇慶 1312–1313 Emperor Shengwen Qinxiao 聖文欽孝皇帝 Rénzōng 仁宗
1320–1321 Yányòu 延祐 1314–1320
Gegeen Khan Borjigin Suddhipala 孛兒只斤碩德八剌 1321–1323 Zhìzhì 至治 1321–1323 Emperor Jitian Tidao Jingwen Renwu Dazhao Xiao 繼天體道敬文仁武大昭孝皇帝 Emperor Ruisheng Wenxiao 睿聖文孝皇帝 Yīngzōng 英宗
Yesün Temür 1 Borjigin Yesün-Temür 孛兒只斤也孫鐵木兒 1323–1328 Tàidìng 泰定 1324–1328
Zhìhé 致和 1328
Ragibagh Khan 1 Borjigin Arigaba 孛兒只斤阿速吉八 1328 Tiānshùn 天順 1328
Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür Borjigin Toq-Temür 孛兒只斤圖帖睦爾 1328–1329 and 1329–1332 Tiānlì 天曆 1328–1330 Emperor Qintian Tongsheng Zhide Chenggong Dawen Xiao 欽天統聖至德誠功大文孝皇帝 Emperor Shengming Yuanxiao 聖明元孝皇帝 Wénzōng 文宗
Zhìshùn 至順 1330–1332
Khutughtu Khan Kusala Borjigin Qoshila 孛兒只斤和世剌 1329 Emperor Shuntian Lidao Ruiwen Zhiwu Dasheng Xiao 順天立道睿文智武大聖孝皇帝 Emperor Yixian Jingxiao 翼獻景孝皇帝 Míngzōng 明宗
Rinchinbal Khan Borjigin Irinchibal 孛兒只斤懿璘質班 1332 Emperor Chongsheng Sixiao 沖聖嗣孝皇帝 Níngzōng 寧宗
Toghon Temür 2 Borjigin Toghan-Temür 孛兒只斤妥懽帖睦爾 1333–1368 1333 Emperor Xuanren Puxiao

or

Emperor Shun
宣仁普孝皇帝

or

順皇帝
Huìzōng 惠宗
Yuántǒng 元統 1333–1335
Zhìyuán 至元 1335–1340
Zhìzhèng 至正 1341–1368
Zhìyuán 至元 1368–1370

1 — Chinese convention: for these sovereigns only, use "Yuan" + era name (e.g. 元泰定帝 Yuán Tàidìng Dì).

2 — Chinese convention: for this sovereign only, use "Yuan" + posthumous name.

Northern Yuan (北元) (1368–1388 CE) [ edit ]

Retreat of the Yuan court to the Mongolian Plateau after being overthrown by the Ming dynasty in China proper in 1368 (1368 – early 15th century)

Convention: use khan names or birth names.

Khan Names Personal Name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Toghon Temür

(same person as the last Yuan emperor)
Borjigin Toghan-Temür 孛兒只斤妥懽帖睦爾 1368–1370 Zhìshùn 至順 1333 Emperor Xuanren Puxiao

or

Emperor Shun
宣仁普孝皇帝

or

順皇帝
Huìzōng 惠宗
Yuántǒng 元統 1333–1335
Zhìyuán 至元 1335–1340
Zhìzhèng 至正 1341–1368
Zhìyuán 至元 1368–1370
Biligtü Khan Ayushiridara Borjigin Ayushiridara 孛兒只斤愛猷識里達臘 1370–1378 Xuānguāng 宣光 1371–1378 Emperor Wucheng Hexiao 武承和孝皇帝 Zhāozōng 昭宗
Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür Borjigin Tögüs Temür 孛兒只斤脫古思帖木兒 1378–1388 Tiānyuán

or

Tiānguāng1

天元

or

天光

1378–1388 Emperor Yisheng Ningxiao 益聖寧孝皇帝
1 — Recently discovered Northern Yuan coins have the era name "Tianguang", suggesting that the era name "Tianyuan" recorded in Chinese sources may be incorrect. [2]

Ming dynasty (明朝) (1368–1644 CE) [ edit ]

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name1 (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple name1 (Miao Hao 廟號)
Hongwu Emperor Zhū Yuánzhāng 朱元璋 1368–1398 Hóngwǔ 洪武 1368–1398 Emperor Kaitian Xingdao Zhaoji Liji Dasheng Zhishen Renwen Yiwu Junde Chenggong Gao 開天行道肇紀立極大聖至神仁文義武俊德成功高皇帝 Tàizǔ 太祖
Jianwen Emperor Zhū Yǔnwén 朱允炆 1398–1402 Jiànwén 建文 1398–1402 Emperor Sitian Zhangdao Chengyi Yuangong Guanwen Yangwu Keren Duxiao Rang 嗣天章道誠懿淵功觀文揚武克仁篤孝讓皇帝 Huizong2 惠宗
Yongle Emperor Zhū Dì 朱棣 1402–1424 Yǒnglè 永樂 1402–1424 Emperor Qitian Hongdao Gaoming Zhaoyun Shengwu Shengong Chunren Zhixiao Wen 啟天弘道高明肇運聖武神功純仁至孝文皇帝 Chéngzǔ or Tàizōng 成祖 / 太宗
Hongxi Emperor Zhū Gāochì 朱高熾 1424–1425 Hóngxī 洪熙 1424–1425 Emperor Jingtian Tidao Chuncheng Zhide Hongwen Qinwu Zhangsheng Daxiao Zhao 敬天體道純誠至德弘文欽武章聖達孝昭皇帝 Rénzōng 仁宗
Xuande Emperor Zhū Zhānjī 朱瞻基 1425–1435 Xuāndé 宣德 1425–1435 Emperor Xiantian Chongdao Yingming Shensheng Qintian Zhaowu Kuanren Chunxiao Zhang 憲天崇道英明神聖欽天昭武寬仁純孝章皇帝 Xuānzōng 宣宗
Emperor Yingzong of Ming Zhū Qízhèn 朱祁鎮 1435–1449

and

1457–1464³

Zhèngtǒng

and

Tiānshùn

正統

and

天順

1435–1449

and

1457–1464

Emperor Fatian Lidao Renming Chengjing Zhaowen Xianwu Zhide Guangxiao Rui 法天立道仁明誠敬昭文憲武至德廣孝睿皇帝 Yīngzōng 英宗
Jingtai Emperor Zhū Qíyù 朱祁鈺 1449–1457 Jǐngtài 景泰 1449–1457 Emperor Futian Jiandao Gongren Kangding Longwen Buwu Xiande Chongxiao Jing 符天建道恭仁康定隆文布武顯德崇孝景皇帝 Dàizōng 代宗
Chenghua Emperor Zhū Jiànshēn 朱見深 1464–1487 Chénghuà 成化 1464–1487 Emperor Jitian Ningdao Chengming Renjing Chongwen Suwu Hongde Shengxiao Chun 繼天凝道誠明仁敬崇文肅武宏德聖孝純皇帝 Xiànzōng 憲宗
Hongzhi Emperor Zhū Yòutáng 朱祐樘 1487–1505 Hóngzhì 弘治 1487–1505 Emperor Jiantian Mingdao Chengchun Zhongzheng Shengwen Shenwu Zhiren Dade Jing 建天明道誠純中正聖文神武至仁大德敬皇帝 Xiàozōng 孝宗
Zhengde Emperor Zhū Hòuzhào 朱厚照 1505–1521 Zhèngdé 正德 1505–1521 Emperor Chengtian Dadao Yingsu Ruizhe Zhaode Xiangong Hongwen Sixiao Yi 承天達道英肅睿哲昭德顯功弘文思孝毅皇帝 Wǔzōng 武宗
Jiajing Emperor Zhū Hòucōng 朱厚熜 1521–1566 Jiājìng 嘉靖 1521–1566 Emperor Qintian Lüdao Yingyi Shensheng Xuanwen Guangwu Hongren Daxiao Su 欽天履道英毅神聖宣文廣武洪仁大孝肅皇帝 Shìzōng 世宗
Longqing Emperor Zhū Zǎihòu 朱載垕 1566–1572 Lóngqìng 隆慶 1566–1572 Emperor Qitian Longdao Yuanyi Kuanren Xianwen Guangwu Chunde Hongxiao Zhuang 契天隆道淵懿寬仁顯文光武純德弘孝莊皇帝 Mùzōng 穆宗
Wanli Emperor Zhū Yìjūn 朱翊鈞 1572–1620 Wànlì 萬曆 1572–1620 Emperor Fantian Hedao Zhesu Dunjian Guangwen Zhangwu Anren Zhixiao Xian 範天合道哲肅敦簡光文章武安仁止孝顯皇帝 Shénzōng 神宗
Taichang Emperor Zhū Chángluò 朱常洛 1620 Tàichāng 泰昌 1620 Emperor Chongtian Qidao Yingrui Gongchun Xianwen Jingwu Yuanren Yixiao Zhen 崇天契道英睿恭純憲文景武淵仁懿孝貞皇帝 Guāngzōng 光宗
Tianqi Emperor Zhū Yóujiào 朱由校 1620–1627 Tiānqǐ 天啓 1620–1627 Emperor Datian Chandao Dunxiao Duyou Zhangwen Xiangwu Jingmu Zhuangqin Zhe 達天闡道敦孝篤友章文襄武靖穆莊勤悊皇帝 Xīzōng 熹宗
Chongzhen Emperor Zhū Yóujiǎn 朱由檢 1627–1644 Chóngzhēn 崇禎 1627–1644 Emperor Shaotian Yidao Gangming Kejian Kuiwen Fenwu Dunren Maoxiao Lie 紹天繹道剛明恪儉揆文奮武敦仁懋孝烈皇帝 Sīzōng or Yìzōng 思宗 / 毅宗
1 — As posthumous and temple names were often shared by emperors of different dynasties, they are usually preceded by the dynastic name, in this case, Ming, to avoid confusion. For example, the Hongwu emperor is frequently referred to as Ming Taizu.

2 — The Yongle emperor assumed the throne of his nephew the Jianwen emperor, who was officially said to have died in a palace fire but who was suspected of escaping to live as a recluse. The Yongle emperor wiped out the record of his nephew's reign and no temple name was given him. In 1644 the Prince of Fu (福王), the new self-proclaimed emperor of the Southern Ming, conferred on Emperor Jianwen the temple name Huizong.

3 — After listening to the poor advice of his eunuch advisers, the Zhengtong Emperor personally led a campaign in 1449 against the Mongols and was captured. His brother the Jingtai Emperor assumed the throne and as a hostage no longer of any value, the Mongols released the Zhengtong Emperor who returned to live in seclusion. However the Zhengtong Emperor was able to regain his position, choosing the reign name Tianshun.

Shun dynasty (順朝) (1644–1645 CE) [ edit ]

The Shun dynasty was an imperial dynasty created in the brief lapse from Ming to Qing rule in China. It was a state set up by the peasants' rebellion, in which they defeated the Ming forces, but former Ming general Wu Sangui led the Qing forces into Beijing and the Qing forces defeated the rebels.

Name most commonly known by Personal name Reign years Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Alternative title
Li Zicheng Li Zicheng 李自成 1644–1645 Yongchang 永昌 1644–1645 Chuǎng Wáng (The Dashing King) 闖王

Southern Ming (南明) (1644–1662 CE) [ edit ]

The Southern Ming refers to the Ming loyalist regimes that existed in Southern China from 1644 to 1662. The regime was established by the princes of the already destroyed Ming dynasty. All of these monarchs had their regimes crushed by the Qing forces very quickly. Koxinga (Zheng Chenggong) used the Ming dynasty's name and gathered forces before fleeing to Taiwan.

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Zhu Yousong Zhū Yóusōng 朱由崧 1644–1645 Hóngguāng 弘光 1644–1645 Emperor Fengtian Zundao Kuanhe Jingmu Xiuwen Buwu Wengong Renxiao Jian 奉天遵道寬和靜穆修文布武溫恭仁孝簡皇帝 Ānzōng 安宗
Zhu Yujian Zhū Yùjiàn 朱聿鍵 1645–1646 Lóngwǔ 隆武 1645–1646 Emperor Peitian Zhidao Hongyi Sumu Siwen Liewu Minren Guangxiao Xiang 配天至道弘毅肅穆思文烈武敏仁廣孝襄皇帝 Shàozōng 紹宗
Zhu Changfang Zhū Chángfāng 朱常淓 1645 None given, but sometimes referred to as the "Regency of the Prince of Lu/Luh"

(Lù Wáng Lín Guó)
潞王臨國 1646 Prince Min 閔王
Zhu Yihai Zhū Yǐhǎi 朱以海 1645–1653
Zhu Yuyue Zhū Yùyuè 朱聿𨮁 1646 Shàowǔ 紹武 1646
Zhu Youlang Zhū Yóuláng 朱由榔 1646–1662 Yǒnglì 永曆 1646–1662 Emperor Yingtian Tuidao Minyi Gongjian Jingwen Weiwu Liren Kexiao Kuang 應天推道敏毅恭儉經文緯武禮仁克孝匡皇帝 Zhāozōng 昭宗

*The two characters are homonyms, both pronounced Lu; to distinguish them, one is usually kept as Lu and the other spelled differently. Luh is from Cambridge History of China; Lou is from A.C. Moule's Rulers of China (1957). When one irregular spelling is used, the other is kept as regular (Lu). The two systems are distinct and not used simultaneously.

Qing dynasty (清朝) (1636–1912 CE) [ edit ]

Name by which most commonly known Personal name1 Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name2 (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple name2 (Miao Hao 廟號)
Later Jin (後金) (1616–1636 CE)
Nurhaci Nurhaci 努爾哈赤 1616–16263 Tiānmìng 天命 Abkai fulingga 1616–1626 Emperor Chengtian Guangyun Shengde Shengong Zhaoji Liji Renxiao Ruiwu Duanyi Qin'an Hongwen Dingye Gao 承天廣運聖德神功肇紀立極仁孝睿武端毅欽安弘文定業高皇帝 Tàizǔ 太祖
Huang Taiji Hong Taiji4 皇太極 1626–1636 Tiāncōng 天聰 Abkai sure 1627–1636 Emperor Yingtian Xingguo Hongde Zhangwu Kuanwen Rensheng Ruixiao Jingmin Zhaoding Longdao Xiangong Wen 應天興國弘德彰武寬溫仁聖睿孝敬敏昭定隆道顯功文皇帝 Tàizōng 太宗
Qing dynasty (清朝) (1636–1912 CE)
Huang Taiji

(same person as the last Later Jin khan)
Hong Taiji4 皇太極 1636–1643 Chóngdé 崇德 Wesihun erdemungge 1636–1643 Emperor Yingtian Xingguo Hongde Zhangwu Kuanwen Rensheng Ruixiao Jingmin Zhaoding Longdao Xiangong Wen 應天興國弘德彰武寬溫仁聖睿孝敬敏昭定隆道顯功文皇帝 Tàizōng 太宗
Shunzhi Emperor Fúlín 福臨 1643–16615 Shùnzhì 順治 Ijishūn dasan 1643–1661 Emperor Titian Longyun Dingtong Jianji Yingrui Qinwen Xianwu Dade Honggong Zhiren Chunxiao Zhang 體天隆運定統建極英睿欽文顯武大德弘功至仁純孝章皇帝 Shìzǔ 世祖
Kangxi Emperor Xuányè 玄燁 1661–1722 Kāngxī 康熙 Elhe taifin 1661–1722 Emperor Hetian Hongyun Wenwu Ruizhe Gongjian Kuanyu Xiaojing Chengxin Zhonghe Gongde Dacheng Ren 合天弘運文武睿哲恭儉寬裕孝敬誠信中和功德大成仁皇帝 Shèngzǔ 聖祖
Yongzheng Emperor Yìnzhēn 胤禛 1722–1735 Yōngzhèng 雍正 Hūwaliyasun tob 1722–1735 Emperor Jingtian Changyun Jianzhong Biaozheng Wenwu Yingming Kuanren Xinyi Ruisheng Daxiao Zhicheng Xian 敬天昌運建中表正文武英明寬仁信毅睿聖大孝至誠憲皇帝 Shìzōng 世宗
Qianlong Emperor Hónglì 弘曆 1735–17966 Qiánlóng 乾隆 Abkai wehiyehe 1735–1796 Emperor Fatian Longyun Zhicheng Xianjue Tiyuan Liji Fuwen Fenwu Qinming Xiaoci Shensheng Chun 法天隆運至誠先覺體元立極敷文奮武欽明孝慈神聖純皇帝 Gāozōng 高宗
Jiaqing Emperor Yóngyǎn 顒琰 1796–1820 Jiāqìng 嘉慶 Saicungga fengšen 1796–1820 Emperor Shoutian Xingyun Fuhua Suiyou Chongwen Jingwu Guangyu Xiaogong Qinjian Duanmin Yingzhe Rui 受天興運敷化綏猷崇文經武光裕孝恭勤儉端敏英哲睿皇帝 Rénzōng 仁宗
Daoguang Emperor Mínníng 旻寧 1820–1850 Dàoguāng 道光 Doro eldengge 1820–1850 Emperor Xiaotian Fuyun Lizhong Tizheng Zhiwen Shengwu Zhiyong Renci Jianqin Xiaomin Kuanding Cheng 效天符運立中體正至文聖武智勇仁慈儉勤孝敏寬定成皇帝 Xuānzōng 宣宗
Xianfeng Emperor Yìzhǔ 奕詝 1850–1861 Xiánfēng 咸豐 Gubci elgiyengg 1850–1861 Emperor Xietian Yiyun Zhizhong Chuimo Maode Zhenwu Shengxiao Yuangong Duanren Kuanmin Zhuangjian Xian 協天翊運執中垂謨懋德振武聖孝淵恭端仁寬敏莊儉顯皇帝 Wénzōng 文宗
Tongzhi Emperor Zǎichún 載淳 1861–18757 Tóngzhì 同治 Yooningga dasan 1861–1875 Emperor Jitian Kaiyun Shouzhong Juzheng Baoda Dinggong Shengzhi Chengxiao Xinmin Gongkuan Mingsu Yi 繼天開運受中居正保大定功聖智誠孝信敏恭寬明肅毅皇帝 Mùzōng 穆宗
Guangxu Emperor Zǎitián 載湉 1875–19087 Guāngxù 光緒 Badarangga doro 1875–1908 Emperor Tongtian Chongyun Dahong Zhizheng Jingwen Weiwu Renxiao Ruizhi Duanjian Kuanqin Jing 同天崇運大中至正經文緯武仁孝睿智端儉寬勤景皇帝 Dézōng 德宗
Xuantong Emperor Pǔyí

(also known as Henry)
溥儀 1908–191210 Xuāntǒng 宣統 Gehungge yoso 1908–1912 Emperor Peitian Tongyun Fagu Shaotong Cuiwen Jingfu Kuanrui Zhengmu Tiren Lixiao Min8, 9 配天同運法古紹統粹文敬孚寬睿正穆體仁立孝愍皇帝8, 9 Gōngzōng9 恭宗9

1 — The Qing imperial family name was Aisin Gioro (愛新覺羅 aixin jueluo), but it was not common Manchu practice to include the family or clan name in an individual's personal name.

2 — As posthumous and temple names were often shared by emperors of different dynasties, they are usually preceded by the dynastic name, in this case, Qing, to avoid confusion. For example, the Qianlong emperor is frequently referred to as Qing Gaozong.

3 — Nurhaci founded the Jin (金) or Later Jin (後金) dynasty in 1616, but it was his son Hong Taiji who changed the name of the dynasty to Qing in 1636. Nurhaci adopted the reign name Tianming but his Qing titles were all conferred posthumously.

4 — Hong Taiji is referred to erroneously in some historical literature as Abahai (阿巴海).

5 — The Shunzhi emperor was the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper following the occupation of Beijing in 1644.

6 — The Qianlong emperor officially retired in 1796, taking the title Emperor Emeritus (太上皇帝). This was an act of filial piety to ensure that he would not reign longer than his illustrious grandfather, the Kangxi emperor. However, he remained the ultimate authority until his death in 1799, at which point his son, the Jiaqing emperor, began to exercise the power that had been his in name only from 1796.

7 — The Empress Dowager Cixi, concubine of the Xianfeng emperor, mother of the Tongzhi emperor, and adoptive mother of the Guangxu emperor, used her considerable skills of political manipulation to act as the power behind the throne or on the throne from 1861 until her death in 1908. She acted as a regent during the minorities of the two young emperors and confined the Guangxu emperor in the Summer Palace after he attempted to introduce reforms in 1898. The death of the Guangxu emperor was announced the day before her own.

8 — Xundi ("The Abdicated Emperor") is the common name by which mainland China and Taiwan's history books refer to Puyi.

9 — In 2004 the descendants of the Qing imperial family have conferred a posthumous name and temple name upon the late Puyi. Posthumous name: Emperor Min (愍帝). Temple name: Gongzong (恭宗). Both titles are not commonly used in academia to refer to this sovereign.

10 — The Xinhai Revolution started on October 10, 1911. The last emperor, Puyi, abdicated officially on February 12, 1912. The Qing dynasty was overthrown with his abdication on that day. However, that same day the Chinese Republic granted the "Articles of Favourable Treatment of the Emperor of the Great Qing after his Abdication" (清帝退位優待條件) which allowed Puyi to retain his imperial title and stated that he should be treated by the government of the Republic of China with the protocol attached to a foreign monarch. These articles were revised on November 5, 1924, after the coup by General Feng Yuxiang: the revised articles stated that Puyi was losing his imperial title and henceforth becoming a regular citizen of the Republic. Puyi was expelled from the Forbidden City that same day. Thus, Puyi was ruling emperor until February 12, 1912 (and also briefly between July 1 and July 12, 1917 in the Manchu Restoration), and non-ruling emperor between February 12, 1912 and November 5, 1924. Puyi also later became the puppet leader of Japanese-controlled Manchukuo under the reign name Datong (大同) (1932–1934), then the puppet emperor of Manchukuo under the reign name Kangde (康德) (1934–1945).

Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (太平天國) (1851–1864 CE) [ edit ]

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era name (Nian Hao 年號)
Hong Xiuquan Hong Xiuquan 洪秀全 11 January 1851 – 1 June 1864 Taiping Tianguo 太平天國
Hong Tianguifu Hong Tianguifu 洪天貴福 6 June 1864 – 18 November 1864

Empire of China (中華帝國) (1915–1916 CE) [ edit ]

A short-lived attempt by statesman and general Yuan Shikai who attempted to establish himself as emperor in 1915, but his rule was universally accepted as inauthentic. After 83 days, his reign ended.

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era name (Nian Hao 年號)
Yuan Shikai Yuan Shikai 袁世凱 22 December 1915 – 22 March 1916 Hóngxiàn 洪憲

See also [ edit ]

References [ edit ]

  1. ^ Belyaev, V.A.; Nastich, V.N.; Sidorovich, S.V. (2012). "The coinage of Qara Khitay: a new evidence (on the reign title of the Western Liao Emperor Yelü Yilie)". Proceedings of the 3rd Simone Assemani Symposium, September 23–24, 2011, Rome.
  2. ^ http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_ac349fd50102xfdr.html

External links [ edit ]

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