Wikipedia

List of Parthian monarchs

King of the Parthian Empire
Imperial
Coin of Mithradates I of Parthia, Seleucia mint.jpg
Mithridates I

171–132 BC

Transformed the Parthian realm into an empire
Details
First monarch Arsaces I
Last monarch Artabanus IV
Formation 247 BC
Abolition 224 AD
Appointer Divine right, hereditary

Below is a list of rulers of the Iranian Parthian Empire (247 BC – 228 AD).

Portrait Name Title(s) Succession & notes Reign Death
Coin of Arsaces I (1), Nisa mint.jpg Arsaces I

𐭀𐭓𐭔𐭊 (Aršak)
King, kārny (autokrator) Leader of the Parni tribe. Conquered the satrapy of Parthia from Andragoras, who had rebelled against the Seleucid Empire. 247 BC –

217 BC
217 BC

Unknown causes.
Coin of Arsaces II, Ray mint.jpg Arsaces II

𐭀𐭓𐭔𐭊 (Aršak)
King Son of Arsaces I. Accepted status as a vassal king under the Seleucids after suffering a defeat by the Seleucid king Antiochus III the Great. 217 BC –

191 BC
191 BC

Unknown causes.
Coin of Priapatius, Hekatompylos mint.jpg Priapatius Great King, King, Arsaces Grandnephew of Arsaces I. 191 BC –

176 BC
176 BC

Unknown causes.
Coin of a Parthian ruler, minted between 185-132 BC.jpg Phraates I

𐭐𐭓𐭇𐭕 (Frahāt)
King, Arsaces Son of Priapatius. 176 BC –

171 BC
171 BC

Unknown causes.
The first four Parthian (Arsacid) kings; Arsaces I, Arsaces II, Priapatius and Phraates I ruled a medium-sized kingdom in northeastern Iran. It was first under that Mithridates I that the Parthian realm encompassed Iran, thus transforming into an empire.
Coin of Mithradates I of Parthia, Seleucia mint.jpg Mithridates I the Great

𐭌𐭄𐭓𐭃𐭕 (Mihrdāt)
King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces, Philhellene Son of Priapatius. First Arsacid ruler to assume the ancient Achaemenid title of King of Kings, not used after his reign until the rule of Mithridates II. 171 BC –

132 BC
132 BC

Unknown causes.
Coin of Phraates II (cropped), Seleucia mint.jpg Phraates II

𐭐𐭓𐭇𐭕 (Frahāt)
Great King, Arsaces, Philhellene Son of Mithridates I. 132 BC –

127 BC
127 BC

Killed in battle against invading nomads in the east.
Coin of Artabanus I of Parthia (cropped, part 2), Seleucia mint.jpg Artabanus I

𐭍𐭐𐭕𐭓 (Ardawān)
Great King, Arsaces, Philhellene Son of Priapatius. 127 BC –

124 BC
124 BC

Killed in battle against invading nomads in the east.
Coin of Mithridates II of Parthia, Ray mint.jpg Mithridates II the Great

𐭌𐭄𐭓𐭃𐭕 (Mihrdāt)
King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces Son of Artabanus I. Reintroduced the title of King of Kings, used after him until the end of the Sasanian dynasty in 651 AD. 124 BC –

91 BC
91 BC

Unknown causes.
Coin of Gotarzes I (2, cropped), Ectbatana mint.jpg Gotarzes I

𐭂𐭅𐭕𐭓𐭆 (Gōdarz)
King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces Son of Mithridates II. 91 BC –

87/80 BC
87/80 BC

Unknown causes.
Coin of Mithridates III of Parthia (cropped), Ray mint.jpg Mithridates III

𐭌𐭄𐭓𐭃𐭕 (Mihrdāt)
King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces Uncertain existence.[1][2][3] Son of Mithridates II. Usurper or rival king against Gotarzes I and/or Orodes I. 87 BC –

80 BC
80 BC

Unknown causes.
Tetradrachm of the Parthian monarch Orodes I, Seleucia mint.jpg Orodes I

𐭅𐭓𐭅𐭃 (Wērōd/Urūd)
King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces Son of Gotarzes I. Only partial control of the Parthian Empire. 80 BC –

75 BC
75 BC

Unknown causes.
Coin of Sinatruces, Ray mint (2).jpg Sinatruces I King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces Part of the Arsacid dynasty, but relation unknown. Took the throne with the aid of the Saka. 78/7 BC (or 75/4) –

70/69 BC
70/69 BC

Unknown causes.
Drachm of Phraates III, Ecbatana mint.jpg Phraates III

𐭐𐭓𐭇𐭕 (Frahāt)
King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces Son of Sinatruces. 69 BC –

57 BC
57 BC

Murdered by his sons Orodes II and Mithridates IV.
Coin of Mithridates IV (cropped).jpg Mithridates IV

𐭌𐭄𐭓𐭃𐭕 (Mihrdāt)
King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces Son of Phraates III. 57 BC –

54 BC
54 BC

Executed by his brother Orodes II.
Coin of Orodes II, Mithradatkert (Nisa) mint.jpg Orodes II

𐭅𐭓𐭅𐭃 (Wērōd/Urūd)
King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces Son of Phraates III. 57 BC –

37 BC
37 BC

Relinquished the throne to his son Phraates IV.
Drachm of Phraates IV, Mithradatkirt mint.jpg Phraates IV

𐭐𐭓𐭇𐭕 (Frahāt)
King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces Son of Orodes II. Briefly deposed by rival claimant Tiridates II in 32 BC. 37 BC –

2 BC
2 BC

Murdered by his wife Musa and their son Phraates V.
The portrait of Musa of Parthia on the reverse of a drachm, Ecbatana mint.jpg Musa Queen of Queens Wife of Phraates IV. Seized the throne from him together with their son Phraates V. 2 BC –

2 AD
2 AD

Overthrown and executed by the nobility.
Coin of Phraatakes (Phraates V), Seleucia mint (cropped).jpg Phraates V

𐭐𐭓𐭇𐭕 (Frahāt)
King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces Son of Phraates IV and Musa. Seized the throne from his father together with his mother. 2 BC –

2 AD
2 AD

Overthrown and executed by the nobility.
OrodesIIICoinHistoryofIran.jpg Orodes III

𐭅𐭓𐭅𐭃 (Wērōd/Urūd)
King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces Part of the Arsacid dynasty, but relation unknown. Raised to the throne by the nobility following the overthrow of his predecessors. 2 AD–

6 AD
6 AD

Overthrown and executed by the nobility.
Tetradrachm of Vonones I, Seleucia mint.jpg Vonones I King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces Son of Phraates IV. Raised to the throne by the nobility following the overthrow of Orodes III. 6 –

12
19

Killed attempting to escape imprisonment.
Tetradrachm of Artabanus II, Seleucia mint.jpg Artabanus II

𐭍𐭐𐭕𐭓 (Ardawān)
King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces Son of a Dahae prince and an Arsacid princess who was a daughter of Phraates IV. Seized the throne from Vonones I. Briefly deposed by rival claimant Tiridates III in 35–36 AD. 10 –

40
40

Unknown causes.
Coin of Vardanes I (cropped, 2), Seleucia mint.jpg Vardanes I King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces Son of Artabanus II. Against Gotarzes II. 40 –

47
47

Assassinated at the instigation of a party of Parthian nobles.
Tetradrachm of Gotarzes II, minted in 49.jpg Gotarzes II

𐭂𐭅𐭕𐭓𐭆 (Gōdarz)
King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces Son of Artabanus II. Rival king against Vardanes I in 40–47. 40 –

51
51

Was murdered or died of illness.
Coin of Meherdates, Parthian contender against Gotarzes II.jpg Meherdates

𐭌𐭄𐭓𐭃𐭕 (Mihrdāt)
King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces Son of Vonones I. Captured and mutilated by Gotarzes II. 49 –

51
???

Unknown causes.
Coin of Vonones II, minted at Hamadan.jpg Vonones II King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces Brother of Artabanus II. Ruled for only a few months. 51 51

Unknown causes.
Tetradrachm of Vologases I, minted at Seleucia.jpg Vologases I

𐭅𐭋𐭂𐭔 (Walaγš)
King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces Son of Vonones II. His reign saw a marked revival of ancient Iranian customs and a strong reaction against Hellenism. 51 –

78
78

Unknown causes.
Coin of Vardanes II, Seleucia mint.jpg Vardanes II King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces Son of Vologases I. Usurper who only briefly controlled parts of the Parthian Empire. 55 –

58
??

Unknown causes.
Coin of Pacorus II (cropped), Seleucia mint.jpg Pacorus II King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces Son of Vologases I. 78 –

110
110

Unknown causes.
VologasesIICoinHistoryofIran.jpg Vologases II

𐭅𐭋𐭂𐭔 (Walaγš)
King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces Son of Vologases I. Rival king against Pacorus II. 78 –

80
80

Killed fighting Pacorus II.
Coin of Artabanus III of Parthia (cropped), Seleucia mint.jpg Artabanus III

𐭍𐭐𐭕𐭓 (Ardawān)
King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces Son of Vologases I. Usurper and rival king against Pacorus II. 79/80 –

81
81

Killed fighting Pacorus II.
Coin of Osroes I (cropped), Ecbatana mint.jpg Osroes I

𐭇𐭅𐭎𐭓𐭅 (Husrōw)
King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces Part of the Arsacid dynasty, but relation unknown. Rival king against Pacorus II and Vologases III. Briefly deposed by the Romans in 116–117. 109 –

129
129

Unknown causes.
Coin of Vologases III (cropped), Seleucia mint.jpg Vologases III

𐭅𐭋𐭂𐭔 (Walaγš)
King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces Son of Vologases II. Rival king against Osroes I, Parthamaspates, Sinatruces II and Mithridates V. Successfully united Parthia in 140. 110 –

147
147

Unknown causes.
Parthamaspates.jpg Parthamaspates King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces Son of Osroes I. Briefly raised as client king of Parthia by Roman Emperor Trajan. 116 –

117
???

Unknown causes.
SanatrucesIICoinHistoryofIran.jpg Sinatruces II King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces Nephew of Osroes I, usurper against Parthamaspates. 116 ???

Unknown causes.
Coin of Mithridates V of Parthia, Ecbatana mint.jpg Mithridates V

𐭌𐭄𐭓𐭃𐭕 (Mihrdāt)
King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces 129–

140
140

Died in an attack against the Kingdom of Commagene.
Tetradrachm of Vologases IV, minted at Seleucia in 153.jpg Vologases IV

𐭅𐭋𐭂𐭔 (Walaγš)
King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces Son of Mithridates V. 147 –

191
191

Unknown causes.
OsroesII.jpg Osroes II

𐭇𐭅𐭎𐭓𐭅 (Husrōw)
King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces Uncertain relation; usurper and rival king against Vologases IV. 191 191

Unknown causes.
Coin of Vologases V (cropped), Hamadan mint.jpg Vologases V

𐭅𐭋𐭂𐭔 (Walaγš)
King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces Son of Vologases IV. 191 –

208
208

Unknown causes.
Coin of Vologases VI of Parthia (cropped), Ecbatana mint.jpg Vologases VI

𐭅𐭋𐭂𐭔 (Walaγš)
King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces Son of Vologases V. Uncontested king until 213, when his brother Artabanus IV rebelled, who by 216 was in control of most of the empire. Later defeated by the Sasanians. 208 –

228
228

Unknown causes.
Drachm of Artabanus IV (2), Hamadan mint.jpg Artabanus IV

𐭍𐭐𐭕𐭓 (Ardawān)
King of Kings, Great King, Arsaces Son of Vologases V. Rival king against Vologases VI. 213 –

224
224

Defeated and killed by the Sasanian king Ardashir I at the Battle of Hormozdgan.

See also [ edit ]

References [ edit ]

  1. ^ Shayegan 2011, pp. 197, 232.
  2. ^ Curtis 2012, p. 68.
  3. ^ Olbrycht 2016, p. 23.

Sources [ edit ]

  • Curtis, Vesta Sarkhosh (2012). "Parthian coins: Kingship and Divine Glory". The Parthian Empire and its Religions. pp. 67–83. ISBN 9783940598134.
  • Olbrycht, Marek Jan (2016). "Dynastic Connections in the Arsacid Empire and the Origins of the House of Sāsān". In Curtis, Vesta Sarkhosh; Pendleton, Elizabeth J.; Alram, Michael; Daryaee, Touraj (eds.). The Parthian and Early Sasanian Empires: Adaptation and Expansion. Oxbow Books. ISBN 9781785702082.
  • Shayegan, M. Rahim (2011). Arsacids and Sasanians: Political Ideology in Post-Hellenistic and Late Antique Persia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–539. ISBN 9780521766418.

Further reading [ edit ]

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