Wikipedia

List of countries by GDP (nominal)

Largest economies by nominal GDP in 2019[1]
Countries by nominal GDP in 2019[note 1]
  >$20 trillion
  $10–$20 trillion
  $5–$10 trillion
  $1–$5 trillion
  $750 billion–$1 trillion
  $500–$750 billion
  $250–$500 billion
  $100–$250 billion
  $50–$100 billion
  $25–$50 billion
  $5–$25 billion
  <$5 billion

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.[2] Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates. Nominal GDP does not take into account differences in the cost of living in different countries, and the results can vary greatly from one year to another based on fluctuations in the exchange rates of the country's currency.[3] Such fluctuations may change a country's ranking from one year to the next, even though they often make little or no difference in the standard of living of its population.[4]

Comparisons of national wealth are also frequently made on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP), to adjust for differences in the cost of living in different countries. PPP largely removes the exchange rate problem, but has its own drawbacks; it does not reflect the value of economic output in international trade, does not take into account the differences of quality of goods and services among countries, and it also requires more estimation than nominal GDP.[5] On the whole, PPP per capita figures are less spread than nominal GDP per capita figures.[6]

The United States is the world's largest economy with a GDP of approximately $20.513 trillion, notably due to high average incomes, a large population,[7] capital investment, low unemployment,[8] high consumer spending,[9] a relatively young population,[10] and technological innovation.[11] Tuvalu is the world's smallest national economy, with a GDP of about $32 million, because of its very small population, a lack of natural resources, reliance on foreign aid, negligible capital investment, demographic problems, and low average incomes.[12]

Although the rankings of national economies have changed considerably over time, the United States has maintained its top position since the Gilded Age, a time period in which its economy saw rapid expansion, surpassing the British Empire and Qing dynasty in aggregate output.[13][14] Since China's transition to a market-based economy through controlled privatisation and deregulation,[15][16] the country has seen its ranking increase from ninth in 1978 to second to only the United States in 2016 as economic growth accelerated and its share of global nominal GDP surged from 2% in 1980 to 15% in 2016.[14][1] India has also experienced a similar economic boom since the implementation of economic liberalisation in the early 1990s.[17] When supranational entities are included, the European Union is the second largest economy in the world. It was the largest from 2004, when ten countries joined the union,[18] to 2014, after which it was surpassed by the United States.[19]

The first list includes estimates compiled by the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook, the second list shows the World Bank's data, and the third list includes data compiled by the United Nations Statistics Division. The IMF definitive data for the past year and estimates for the current year are published twice a year in April and October. Non-sovereign entities (the world, continents, and some dependent territories) and states with limited international recognition (such as Kosovo, the State of Palestine and Taiwan) are included in the list in cases in which they appear in the sources. These economies are not ranked in the charts here, but are listed in sequence by GDP for comparison. In addition, non-sovereign entities are marked in italics.

Lists

Per the International Monetary Fund (2019 estimates) [1] Per the World Bank (2019) [20] Per the United Nations (2017) [21] [22]
Rank Country/Territory GDP

(US$million)
    World [19] 87,265,226
1   United States 21,439,453
  European Union [23] [n 1] 18,705,132
2   China [n 2] 14,140,163
3   Japan 5,154,475
4   Germany 3,863,344
5   India 2,935,570
6   United Kingdom 2,743,586
7   France 2,707,074
8   Italy 1,988,636
9   Brazil 1,847,020
10   Canada 1,730,914
11   Russia [n 3] 1,637,892
12   Korea, South 1,629,532
13   Spain 1,397,870
14   Australia 1,376,255
15   Mexico 1,274,175
16   Indonesia 1,111,713
17   Netherlands 902,355
18   Saudi Arabia 779,289
19   Turkey 743,708
20    Switzerland 715,360
  Taiwan 586,104
21   Poland 565,854
22   Thailand 529,177
23   Sweden 528,929
24   Belgium 517,609
25   Iran 458,500
26   Austria 447,718
27   Nigeria 446,543
28   Argentina 445,469
29   Norway 417,627
30   United Arab Emirates 405,771
31   Israel 387,717
32   Ireland 384,940
  Hong Kong 372,989
33   Malaysia 365,303
34   Singapore 362,818
35   South Africa 358,839
36   Philippines 356,814
37   Denmark 347,176
38   Colombia 327,895
39   Bangladesh 317,465
40   Egypt 302,256
41   Chile 294,237
42   Pakistan 284,214
43   Finland 269,654
44   Vietnam 261,637
45   Czech Republic 246,953
46   Romania 243,698
47   Portugal 236,408
48   Peru 228,989
49   Iraq 224,462
50   Greece 214,012
51   New Zealand 204,671
52   Qatar 191,849
53   Algeria 172,781
54   Hungary 170,407
55   Kazakhstan 170,326
56   Ukraine 150,401
57   Kuwait 137,591
58   Morocco 119,040
59   Ecuador 107,914
60   Slovakia 106,552
  Puerto Rico 99,913
61   Kenya 98,607
62   Angola 91,527
63   Ethiopia 91,166
64   Dominican Republic 89,475
65   Sri Lanka 86,566
66   Guatemala 81,318
67   Oman 76,609
68   Venezuela 70,140
69   Luxembourg 69,453
70   Panama 68,536
71   Ghana 67,077
72   Bulgaria 66,250
73   Myanmar 65,994
74   Tanzania 62,224
75   Belarus 62,572
76   Costa Rica 61,021
77   Croatia 60,702
78   Uzbekistan 60,490
79   Syria [n 4] 60,043/Na
80   Uruguay 59,918
81   Lebanon 58,565
  Macau 55,136
82   Slovenia 54,154
83   Lithuania 53,641
84   Serbia 51,523
85   Congo, Democratic Republic of the 48,994
86   Azerbaijan 47,171
87   Turkmenistan 46,674
88   Côte d'Ivoire 44,439
89   Jordan 44,172
90   Bolivia 42,401
91   Paraguay 40,714
92   Tunisia 38,732
93   Cameroon 38,632
94   Bahrain 38,184
95   Latvia 35,045
96   Libya 33,018
97   Estonia 31,038
98   Sudan 30,873
99   Uganda 30,666
100   Yemen 29,855
101     Nepal 29,813
102   El Salvador 26,871
103   Cambodia 26,730
104   Honduras 24,449
105   Cyprus 24,280
106   Zambia 23,946
107   Senegal 23,940
108   Iceland 23,918
109   Papua New Guinea 23,587
110   Trinidad and Tobago 22,607
111   Bosnia and Herzegovina 20,106
112   Laos 19,127
113   Afghanistan 18,734
114   Botswana 18,690
115   Mali 17,647
117   Gabon 16,877
116   Georgia 15,925
118   Jamaica 15,702
119   Albania 15,418
120   Mozambique 15,093
121   Malta 14,859
122   Burkina Faso 14,593
123   Mauritius 14,391
124   Benin 14,374
125   Namibia 14,368
126   Mongolia 13,637
127   Armenia 13,444
128   Guinea 13,368
129   Zimbabwe 12,818
130   North Macedonia 12,672
131   Bahamas, The 12,664
132   Madagascar 12,550
133   Nicaragua 12,528
134   Brunei 12,455
135   Equatorial Guinea 12,142
136   Moldova 11,688
137   Congo, Republic of the 11,576
138   Chad 11,026
139   Rwanda 10,209
140   Niger 9,443
141   Haiti 8,819
142   Kyrgyzstan 8,261
143   Tajikistan 8,152
  Kosovo 7,996
144   Malawi 7,522
145   Maldives 5,786
146   Togo 5,502
147   Mauritania 5,651
148   Montenegro 5,424
149   Fiji 5,708
150   Barbados 5,189
151   Somalia 4,958
152   Eswatini 4,657
153   Sierra Leone 4,229
154   Guyana 4,121
155   Suriname 3,774
156   South Sudan 3,681
157   Burundi 3,573
158   Liberia 3,221
159   Djibouti 3,166
160   Timor-Leste 2,938
  Aruba 2,903
161   Bhutan 2,842
162   Lesotho 2,741
163   Central African Republic 2,321
164   Eritrea 2,110
165   Belize 2,001
166   St. Lucia 1,992
167   Gambia 1,773
168   Antigua and Barbuda 1,688
169   Seychelles 1,644
170   San Marino 1,591
171   Solomon Islands 1,440
172   Grenada 1,238
173   Comoros 1,179
174   St. Kitts and Nevis 1,032
175   Vanuatu 951
176   Samoa 905
177   St. Vincent and the Grenadines 856
178   Dominica 593
179   Tonga 488
180   São Tomé and Príncipe 430
181   Micronesia, Federated States of 381
182   Palau 291
183   Marshall Islands 220
184   Kiribati 184
185   Nauru 108
186   Tuvalu 42
Rank Country/Territory GDP

(US$million)
    World 87,751,541
1   United States 21,427,700
2   China [n 5] 14,342,903
3   Japan 5,081,770
4   Germany 3,845,630
5   India 2,875,142
6   United Kingdom 2,827,113
7   France 2,715,518
8   Italy 2,001,244
9   Brazil 1,839,758
10   Canada 1,736,426
11   Russia [n 3] 1,699,877
12   Korea, South 1,642,383
13   Spain 1,394,116
14   Australia 1,392,681
15   Mexico 1,258,287
16   Indonesia 1,119,191
17   Netherlands 909,070
18   Saudi Arabia 792,967
19   Turkey 754,412
20    Switzerland 703,082
21   Poland 592,164
  Taiwan 574,905 (2017)
22   Thailand 543,650
23   Sweden 530,833
24   Belgium 529,607
25   Argentina 449,663
26   Nigeria 448,120
27   Austria 446,315
28   Iran 445,345 (2017)
29   United Arab Emirates 421,142
30   Norway 403,336
31   Israel 395,099
32   Ireland 388,699
33   Philippines 376,796
34   Singapore 372,063
  Hong Kong 366,030
35   Malaysia 364,702
36   South Africa 351,432
37   Denmark 348,078
38   Colombia 323,803
39   Egypt 303,175
40   Bangladesh 302,571
41   Chile 282,318
42   Pakistan 278,222
43   Finland 268,761
44   Vietnam 261,921
45   Romania 250,077
46   Czech Republic 246,489
47   Portugal 237,686
48   Iraq 234,094
49   Peru 226,848
50   Greece 209,853
51   New Zealand 206,929
52   Qatar 183,466
53   Kazakhstan 180,162
54   Algeria 169,988
55   Hungary 160,967
56   Ukraine 153,781
57   Kuwait 134,761
58   Morocco [n 6] 118,725
59   Ecuador 107,436
60   Slovak Republic 105,422
61   Puerto Rico 104,989
  Cuba 100,023 (2018)
62   Ethiopia 96,108
63   Kenya 95,503
64   Angola 94,635
65   Dominican Republic 88,941
66   Sri Lanka 84,009
67   Oman 76,983
68   Guatemala 76,710
69   Myanmar 76,086
70   Luxembourg 71,105
71   Bulgaria 67,927
72   Ghana 66,984
73   Panama 66,801
74   Tanzania [n 7] 63,177
75   Belarus 63,080
76   Costa Rica 61,774
77   Croatia 60,416
78   Cote d'Ivoire 58,792
79   Uzbekistan 57,921
  Uruguay 56,046
80   Lithuania 54,219
81   Macau 53,859
82   Slovenia 53,742
83   Lebanon 53,367
84   Libya 52,076
85   Serbia 51,409
86   Azerbaijan 48,048
87   Congo, Democratic Republic of the 47,320
88   Jordan 43,744
89   Bolivia 40,895
90   Turkmenistan 40,761 (2018)
91   Tunisia 38,798
92   Cameroon 38,760
93   Bahrain 38,574
94   Paraguay 38,145
95   Uganda 34,387
96   Latvia 34,117
97   Estonia 31,387
98     Nepal 30,641
99   Cambodia 27,089
100   El Salvador 27,023
101   Honduras 25,095
102   Papua New Guinea 24,970
103   Cyprus [n 8] 24,565
104   Iceland 24,188
105   Trinidad and Tobago 24,100
106   Senegal 23,578
107   Zambia 23,065
108   Zimbabwe 21,441
109   Bosnia and Herzegovina 20,048
110   Afghanistan 19,101
111   Sudan 18,902
112   Botswana 18,341
113   Laos 18,174
114   Georgia [n 9] 17,743
115   Mali 17,510
116   Gabon 16,658
117   Jamaica 16,458
118   Burkina Faso 15,746
  Albania 15,278
119   Mozambique 14,934
120   Malta 14,786
121   West Bank and Gaza 14,616 (2018)
122   Benin 14,391
123   Mauritius 14,180
124   Madagascar 14,084
125   Mongolia 13,853
126   Armenia 13,673
127   Guinea 13,590
128   Brunei 13,469
129   Niger 12,928
130   Bahamas, The 12,827
131   North Macedonia 12,695
132   Nicaragua 12,521
133   Namibia 12,367
134   Moldova [n 10] 11,955
135   Chad 11,315
136   Equatorial Guinea 11,027
137   Congo, Republic of the 10,821
138   Rwanda 10,122
139   Haiti 8,499
140   Kyrgyzstan 8,455
  Tajikistan 8,117
141   Kosovo 7,926
142   Malawi 7,667
143   Mauritania 7,594
144   Maldives 5,729
145   Fiji 5,536
146   Montenegro 5,495
147   Togo 5,460
148   Barbados 5,209
149   Eswatini 4,405
150   Guyana 4,280
151   Suriname 3,985
152   Sierra Leone 3,941
153   Djibouti 3,319
154   Andorra 3,154
155   Liberia 3,071
156   Burundi 3,012
157   Lesotho 2,460
158   Bhutan 2,447 (2018)
159   Central African Republic 2,220
160   Saint Lucia 2,122
161   Cabo Verde 1,982
162   Belize 1,880
163   Gambia, The 1,764
164   Antigua and Barbuda 1,728
165   Seychelles 1,699
166   Timor-Leste 1,674
167   San Marino 1,638 (2018)
168   Solomon Islands 1,425
169   Guinea-Bissau 1,340
170   Grenada 1,228
171   Comoros 1,186
172   Saint Kitts and Nevis 1,051
173   Vanuatu 917
174   Samoa 851
175   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 825
176   Dominica 596
177   Tonga 450 (2018)
178   Sao Tome and Principe 429
179   Micronesia, Federated States of 402 (2018)
180   Palau 284 (2018)
181   Marshall Islands 221 (2018)
182   Kiribati 195
183   Nauru 118
184   Tuvalu 47
Rank Country/Territory GDP

(US$million)
    World [25] 80,501,413
1   United States 19,485,394
2   China [n 5] 12,234,781
3   Japan 4,872,415
4   Germany 3,693,204
5   United Kingdom 2,631,228
6   France 2,582,492
7   India 2,575,666
8   Brazil 2,055,512
9   Italy 1,943,835
10   Canada 1,647,120
11   Korea, South 1,577,524
12   Russia [n 3] 1,530,750
13   Australia 1,408,675
14   Spain 1,314,314
15   Mexico 1,158,229
16   Indonesia 1,015,539
17   Turkey 851,541
18   Netherlands 830,572
19   Saudi Arabia 683,827
20    Switzerland 678,938
21   Argentina 637,486
  Taiwan 579,865
22   Sweden 535,607
23   Poland 526,211
24   Belgium 494,763
25   Iran 460,976
26   Thailand 455,302
27   Austria 416,835
28   Norway 399,470
29   United Arab Emirates 382,575
30   Nigeria 375,769
31   Israel 353,268
32   South Africa 348,872
  Hong Kong 341,659
33   Ireland 331,430
34   Denmark 329,865
35   Singapore 323,901
36   Malaysia 314,707
37   Philippines 313,595
38   Colombia 309,191
39   Pakistan 302,139
40   Chile 277,080
41   Venezuela 255,092
42   Bangladesh 254,646
43   Finland 252,246
44   Vietnam 223,779
45   Czech Republic 215,824
46   Romania 211,803
47   Peru 211,402
48   Greece 203,085
49   New Zealand 202,044
50   Egypt 195,135
51   Portugal 195,041
52   Iraq 182,023
53   Qatar 167,605
54   Algeria 167,555
55   Kazakhstan 159,406
56   Hungary 139,761
57   Angola 126,505
58   Sudan 120,265
59   Kuwait 119,534
60   Ukraine 112,154
61   Morocco 109,708
62   Ecuador 104,295
  Puerto Rico 104,218
63   Cuba 96,851
64   Slovakia 95,617
65   Sri Lanka 87,356
66   Dominican Republic 75,931
67   Guatemala 75,619
68   Ethiopia 75,605
69   Kenya 74,938
70   Oman 70,783
71   Myanmar 67,101
72   Luxembourg 62,316
73   Panama 61,838
74   Uruguay 59,180
75   Ghana 58,996
76   Bulgaria 58,222
77   Costa Rica 57,564
78   Croatia 55,201
79   Belarus 54,441
80   Lebanon 53,393
81   Tanzania 52,090
  Macau 50,361
82   Uzbekistan 49,677
83   Slovenia 48,455
84   Lithuania 47,544
85   Serbia 41,589
86   Azerbaijan 40,748
87   Jordan 40,708
88   Tunisia 40,068
89   Côte d'Ivoire 38,054
90   Turkmenistan 37,915
91   Congo, Democratic Republic of the 37,642
92   Bolivia 37,508
93   Bahrain 35,325
94   Cameroon 34,924
95   Latvia 30,463
96   Paraguay 29,435
97   Yemen 27,956
98   Uganda 27,698
99   Estonia 25,921
100   Zambia 25,868
101   Libya 25,127
102     Nepal 24,870
103   El Salvador 24,805
104   Iceland 24,476
105   Honduras 22,978
106   Cambodia 22,121
107   Trinidad and Tobago 22,104
108   Cyprus 22,054
109   Papua New Guinea 22,005
110   Afghanistan 21,992
111   Senegal 21,126
112   Bosnia and Herzegovina 18,169
113   Zimbabwe 18,036
114   Botswana 17,406
115   Korea, North 17,364
116   Laos 16,853
117   Mali 15,235
118   Georgia 15,159
  Palestine, State of 14,498
119   Gabon 14,623
120   Mozambique 12,651
121   Equatorial Guinea 12,487
122   Brunei 12,128
123   Congo, Republic of the 11,292
124   Jamaica 14,826
125   Nicaragua 13,814
126   Mauritius 13,366
127   Namibia 13,244
128   Albania 13,039
129   Malta 12,553
130   Burkina Faso 12,324
131   Bahamas, The 11,791
132   Armenia 11,536
133   North Macedonia 11,279
134   Mongolia 11,135
135   Chad 10,716
136   Madagascar 10,674
137   Guinea 10,208
  New Caledonia 9,894
138   Benin 9,236
139   Rwanda 9,136
140   Haiti 8,521
141   Moldova 8,128
142   Niger 8,119
143   Kyrgyzstan 7,564
  Kosovo 7,227
144   Tajikistan 7,145
145   Monaco 6,400
146   Malawi 6,339
147   Liechtenstein 6,295
148   South Sudan 5,693
  French Polynesia 5,623
  Bermuda 5,601
149   Suriname 5,210
150   Mauritania 5,092
151   Timor-Leste 4,970
152   Sierra Leone 4,893
153   Montenegro 4,588
154   Togo 4,576
155   Fiji 4,532
156   Eswatini 4,482
157   Barbados 4,353
158   Eritrea 3,858
  Cayman Islands 3,480
159   Andorra 3,278
  Curaçao 3,159
160   Guyana 3,086
161   Maldives 3,032
162   Burundi 2,869
  Aruba 2,664
163   Bhutan 2,562
  Greenland 2,441
164   Liberia 2,122
165   Lesotho 2,081
166   Central African Republic 1,992
167   Belize 1,902
168   Cape Verde 1,855
169   Djibouti 1,844
170   Saint Lucia 1,718
171   San Marino 1,689
172   Somalia 1,535
173   Seychelles 1,486
  Zanzibar 1,391
174   Antigua and Barbuda 1,248
175   Guinea-Bissau 1,209
176   Solomon Islands 1,103
  Sint Maarten 1,059
  British Virgin Islands 902
177   Grenada 884
178   Saint Kitts and Nevis 852
179   Gambia, The 851
180   Samoa 824
181   Vanuatu 812
  Turks and Caicos Islands 797
182   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 729
183   Comoros 648
184   Dominica 533
185   Tonga 435
186   São Tomé and Príncipe 337
187   Micronesia, Federated States of 308
  Cook Islands 311
  Anguilla 311
188   Palau 234
189   Marshall Islands 209
190   Nauru 182
191   Kiribati 180
  Montserrat 63
192   Tuvalu 38

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Based on IMF data. If no data is available for a country from the IMF, then data from the United Nations is used.
  1. ^ The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 27 member states that are located primarily in Europe. The EU is included as a separate entity in The World Factbook of CIA because it has many attributes of independent nations, being much more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur.[24] As the EU is not a country, China is the second ranked country on these lists.
  2. ^ Figures exclude Taiwan, and special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
  3. ^ a b c Figures exclude Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol.
  4. ^ Data for Syria's 2014 GDP is from the September 2011 WEO Database, the latest available from the IMF.
  5. ^ a b Figures exclude special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
  6. ^ Includes Western Sahara.
  7. ^ Covers mainland Tanzania only.
  8. ^ Data are for the area controlled by the Government of the Republic of Cyprus.
  9. ^ Excludes Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
  10. ^ Excludes data for Transnistria.

References

  1. ^ a b c "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 15 October 2019. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
  2. ^ "What is GDP and why is it so important?". Investopedia. IAC/InterActiveCorp. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  3. ^ Moffatt, Mike. "A Beginner's Guide to Purchasing Power Parity Theory". About.com. IAC/InterActiveCorp. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  4. ^ Ito, Takatoshi; Isard, Peter; Symansky, Steven (January 1999). "Economic Growth and Real Exchange Rate: An Overview of the Balassa-Samuelson Hypothesis in Asia"(PDF). Changes in Exchange Rates in Rapidly Development Countries: Theory, Practice, and Policy Issues. National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  5. ^ Callen, Tim (28 March 2012). "Purchasing Power Parity: Weights Matter". Finance & Development. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  6. ^ Callen, Tim (28 March 2012). "Gross Domestic Product: An Economy's All". Finance & Development. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  7. ^ Vo, Lam Thuy (30 May 2012). "The World's Richest Countries and Biggest Economies, In 2 Graphics". Planet Money. National Public Radio. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  8. ^ Burgen, Emily; et al. (5 April 2012). "An Elusive Relation Between Unemployment and GDP Growth: Okun's Law". Economic Trends. Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  9. ^ Vitez, Osmond. "The Importance of Consumer Spending". Houston Chronicle. Hearst Corporation. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  10. ^ Koesterich, Russ (16 May 2014). "America The Youthful? Yes, On a Relative Basis". BlackRock. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  11. ^ Landefeld, J. Steven (11 February 2008). "The Multi-Factor Productivity Residual" (PDF). Measuring Innovation’s Role in GDP & Productivity Growth. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  12. ^ "Tuvalu". Europa. European Commission. 17 February 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
  13. ^ Matthews, Chris (5 October 2014). "5 Most Powerful Economic Empires of All Time". Fortune. Time, Inc. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  14. ^ a b Kroeber, Arthur R. (2016). China's Economy: What Everyone Needs to Know. New York, United States: Oxford University Press.
  15. ^ Kau, Michael Ying-mao (30 September 1993). "China in the Era of Deng Xiaoping: A Decade of Reform". Studies on Contemporary China. Taylor & Francis. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  16. ^ Hu, Zuliu; Khan, Mohsin S. (April 1997). "Why Is China Growing So Fast?" (PDF). Economic Issues. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
  17. ^ Rodrik, Dani; et al. (March 2004). "From "Hindu Growth" to Productivity Surge: The Mystery of the Indian Growth Transition"(PDF). National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
  18. ^ "The economics of enlargement". Europa. European Commission. 30 October 2010. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
  19. ^ a b "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2019". World Economic Outlook. International Monetary Fund. April 2019.
  20. ^ "GDP (current US$)". World Development Indicators. World Bank. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  21. ^ "GDP and its breakdown at current prices in US Dollars". United Nations Statistics Division. January 2019.
  22. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division - National Accounts". unstats.un.org.
  23. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
  24. ^ CIA (2014). "The World Factbook". Retrieved 15 March 2015. Although the EU is not a federation in the strict sense, it is far more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur, and it has certain attributes associated with independent nations: its own flag, currency (for some members), and law-making abilities, as well as diplomatic representation and a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with external partners. Thus, inclusion of basic intelligence on the EU has been deemed appropriate as a new, separate entity in The World Factbook.
  25. ^ "All countries and regions/subregions (totals) for all years - sorted by region/subregion". United Nations. United Nations. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
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