List of island countries
This is a list of island countries. An island is a landmass (smaller than a continent) that is surrounded by water. Many island countries are spread over an archipelago, as is the case with the Federated States of Micronesia and Indonesia (both of which consist of thousands of islands). Others consist of a single island, such as Barbados, or part of an island, such as the Dominican Republic. Australia is a continent, although it is sometimes referred to as an island, as it has no land borders. Northern Cyprus is not universally recognized as politically independent, but has de facto control over its territory. Indonesia is the world's largest island country by area (1,904,569 km2), and by total number of islands (more than 18,307), and is also the world's most populous island country, with a population of 267,670,543 (the fourth-largest population in the world, after China, India, and the United States).
Current nations [ edit ]
Sovereign states and states with limited recognition [ edit ]
|Name||Geographic configuration||Geologic location||Population||Area (km2)||Population
|Geographic location||Establishment/ Independence|
|Antigua and Barbuda||Two main islands||Continental shelf||86,295||440||194||Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles||1981 November 1|
|Bahamas||Archipelago||Continental shelf||392,000||13,878||23.27||Atlantic Ocean, Lucayan Archipelago||1973 July 10|
|Bahrain||Archipelago||Continental shelf||1,316,500||750||1,189.5||Persian Gulf||1971 December 10|
|Barbados||One island||Continental shelf[n 1]||285,000||430||627||Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles||1966 November 30|
|Brunei||Part of a larger island (Borneo)||Continental shelf||393,372||5,765||67.3||Maritime Southeast Asia||1984 February 23|
|Cape Verde||Archipelago||Oceanic||518,467||4,033||125.5||Atlantic Ocean, Macaronesia||1975 July 5|
|Comoros||Archipelago||Oceanic||784,745||2,235||275||Indian Ocean, Africa, Comoros Islands||1975 July 6|
|Cuba||Archipelago||Continental shelf||11,245,629||109,238||102.3||Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles||1868 October 10
1902 May 20
|Cyprus [n 2]||Part of a larger island (Cyprus)||Continental shelf||858,000||9,251||85||Mediterranean Sea||1955 April 1
1960 October 1
|Dominica||One main island||Continental shelf||71,293||754||105||Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles||1978 November 3|
|Dominican Republic||Part of a larger island (Hispaniola), and several smaller islands||Continental shelf||10,878,246||48,442||208.2||Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles||1821 December 1
1844 February 27
|East Timor||Part of a larger island (Timor)||Oceanic||1,212,107||14,874||76.2||Maritime Southeast Asia, Lesser Sunda Islands||2002 May 20|
|Federated States of Micronesia [n 3]||Archipelago||Oceanic||101,351||702||158.1||Pacific Ocean, Micronesia||1979 May 10|
|Fiji||Archipelago||Oceanic||859,178||18,274||46.4||Pacific Ocean, Melanesia||1970 October 10|
|Grenada, Carriacou and Petite Martinique||One main island, two dependencies||Continental shelf||110,000||344||319.8||Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles||1974 February 7|
|Haiti||Part of a larger island (Hispaniola), and several smaller islands (Gonave,Tortuga, Navassa, etc.)||Continental shelf||11,439,646||27,750||350||Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles||1804 January 1|
|Iceland||One main island||Oceanic[n 4]||356,991||102,775||3.1||Atlantic Ocean||1944 June 17|
|Indonesia||Archipelago, including parts of larger islands (Borneo, New Guinea, Sebatik, and Timor islands)||Various[n 5]||267,670,543||1,904,569||138||Maritime Southeast Asia, Indian and Pacific oceans||1945 August 17|
|Ireland||Part of a larger island (Ireland), and several smaller islands||Continental shelf||4,588,252||70,273||65.3||Atlantic Ocean, British Isles||1919 January 21|
|Jamaica||One main island, and several small islands||Continental shelf||2,847,232||10,991||252||Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles||1962 August 6|
|Japan||Archipelago||Continental shelf||125,710,000||377,976||337||Pacific Ocean, East Asia||660 BC February 11|
|Kiribati||Archipelago||Oceanic||98,000||811||135||Pacific Ocean, Micronesia||1979 July 12|
|Madagascar||One main island||Continental shelf[n 6]||26,251,309||587,041||35.2||Indian Ocean, Africa||1960 June 26|
|Maldives||Archipelago||Oceanic||329,198||298||1,105||Laccadive Sea, Indian Ocean||1965 July 26|
|Malta||Two main islands||Continental shelf||404,500||316||1,282||Mediterranean Sea||1964 September 21|
|Marshall Islands [n 3]||Archipelago||Oceanic||62,000||181||342.5||Pacific Ocean, Micronesia||1979 May 1|
|Mauritius||Archipelago||Oceanic||1,244,663||2,040||610||Indian Ocean, Africa||1968 March 12|
|Nauru||One island||Oceanic||13,635||21||649||Pacific Ocean, Micronesia||1968 January 31|
|New Zealand||Two main islands||Continental shelf[n 7]||4,691,194||268,680||17.4||Pacific Ocean, Polynesia||1907 September 26|
|Northern Cyprus [n 8]||Part of a larger island (Cyprus)||Continental shelf||313,626||3,355||93||Mediterranean Sea||1974 July 20|
|Palau [n 3]||Archipelago||Oceanic||20,000||459||43.6||Pacific Ocean, Micronesia||1981 January 1|
|Papua New Guinea||Part of a larger island (New Guinea), and several smaller islands||Continental shelf||6,732,000||462,840||14.5||Pacific Ocean, Melanesia||1975 September 16|
|Philippines||Archipelago||Continental shelf||101,398,120||300,000||295||Maritime Southeast Asia||1898 June 12
1946 July 4
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||Two main islands||Continental shelf||51,300||261||164||Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles||1983 September 19|
|Saint Lucia||One main island||Continental shelf||173,765||616||298||Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles||1979 February 22|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||Archipelago||Continental shelf||120,000||389||307||Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles||1979 October 27|
|Samoa||Archipelago||Oceanic||179,000||2,831||63.2||Pacific Ocean, Polynesia||1962 June 1|
|São Tomé and Príncipe||Two main islands||Continental shelf||163,000||1,001||169.1||Atlantic Ocean, Africa||1975 July 12|
|Seychelles||Archipelago||Various[n 9]||87,500||455||192||Indian Ocean, Africa||1976 June 29|
|Singapore ||One main island||Continental shelf||5,469,700||718.3||7,615||Maritime Southeast Asia||1965 August 9|
|Solomon Islands||Archipelago||Oceanic||523,000||28,400||18.1||Pacific Ocean, Melanesia||1978 July 7|
|Sri Lanka||One main island||Continental shelf||20,277,597||65,610||314||Indian Ocean, South Asia||1948 February 4|
|Republic of China (Taiwan) [n 10]||One main island, and several smaller islands||Continental shelf||23,550,077||36,188||633||Pacific Ocean, East Asia||1912 January 1|
|Tonga||Archipelago||Oceanic||104,000||748||139||Pacific Ocean, Polynesia||1970 June 4|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Two main islands||Continental shelf||1,299,953||5,131||254.4||Caribbean Sea, North America||1962 August 31|
|Tuvalu||Archipelago||Oceanic||12,373||26||475.88||Pacific Ocean, Polynesia||1978 October 1|
|United Kingdom||One main island; part of second island (Ireland)||Continental shelf||65,587,300||244,820||246||Atlantic Ocean, British Isles||1707 May 1|
|Vanuatu||Archipelago||Oceanic||243,304||12,190||19.7||Pacific Ocean, Melanesia||1980 July 30|
Associated states, dependencies, and other notable territories [ edit ]
|Name||Geographic configuration||Geologic location||Sovereign state||Population||Area (km2)||Density
|Åland Islands||Archipelago; [n 11]||Continental shelf||Finland||28,355||1,580||17.9||Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia|
|American Samoa [n 12]||Archipelago||Oceanic||United States||54,947||199||276||Pacific Ocean, Polynesia|
|Anguilla||One main island||Continental shelf||United Kingdom||15,423||91||169||Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles|
|Aruba||One main island||Continental shelf||Netherlands||107,635||180||598||Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles|
|Bermuda||Archipelago||Oceanic||United Kingdom||62,500||53.3||1,170||Atlantic Ocean, North America|
|British Indian Ocean Territory||Archipelago||Oceanic||United Kingdom||3,000||60||0.05||Indian Ocean|
|British Virgin Islands||Archipelago||Continental shelf||United Kingdom||31,148||151||206||Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles|
|Caribbean Netherlands||Three main islands||Continental shelf||Netherlands||21,133||127||166||Caribbean Sea|
|Cayman Islands||Three islands||Continental shelf||United Kingdom||52,560||264||199||Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles|
|Christmas Island||One main island||Oceanic||Australia||1,496||135||11.1||Australasia|
|Cocos (Keeling) Islands||Two main islands||Oceanic||Australia||596||14||42.6||Australasia|
|Cook Islands [n 13]||Archipelago||Oceanic||New Zealand||10,777||236||45.7||Polynesia, South Pacific Ocean|
|Curaçao||One main island||Continental shelf||Netherlands||145,834||444||328||Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles|
|Easter Island||One Island||Oceanic||Chile||6,148||163.6||37.5||Pacific Ocean, Polynesia|
|Falkland Islands||Two main islands||Continental shelf||United Kingdom [n 14]||3,140||12,173||0.26||Atlantic Ocean, South America|
|Faroe Islands||Archipelago||Denmark||49,483||1,393||35.5||Atlantic Ocean|
|French Polynesia||Archipelago||Oceanic||France||274,512||3,827||71.7||Pacific Ocean, Polynesia|
|Greenland||One main island with archipelagos||Continental shelf||Denmark||57,695||2,166,086||0.03||North America|
|Guadeloupe||One main island||Continental Shelf||France||405,500||1,628||250||Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles|
|Guam [n 12]||One main island||Oceanic||United States||159,914||544||293||Pacific Ocean, Micronesia|
|Guernsey [n 15] ||Three main islands||Continental shelf||United Kingdom||65,849||78||844||English Channel, Channel Islands|
|Isle of Man [n 15] ||One main island||Continental shelf||United Kingdom||85,421||572||149||Irish Sea, British Isles|
|Jersey [n 15] ||One main island||Continental shelf||United Kingdom||94,949||116||819||English Channel, Channel Islands|
|Martinique||One island||Continental shelf||France||403,795||1,128||360||Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles|
|Mayotte||One main island||France||194,000||374||498.5||Indian Ocean, Africa|
|Montserrat||One main island||Continental shelf||United Kingdom||5,164||102||50.6||Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles|
|New Caledonia||One main island||Continental shelf[n 7]||France||260,166||18,275||14.2||Pacific Ocean, Melanesia|
|Niue [n 13]||One main island||Oceanic||New Zealand||1,269||260||4.9||Pacific Ocean, Polynesia|
|Norfolk Island||One main island||Continental shelf[n 7]||Australia||2,182||36||60.6||Pacific Ocean, Melanesia|
|Northern Mariana Islands [n 12]||Archipelago||Oceanic||United States||51,395||464||111||Pacific Ocean, Micronesia|
|Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands||Archipelago||Oceanic||United Kingdom||48||47||1.0||Pacific Ocean, Polynesia|
|Puerto Rico [n 12]||Archipelago||Continental shelf||United States||3,690,923||8,870||416||Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles|
|Réunion||One main island||France||893,500||2,512||330||Indian Ocean, Africa|
|Saint Barthélemy||One main island||Continental shelf||France||7,332||21||349||Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles|
|Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha||Three main islands distant from each other||Oceanic||United Kingdom||7,728||308||25.1||Atlantic Ocean|
|Saint Martin||Part of a larger island (Saint Martin)||Continental shelf||France||30,959||54.4||569||Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles|
|Saint Pierre and Miquelon||Two main islands||Continental shelf||France||5,831||242||24.1||North America|
|Sint Maarten||Part of a larger island (Saint Martin)||Continental shelf||Netherlands||39,088||34||1,150||Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles|
|South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands||Archipelago||Continental shelf||United Kingdom [n 14]||30||3,903||0.008||Atlantic Ocean|
|Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia||Part of a larger island (Cyprus)||Continental shelf||United Kingdom||15,700||254||61.8||Mediterranean Sea|
|Svalbard [n 16]||Archipelago||Norway||2,752||62,045||0.03||Arctic Ocean|
|Tokelau [n 13]||Archipelago||Oceanic||New Zealand||1,368||12||114||Pacific Ocean, Polynesia|
|Turks and Caicos Islands||Archipelago||Continental shelf||United Kingdom||46,335||948||48.9||Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles|
|U.S. Virgin Islands [n 12]||Archipelago||Continental shelf||United States||105,275||346||304||Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles|
|Wallis and Futuna||Three main islands||Oceanic||France||15,289||264||57.9||Pacific Ocean, Polynesia|
Former nations [ edit ]
- Republic of Anguilla
- Bruneian Empire
- Kingdom of Corsica (1736)
- Corsican Republic
- Anglo-Corsican Kingdom
- Cretan State
- Kingdom of Cyprus
- Duchy of the Archipelago
- Kingdom of England
- Republic of Ezo
- Republic of Formosa
- Franceville, New Hebrides
- Gozo (independent state)
- Kingdom of Great Britain
- Kingdom of Hawaii
- Republic of Hawaii
- Commonwealth of Iceland
- Kingdom of Iceland
- Kingdom of Ireland
- Irish Free State [n 17]
- Kingdom of Majorca
- Kingdom of Man
- Mataram Sultanate
- Soviet Republic of Naissaar
- Republic of the North Solomons
- Dominion of Newfoundland (1907–1949), now part of the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador of Canada
- Islands of Refreshment
- Ryūkyū Kingdom
- Kingdom of Sarawak
- Kingdom of Scotland
- Kingdom of Sicily
- Kingdom of Singapura
- Principality of Trinidad
- Tuʻi Tonga Empire
- West Indies Federation, split up into Anguilla, Antigua, Barbados, Barbuda, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Tobago, Trinidad, and the Turks and Caicos Islands.
Former colonies, possessions, protectorates, and other territories [ edit ]
- Cape Breton Island, now part of Nova Scotia, Canada
- Danish West Indies, now the United States Virgin Islands
- The Territory of Hawaii, now Hawaii, a state of the United States
- Hong Kong Island (1841–1860), now a part of Hong Kong, a special administrative region of China[n 18]
- Labuan, briefly part of British North Borneo, the Straits Settlements and Sabah, now a federal territory of Malaysia
- Mayotte, now an overseas department and region of France
- Colony of Newfoundland (1583–1907), covered the island of Newfoundland before 1809. In 1809, part of the Labrador Peninsula was transferred to Newfoundland from Lower Canada. In other words, before 1809, Newfoundland was an island colony. From 1809 onwards, the Colony of Newfoundland and, since 1907, the Dominion of Newfoundland had been an island plus Labrador (an area on the continent of North America).
- New Hebrides, now Vanuatu
- Prince Edward Island, now a province of Canada
- Réunion, now an overseas department and region of France
- Socotra Archipelago, now a governorate of Yemen
- Tasmania, now a state of Australia, shares a land boundary with Victoria (Australia) on Boundary Islet
- Vancouver Island, now a part of British Columbia, Canada
- People's Republic of Zanzibar, now a member of the United Republic of Tanzania.
[ edit ]
- Bahrain via the King Fahd Causeway
- Singapore via the Johor-Singapore Causeway
- United Kingdom via the Channel Tunnel
See also [ edit ]
- Archipelagic state
- List of archipelagos
- List of Caribbean island countries by population
- List of countries that border only one other country
- List of divided islands
- List of islands
- List of islands by area
- List of islands by population
- List of islands by population density
- List of Oceanian countries by population
- List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Oceania
- List of sovereign states and dependent territories in the Indian Ocean
Notes [ edit ]
- A microcontinent on continental crust.
- The northern part of the island of Cyprus is the de facto independent state of Northern Cyprus, which is recognized only by Turkey. In the south of the island are the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, controlled by the United Kingdom.
- The Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands, and Palau are in free association with the United States, under the Compact of Free Association.
- The largest oceanic island in the world.
- The western portion of the country is on the continental shelf of Asia while the eastern portion of the country is on the continental shelf of Australia. The central portion of the country consists of oceanic islands in Wallacea.
- The largest microcontinent in the world.
- A part of the submerged continent of Zealandia.
- In 1983, Northern Cyprus declared independence from Cyprus. Northern Cyprus' sovereignty has been recognized by only one United Nations member state (Turkey). It is not a member state of the United Nations. Most states recognize Cyprus' claim to sovereignty over Northern Cyprus.
- The Granitic Seychelles is a part of the Seychelles microcontinent. The Coralline Seychelles consists of oceanic islands.
- Taiwan (official name the "Republic of China") (ROC) only controls the islands of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu etc. since the Chinese Civil War, but has not renounced its claims on areas currently under the control of People's Republic of China, Mongolia, Tuva (a Russian republic) etc. If those territories were taken into account, the Republic of China would not be a borderless country, nor a country centered with a major island. The area under ROC control is also claimed by the People's Republic of China. See: Political status of Taiwan and One-China policy.
- shares the small island of Märket with Sweden; however, the property including the lighthouse is owned by the Finnish rather than Åland government.
- An insular area of the US. See Territories of the United States.
- The Cook Islands and Niue are in free association with New Zealand. See Niue Constitution Act. Tokelau is a dependent territory of New Zealand.
- The Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands are also claimed by Argentina.
- The Bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey, and the Isle of Man are peculiars of the British Crown and not part of the United Kingdom; foreign relations and defence are provided by the UK.
- Administered by Norway under the Svalbard Treaty.
- Under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, the Irish Free State included all of the island of Ireland but Northern Ireland exercised its option to leave the Irish Free State and rejoin the United Kingdom on 8 December 1922. Therefore, from 6 December 1922 to 8 December 1922, the Irish Free State was a borderless island country.
- The Crown Colony of Hong Kong covered only Hong Kong Island from 1841 to 1860. Kowloon, south of Boundary Street on the continent, was added in 1860, and extended to include the New Territories in 1898.
References [ edit ]
- "Definition of island". Oxford University Press.
- Löffler, Ernst; A.J. Rose, Anneliese Löffler & Denis Warner (1983). Australia:Portrait of a Continent. Richmond, Victoria: Hutchinson Group. p. 17. ISBN 0-09-130460-1.
- "Island Countries Of The World". WorldAtlas.com. Archived from the original on 2017-12-07. Retrieved 2019-08-10.
- "令和元年全国都道府県市区町村別面積調（１０月１日時点）2020年" (in Japanese). 国土地理院. 25 December 2020. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
- TRNC SPO, Economic and Social Indicators 2014, pages=2–3
- "Statistics Singapore - Latest Data - Population & Land Area". Archived from the original on 2015-11-29. Retrieved 2015-02-28.
- "Channel Islands". Archived from the original on 21 September 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2013.