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List of island countries

Sovereign states and states with limited recognition fully on islands (Australia is regarded a continent), those with land borders shaded green, and those without shaded dark blue

This is a list of island countries. An island is a landmass (smaller than a continent) that is surrounded by water.[1] Many island countries are spread over an archipelago, as is the case with the Federated States of Micronesia and Indonesia (both of which consist of thousands of islands). Others consist of a single island, such as Barbados, or part of an island, such as the Dominican Republic. Australia is a continent, although it is sometimes referred to as an island, as it has no land borders.[2] Northern Cyprus is not universally recognized as politically independent, but has de facto control over its territory. Indonesia is the world's largest island country by area (1,904,569 km2), and by total number of islands (more than 18,307), and is also the world's most populous island country, with a population of 267,670,543 (the fourth-largest population in the world, after China, India, and the United States).

Current nations [ edit ]

Sovereign states and states with limited recognition [ edit ]

Name Geographic configuration Geologic location Population Area (km2)[3] Population

density


(per km2)
Geographic location Establishment/ Independence
  Antigua and Barbuda Two main islands Continental shelf 86,295 440 194 Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles 1981 November 1
  Bahamas Archipelago Continental shelf 392,000 13,878 23.27 Atlantic Ocean, Lucayan Archipelago 1973 July 10
  Bahrain Archipelago Continental shelf 1,316,500 750 1,189.5 Persian Gulf 1971 December 10
  Barbados One island Continental shelf[n 1] 285,000 430 627 Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles 1966 November 30
  Brunei Part of a larger island (Borneo) Continental shelf 393,372 5,765 67.3 Maritime Southeast Asia 1984 February 23
  Cape Verde Archipelago Oceanic 518,467 4,033 125.5 Atlantic Ocean, Macaronesia 1975 July 5
  Comoros Archipelago Oceanic 784,745 2,235 275 Indian Ocean, Africa, Comoros Islands 1975 July 6
  Cuba Archipelago Continental shelf 11,245,629 109,238 102.3 Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles 1868 October 10

1902 May 20

  Cyprus [n 2] Part of a larger island (Cyprus) Continental shelf 858,000 9,251 85 Mediterranean Sea 1955 April 1

1960 October 1

  Dominica One main island Continental shelf 71,293 754 105 Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles 1978 November 3
  Dominican Republic Part of a larger island (Hispaniola), and several smaller islands Continental shelf 10,878,246 48,442 208.2 Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles 1821 December 1

1844 February 27

  East Timor Part of a larger island (Timor) Oceanic 1,212,107 14,874 76.2 Maritime Southeast Asia, Lesser Sunda Islands 2002 May 20
  Federated States of Micronesia [n 3] Archipelago Oceanic 101,351 702 158.1 Pacific Ocean, Micronesia 1979 May 10
  Fiji Archipelago Oceanic 859,178 18,274 46.4 Pacific Ocean, Melanesia 1970 October 10
 Grenada, Carriacou and Petite Martinique One main island, two dependencies Continental shelf 110,000 344 319.8 Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles 1974 February 7
  Haiti Part of a larger island (Hispaniola), and several smaller islands (Gonave,Tortuga, Navassa, etc.) Continental shelf 11,439,646 27,750 350 Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles 1804 January 1
  Iceland One main island Oceanic[n 4] 356,991 102,775 3.1 Atlantic Ocean 1944 June 17
  Indonesia Archipelago, including parts of larger islands (Borneo, New Guinea, Sebatik, and Timor islands) Various[n 5] 267,670,543 1,904,569 138 Maritime Southeast Asia, Indian and Pacific oceans 1945 August 17
  Ireland Part of a larger island (Ireland), and several smaller islands Continental shelf 4,588,252 70,273 65.3 Atlantic Ocean, British Isles 1919 January 21
  Jamaica One main island, and several small islands Continental shelf 2,847,232 10,991 252 Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles 1962 August 6
  Japan Archipelago Continental shelf 125,710,000 377,976[4] 337 Pacific Ocean, East Asia 660 BC February 11
  Kiribati Archipelago Oceanic 98,000 811 135 Pacific Ocean, Micronesia 1979 July 12
  Madagascar One main island Continental shelf[n 6] 26,251,309 587,041 35.2 Indian Ocean, Africa 1960 June 26
  Maldives Archipelago Oceanic 329,198 298 1,105 Laccadive Sea, Indian Ocean 1965 July 26
  Malta Two main islands Continental shelf 404,500 316 1,282 Mediterranean Sea 1964 September 21
  Marshall Islands [n 3] Archipelago Oceanic 62,000 181 342.5 Pacific Ocean, Micronesia 1979 May 1
  Mauritius Archipelago Oceanic 1,244,663 2,040 610 Indian Ocean, Africa 1968 March 12
  Nauru One island Oceanic 13,635 21 649 Pacific Ocean, Micronesia 1968 January 31
  New Zealand Two main islands Continental shelf[n 7] 4,691,194 268,680 17.4 Pacific Ocean, Polynesia 1907 September 26
  Northern Cyprus [n 8] Part of a larger island (Cyprus) Continental shelf 313,626[5] 3,355 93 Mediterranean Sea 1974 July 20
  Palau [n 3] Archipelago Oceanic 20,000 459 43.6 Pacific Ocean, Micronesia 1981 January 1
  Papua New Guinea Part of a larger island (New Guinea), and several smaller islands Continental shelf 6,732,000 462,840 14.5 Pacific Ocean, Melanesia 1975 September 16
  Philippines Archipelago Continental shelf 101,398,120 300,000 295 Maritime Southeast Asia 1898 June 12

1946 July 4

  Saint Kitts and Nevis Two main islands Continental shelf 51,300 261 164 Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles 1983 September 19
  Saint Lucia One main island Continental shelf 173,765 616 298 Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles 1979 February 22
  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Archipelago Continental shelf 120,000 389 307 Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles 1979 October 27
  Samoa Archipelago Oceanic 179,000 2,831 63.2 Pacific Ocean, Polynesia 1962 June 1
  São Tomé and Príncipe Two main islands Continental shelf 163,000 1,001 169.1 Atlantic Ocean, Africa 1975 July 12
  Seychelles Archipelago Various[n 9] 87,500 455 192 Indian Ocean, Africa 1976 June 29
  Singapore [6] One main island Continental shelf 5,469,700 718.3 7,615 Maritime Southeast Asia 1965 August 9
  Solomon Islands Archipelago Oceanic 523,000 28,400 18.1 Pacific Ocean, Melanesia 1978 July 7
  Sri Lanka One main island Continental shelf 20,277,597 65,610 314 Indian Ocean, South Asia 1948 February 4
  Republic of China (Taiwan) [n 10] One main island, and several smaller islands Continental shelf 23,550,077 36,188 633 Pacific Ocean, East Asia 1912 January 1
  Tonga Archipelago Oceanic 104,000 748 139 Pacific Ocean, Polynesia 1970 June 4
  Trinidad and Tobago Two main islands Continental shelf 1,299,953 5,131 254.4 Caribbean Sea, North America 1962 August 31
  Tuvalu Archipelago Oceanic 12,373 26 475.88 Pacific Ocean, Polynesia 1978 October 1
  United Kingdom One main island; part of second island (Ireland) Continental shelf 65,587,300 244,820 246 Atlantic Ocean, British Isles 1707 May 1
  Vanuatu Archipelago Oceanic 243,304 12,190 19.7 Pacific Ocean, Melanesia 1980 July 30

Associated states, dependencies, and other notable territories [ edit ]

Name Geographic configuration Geologic location Sovereign state Population Area (km2) Density

(per km2)
Geographic location
  Åland Islands Archipelago; [n 11] Continental shelf   Finland 28,355 1,580 17.9 Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia
  American Samoa [n 12] Archipelago Oceanic   United States 54,947 199 276 Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
  Anguilla One main island Continental shelf United Kingdom 15,423 91 169 Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles
  Aruba One main island Continental shelf   Netherlands 107,635 180 598 Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles
  Bermuda Archipelago Oceanic United Kingdom 62,500 53.3 1,170 Atlantic Ocean, North America
  British Indian Ocean Territory Archipelago Oceanic United Kingdom 3,000 60 0.05 Indian Ocean
  British Virgin Islands Archipelago Continental shelf United Kingdom 31,148 151 206 Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles
  Caribbean Netherlands Three main islands Continental shelf   Netherlands 21,133 127 166 Caribbean Sea
  Cayman Islands Three islands Continental shelf United Kingdom 52,560 264 199 Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles
  Christmas Island One main island Oceanic   Australia 1,496 135 11.1 Australasia
  Cocos (Keeling) Islands Two main islands Oceanic   Australia 596 14 42.6 Australasia
  Cook Islands [n 13] Archipelago Oceanic New Zealand 10,777 236 45.7 Polynesia, South Pacific Ocean
  Curaçao One main island Continental shelf   Netherlands 145,834 444 328 Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles
  Easter Island One Island Oceanic   Chile 6,148 163.6 37.5 Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
  Falkland Islands Two main islands Continental shelf United Kingdom [n 14] 3,140 12,173 0.26 Atlantic Ocean, South America
  Faroe Islands Archipelago Denmark 49,483 1,393 35.5 Atlantic Ocean
  French Polynesia Archipelago Oceanic   France 274,512 3,827 71.7 Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
  Greenland One main island with archipelagos Continental shelf Denmark 57,695 2,166,086 0.03 North America
  Guadeloupe One main island Continental Shelf France 405,500 1,628 250 Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles
  Guam [n 12] One main island Oceanic   United States 159,914 544 293 Pacific Ocean, Micronesia
  Guernsey [n 15] [7] Three main islands Continental shelf United Kingdom 65,849 78 844 English Channel, Channel Islands
  Isle of Man [n 15] [7] One main island Continental shelf United Kingdom 85,421 572 149 Irish Sea, British Isles
  Jersey [n 15] [7] One main island Continental shelf United Kingdom 94,949 116 819 English Channel, Channel Islands
  Martinique One island Continental shelf France 403,795 1,128 360 Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles
  Mayotte One main island France 194,000 374 498.5 Indian Ocean, Africa
  Montserrat One main island Continental shelf United Kingdom 5,164 102 50.6 Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles
  New Caledonia One main island Continental shelf[n 7]   France 260,166 18,275 14.2 Pacific Ocean, Melanesia
  Niue [n 13] One main island Oceanic New Zealand 1,269 260 4.9 Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
  Norfolk Island One main island Continental shelf[n 7]   Australia 2,182 36 60.6 Pacific Ocean, Melanesia
  Northern Mariana Islands [n 12] Archipelago Oceanic   United States 51,395 464 111 Pacific Ocean, Micronesia
  Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands Archipelago Oceanic United Kingdom 48 47 1.0 Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
  Puerto Rico [n 12] Archipelago Continental shelf   United States 3,690,923 8,870 416 Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles
  Réunion One main island France 893,500 2,512 330 Indian Ocean, Africa
  Saint Barthélemy One main island Continental shelf   France 7,332 21 349 Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles
  Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Three main islands distant from each other Oceanic United Kingdom 7,728 308 25.1 Atlantic Ocean
Saint Martin Part of a larger island (Saint Martin) Continental shelf   France 30,959 54.4 569 Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles
  Saint Pierre and Miquelon Two main islands Continental shelf   France 5,831 242 24.1 North America
  Sint Maarten Part of a larger island (Saint Martin) Continental shelf   Netherlands 39,088 34 1,150 Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles
  South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Archipelago Continental shelf United Kingdom [n 14] 30 3,903 0.008 Atlantic Ocean
  Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia Part of a larger island (Cyprus) Continental shelf United Kingdom 15,700 254 61.8 Mediterranean Sea
  Svalbard [n 16] Archipelago   Norway 2,752 62,045 0.03 Arctic Ocean
  Tokelau [n 13] Archipelago Oceanic New Zealand 1,368 12 114 Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
  Turks and Caicos Islands Archipelago Continental shelf United Kingdom 46,335 948 48.9 Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles
  U.S. Virgin Islands [n 12] Archipelago Continental shelf   United States 105,275 346 304 Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles
  Wallis and Futuna Three main islands Oceanic   France 15,289 264 57.9 Pacific Ocean, Polynesia

Former nations [ edit ]

Former colonies, possessions, protectorates, and other territories [ edit ]

Island countries with man-made fixed links to continents [ edit ]

See also [ edit ]

Notes [ edit ]

  1. ^ A microcontinent on continental crust.
  2. ^ The northern part of the island of Cyprus is the de facto independent state of Northern Cyprus, which is recognized only by Turkey. In the south of the island are the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, controlled by the United Kingdom.
  3. ^ a b c The Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands, and Palau are in free association with the United States, under the Compact of Free Association.
  4. ^ The largest oceanic island in the world.
  5. ^ The western portion of the country is on the continental shelf of Asia while the eastern portion of the country is on the continental shelf of Australia. The central portion of the country consists of oceanic islands in Wallacea.
  6. ^ The largest microcontinent in the world.
  7. ^ a b c A part of the submerged continent of Zealandia.
  8. ^ In 1983, Northern Cyprus declared independence from Cyprus. Northern Cyprus' sovereignty has been recognized by only one United Nations member state (Turkey). It is not a member state of the United Nations. Most states recognize Cyprus' claim to sovereignty over Northern Cyprus.
  9. ^ The Granitic Seychelles is a part of the Seychelles microcontinent. The Coralline Seychelles consists of oceanic islands.
  10. ^ Taiwan (official name the "Republic of China") (ROC) only controls the islands of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu etc. since the Chinese Civil War, but has not renounced its claims on areas currently under the control of People's Republic of China, Mongolia, Tuva (a Russian republic) etc. If those territories were taken into account, the Republic of China would not be a borderless country, nor a country centered with a major island. The area under ROC control is also claimed by the People's Republic of China. See: Political status of Taiwan and One-China policy.
  11. ^ shares the small island of Märket with Sweden; however, the property including the lighthouse is owned by the Finnish rather than Åland government.
  12. ^ a b c d e An insular area of the US. See Territories of the United States.
  13. ^ a b c The Cook Islands and Niue are in free association with New Zealand. See Niue Constitution Act. Tokelau is a dependent territory of New Zealand.
  14. ^ a b The Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands are also claimed by Argentina.
  15. ^ a b c The Bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey, and the Isle of Man are peculiars of the British Crown and not part of the United Kingdom; foreign relations and defence are provided by the UK.
  16. ^ Administered by Norway under the Svalbard Treaty.
  17. ^ Under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, the Irish Free State included all of the island of Ireland but Northern Ireland exercised its option to leave the Irish Free State and rejoin the United Kingdom on 8 December 1922. Therefore, from 6 December 1922 to 8 December 1922, the Irish Free State was a borderless island country.
  18. ^ The Crown Colony of Hong Kong covered only Hong Kong Island from 1841 to 1860. Kowloon, south of Boundary Street on the continent, was added in 1860, and extended to include the New Territories in 1898.

References [ edit ]

  1. ^ "Definition of island". Oxford University Press.
  2. ^ Löffler, Ernst; A.J. Rose, Anneliese Löffler & Denis Warner (1983). Australia:Portrait of a Continent. Richmond, Victoria: Hutchinson Group. p. 17. ISBN 0-09-130460-1.
  3. ^ "Island Countries Of The World". WorldAtlas.com. Archived from the original on 2017-12-07. Retrieved 2019-08-10.
  4. ^ "令和元年全国都道府県市区町村別面積調(10月1日時点)2020年" (in Japanese). 国土地理院. 25 December 2020. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
  5. ^ TRNC SPO, Economic and Social Indicators 2014, pages=2–3
  6. ^ "Statistics Singapore - Latest Data - Population & Land Area". Archived from the original on 2015-11-29. Retrieved 2015-02-28.
  7. ^ a b c "Channel Islands". Archived from the original on 21 September 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2013.

External links [ edit ]

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