Wikipedia

List of Intangible Cultural Heritage elements in Eastern Europe

Busó masks on display in Hungary
Busó masks in Mohács, Hungary

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) intangible cultural heritage elements are the non-physical traditions and practices performed by a people. As part of a country's cultural heritage, they include celebrations, festivals, performances, oral traditions, music, and the making of handicrafts.[1] The "intangible cultural heritage" is defined by the Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage, drafted in 2003[2] and took effect in 2006.[3] Inscription of new heritage elements on the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists is determined by the Intergovernmental Committee for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage, an organisation established by the convention.[4]

Eastern Europe, as designated by the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD), consists of ten countries.[5] The groupings used by the UNSD are not indicative of "any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories."[6] All of the countries, with the exception of Russia, are state parties to the Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage.[3] Four intangible cultural heritage elements have been inscribed as elements of the Czech Republic,[7] two as elements of Bulgaria,[8] Hungary,[9] Romania,[10] and Russia,[11] one for Belarus[12] and Slovakia,[13] and none for Moldova,[14] Poland,[15] and Ukraine.[16]

Gallery [ edit ]

List of intangible heritage elements [ edit ]

The table lists information about each International Cultural Heritage element:

Name: official name, worded as inscribed on the list
Region: region within or outside a country where a heritage is still practiced
Country: country, as inscribed on the list
Year: the year the site was inscribed on the Intangible Cultural Heritage List
Session: the session and decision in which a heritage is inscribed by the committee[nb 1]
Description: brief description of the heritage
Elements of Eastern Europe
Name Region Country Year Session Description Ref(s)
Rite of the Kalyady Tsars (Christmas Tsars) Village of Semezhava in the Minsk Region   Belarus 2009 4.COM 14.01 Rite of the Kalyady Tsars is a celebration that occurs during the Belarusian New Year. The event involves the performance of the folk drama Tsar Maximilian, a religious drama about Maximilian, the pagan tsar, and Afolf, his son. Children are chosen to perform as the characters dzad and babam, or old man and old lady. Each year, the celebration draws in around five hundred men, who take part by performing as tsars for families that have unwed daughters. Interest in the event is waning among the youth of the region, leading to concerns by UNESCO that the heritage will be lost. [17] [18]
Bistritsa Babi, archaic polyphony, dances and rituals from the Shoplouk region Shoplouk region, the village of Bistritsa for polyphonic singing   Bulgaria 2008 3.COM Three traditions of the Shopi people of Bulgaria have been inscribed by UNESCO. The first is polyphony, a form of singing that consists of multiple voices combined and sung simultaneously. Participants form a circle and dance as the choir sings. Polyphony is still practiced by the Bistritsa Babi, a term for the old women of the region. The other inscribed elements are lazarouvane, a springtime ritual for girls entering into adulthood, and the horo dance, a form of folk round dance that is performed as a communal dance. [19] [20]
Nestinarstvo, messages from the past: the Panagyr of Saints Constantine and Helena in the village of Bulgari Village of Bulgari in the region of Mount Strandzha   Bulgaria 2009 4.COM 13.05 Nestinarstvo is a ritual where participants dance barefoot on embers, similar to fire walking. It is practiced as part of the Panagyr celebration, in honour of the Saints Constantine and Helena. The villagers dance as musicians play bagpipes and drums. The fire dancers, the Nestinari, perform vicariously as they channel the saints. The celebration remains a popular tourist attraction in the village. In the past, the ritual was more widespread, and was practiced in other villages in Bulgaria and nearby Greece. [21] [22]
Falconry, a living human heritage Multiple[nb 2]   Czech Republic [nb 2] 2010 5.COM 6.45 Falconry involves the use of trained birds of prey for hunting. It is also practiced recreationally, as a sport. Falconry is widespread around the world, and is seen in a diverse range of cultures. UNESCO has inscribed falconry as a shared intangible heritage element of eleven countries, including the Czech Republic. [23]
Ride of the Kings in the south-east of the Czech Republic Villages of Vlčno and Skoronice and towns of Kunovice and Hluk in the southeastern region of the Czech Republic   Czech Republic 2011 6.COM 13.13 The Ride of the Kings takes place during the Pentecost celebration, a festivity in honour of the Holy Spirit. According to tradition, the ride commemorates Saint Wenceslaus as he, wearing a disguise, makes his escape. Lasting two days, the participants of the Ride parade on horses adorned with decorations. Central to the Ride is the King, a role performed by a boy in women's clothing, ten to twelve years old, blindfolded with ribbons and holding a rose with his teeth. [24] [25]
Shrovetide door-to-door processions and masks in the villages of the Hlinecko area Town of Hlinsko and the surrounding region, known as Hlinecko, in Eastern Bohemia   Czech Republic 2010 6.COM 6.11 Shrovetide festivities occur before Lent, and were restricted in the past by the Communist government and the Catholic Church. Participants of the carnival celebrate by wearing colourful masks. Traveling in a parade, they visit the homes of villagers to dance for them. A mare is treated as a scapegoat and given a mock execution in a ritual involving dancing and alcohol. [26]
Slovácko Verbuňk, recruit dances South Moravia and Zlín regions   Czech Republic 2008 3.COM Slovácko Verbuňk is a folk dance. Originating in the 18th century, the dance was traditionally performed by young men drafted as Austrian army recruits. The dance was both celebratory and a symbol of dissent. Practiced by recruits, it was named verbŭnk, based on the German word for recruitment, werbung. The men dance, performing one of many regional variations, as musicians play songs known as New Hungarian. [27] [28]
Busó festivities at Mohács: masked end-of-winter carnival custom Town of Mohács in the southern region of Hungary, near the Danube river   Hungary 2009 4.COM 13.42 Busójárás is a six-day-long festival that occurs in honour of the arrival of spring, and is of Croatian origin. Participants dress up in costumes and wear masks, sailing through the Danube river before parading through the city. This is done, based on traditional accounts, to commemorate the chasing away of Turks during the Ottoman rule of Hungary. Other events include feasting, costume competitions, displays of carved masks, and playing instruments. [29] [30] [31]
Táncház method: a Hungarian model for the transmission of intangible cultural heritage National   Hungary 2011 6.COM 9.8 Táncház is a Hungarian folk dance. UNESCO has inscribed the methods in which the dance is taught. Knowledge of the dance is passed down from older generations, and personal innovation and wide participation are encouraged. Táncház, which means "dance house," is derived from Transylvanian customs. The popularity of the dance grew in the 1970s, as part of a wider renewal of folk traditions. [32] [33]
Căluş ritual Olt County of southern Romania and regions in Bulgaria and Serbia inhabited by Vlachs   Romania 2008 3.COM The Căluşari, a fraternal group, perform an annual group dance, the Căluş, as a ritual. The dance may have origins as a fertility rite, and a 17th-century written account is the earliest attestation of its performance. The participants carry wooden stick and wear a costume covered with bells, and dance while the musicians play with the accordion and the violin. Special hats and a bearded mask are also worn. [34] [35]
Doina National   Romania 2009 4.COM 13.69 Doina is a form of Romanian folk music. Songs in the style explore various themes, and are performed individually, sometimes with an instrument. The different regional types of doina are diverse, each with distinct characteristics and known by a different local name. [36] [37]
Cultural space and oral culture of the Semeiskie Transbaikal region, east or "beyond" Lake Baikal, in Siberia   Russia 2008 3.COM The Semeiskie migrated to Transbaikal region because of religious persecution. They are Old Believers, a religious group that split from the Russian Orthodox Church in the 17th century during the raskol schism. UNESCO inscribed the community's "cultural space," located east of Lake Baikal, and the group's tradition of musical performances. Until the 20th century, the Semeiskie lived isolated, separated from the surrounding population. [38] [39]
Olonkho, Yakut heroic epos Sakha Republic in the Russian Far East region   Russia 2008 3.COM The olonkho is an epic performed by the Yakuts consisting of ten to fifteen thousand verses. It describes the cosmological beliefs of the Yakuts, including a creation myth, and the gods and legends of the region's indigenous religion. Modern events and themes are also integrated into the performance. The epic is transmitted within the family, and is used as a form of educational recreation. [40] [41]
Fujara and its music Central Slovakia   Slovakia 2008 3.COM The fujara is a shepherd's flute originating from central Slovakia. The instrument is long, and consists of a mouthpiece and three tone holes on the main tube. The flutes are made of wood from elder trees or maple trees. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the popularity of the flute spread beyond shepherds. It is still performed during celebrations and by folk music groups. [42] [43]

See also [ edit ]

Notes [ edit ]

  1. ^ The .COM abbreviation is used by UNESCO for committee sessions. 3.COM represents the third session of the committee, 4.COM represents the fourth session, and so on. The numbers following the abbreviation, like 14.01, represent the inscription decision number.
  2. ^ a b The heritage was also inscribed as a heritage of the United Arab Emirates, Belgium, France, South Korea, Mongolia, Morocco, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Spain and Syria.

References [ edit ]

  1. ^ "What is Intangible Cultural Heritage?". UNESCO. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
  2. ^ "Text of the Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage". UNESCO. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
  3. ^ a b "The States Parties to the Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (2003)". UNESCO.
  4. ^ "Intergovernmental Committee for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  5. ^ "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings". United Nations Statistics Division. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
  6. ^ "Standard Country or Area Codes for Statistical Use". United Nations Statistics Division. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
  7. ^ "Czech Republic — Information related to Intangible Cultural Heritage". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  8. ^ "Bulgaria — Information related to Intangible Cultural Heritage". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  9. ^ "Hungary — Information related to Intangible Cultural Heritage". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  10. ^ "Romania — Information related to Intangible Cultural Heritage". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  11. ^ "Russian Federation — Information related to Intangible Cultural Heritage". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  12. ^ "Belarus — Information related to Intangible Cultural Heritage". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  13. ^ "Slovakia — Information related to Intangible Cultural Heritage". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  14. ^ "Republic of Moldova — Information related to Intangible Cultural Heritage". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  15. ^ "Poland — Information related to Intangible Cultural Heritage". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  16. ^ "Ukraine — Information related to Intangible Cultural Heritage". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  17. ^ "Rite of the Kalyady Tsars (Christmas Tsars)". UNESCO. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
  18. ^ E. Anthony Swift (30 December 2002). Popular Theater and Society in Tsarist Russia. University of California Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-520-22594-7. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  19. ^ "Bistritsa Babi, archaic polyphony, dances and rituals from the Shoplouk region". UNESCO. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
  20. ^ Mercia MacDermott (1998). Bulgarian Folk Customs. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. p. 29. ISBN 978-1-85302-485-6. Retrieved 26 October 2012. [failed verification]
  21. ^ "Nestinarstvo, messages from the past: the Panagyr of Saints Constantine and Helena in the village of Bulgari". UNESCO. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
  22. ^ Simon Broughton; Mark Ellingham; Richard Trillo (1999). World Music: Africa, Europe and the Middle East. Rough Guides. p. 37. ISBN 978-1-85828-635-8. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  23. ^ "Falconry, a living human heritage". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  24. ^ "Ride of the Kings in the south-east of the Czech Republic". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  25. ^ Craig Stephen Cravens (30 August 2006). Culture And Customs of the Czech Republic And Slovakia. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 61–62. ISBN 978-0-313-33412-2. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  26. ^ "Shrovetide door-to-door processions and masks in the villages of the Hlinecko area". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  27. ^ "Slovácko Verbuňk, recruit dances". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  28. ^ Asiedu, Dita (29 November 2005). "UNESCO proclaims Czech "Verbunk" Masterpiece of Intangible Heritage of Humanity". Radio Prague. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  29. ^ "Busó festivities at Mohács: masked end-of-winter carnival custom". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  30. ^ Andrew Beattie (6 January 2011). The Danube: A Cultural History. Oxford University Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-19-976835-6. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  31. ^ "Masked revellers celebrate the Buso carnival in Hungary". MSN News. 21 February 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  32. ^ "Táncház method: a Hungarian model for the transmission of intangible cultural heritage". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  33. ^ Oksana Buranbaeva; Vanja Mladineo (30 September 2011). Culture and Customs of Hungary. ABC-CLIO. p. 160. ISBN 978-0-313-38369-4. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  34. ^ "Căluş ritual". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  35. ^ Gabrielle H. Cody (2007). The Columbia Encyclopedia of Modern Drama. Columbia University Press. p. 1148. ISBN 978-0-231-14424-7. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  36. ^ "Doina". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  37. ^ Bela Bartok (1 October 1992). Bela Bartok Essays. U of Nebraska Press. pp. 103–105. ISBN 978-0-8032-6108-2. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  38. ^ "Cultural space and oral culture of the Semeiskie". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  39. ^ Juha Pentikäinen (1 January 1996). Shamanism and Northern Ecology. Walter de Gruyter. p. 370. ISBN 978-3-11-081167-4. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  40. ^ "Olonkho, Yakut heroic epos". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  41. ^ John A. Grim (1987). The Shaman. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 37–39. ISBN 978-0-8061-2106-2. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  42. ^ "Fujara and its music". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  43. ^ "Slovakian shepherd's flute, the "Fujara" wins worldwide note". Agence France-Presse. 23 December 2005. Retrieved 26 October 2012.

External links [ edit ]

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