Wikipedia

List of monarchs of Sicily

The monarchs of Sicily ruled from the establishment of the County of Sicily in 1071 until the "perfect fusion" in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in 1816.

The origins of the Sicilian monarchy lie in the Norman conquest of southern Italy which occurred between the 11th and 12th century. Sicily, which was ruled as an Islamic emirate for at least two centuries, was invaded in 1071 by Norman House of Hauteville, who conquered Palermo and established a feudal county. The House of Hauteville completed their conquest of Sicily in 1091.

In 1130 the County of Sicily and the County of Apulia, both led by two distinct branches of the House of Hauteville, merged in the Kingdom of Sicily, and Count Roger II was crowned king by Antipope Anacletus II. Over the centuries Sicily passed through the hands of several foreign authorities: from 1194 to 1254 it was in personal union with the Holy Roman Empire; from 1282 to 1714 it came into a personal union with the Crown of Aragon; from 1713 to 1720 it was in a personal union with the Duchy of Savoy and finally, from 1720 to 1735, was one of the crowns of the Habsburg Monarchy.

In 1282, after the Sicilian Vespers, the kingdom split in two separated states: the properly named Ultra Sicily (Siciliae ultra Pharum, what means "Sicily over the Strait") and the Hither Sicily (Siciliae citra) or commonly named Kingdom of Naples. The two states stylized themselves always as "Kingdom of Sicily", until the partial unification in 1516 when Charles I of Spain inherited both lands as "King of Naples and Sicily". The definitive unification occurred in 1816 when Ferdinand IV and III unified the two entities into a single state, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

Emirs of Sicily [ edit ]

See Emirate of Sicily

Counts of Sicily [ edit ]

Sicily was granted, pending its Christian reconquest, to Robert Guiscard as "duke" in 1059 by Pope Nicholas II. Then Guiscard granted it as a county to his brother Roger.

House of Hauteville, 1071-1130 [ edit ]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Roger I

1071–1101
Roger I 1031

son of Tancred of Hauteville and Fredisenda
Judith of Évreux

1061

4 children



Eremburga of Mortain

1077

8 children



Adelaide del Vasto

1087

4 children
1101

Mileto

aged 70
Simon

1101–1105
1093

son of Roger I of Sicily and Adelaide del Vasto
never married 1105

Mileto

aged 12
Roger II

1105–1130
Roger II 22 December 1095

Mileto

son of Roger I of Sicily and Adelaide del Vasto
Elvira of Castile

1117

6 children



Sibyl of Burgundy

1149

2 children



Beatrix of Rethel

1151

1 child
26 February 1154

Palermo

aged 58

Kings of Sicily [ edit ]

Roger II received royal investiture from Antipope Anacletus II in 1130 and recognition from Pope Innocent II in 1139. The Kingdom of Sicily, which by then comprised not only the island, but also the southern third of the Italian peninsula, rapidly expanded itself to include Malta and the Mahdia, the latter if only briefly.

House of Hauteville, 1130–1198 [ edit ]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim
Roger II

1130–1154
Roger II 22 December 1095

Mileto

son of Roger I of Sicily and Adelaide del Vasto
Elvira of Castile

1117

6 children



Sibyl of Burgundy

1149

2 children



Beatrix of Rethel

1151

1 child
26 February 1154

Palermo

aged 58
Papal bull by

Antipope Anacletus II
William I the Bad

1154–1166
William I 1131

son of Roger II and Elvira of Castile
Margaret of Navarre

4 children
7 May 1166

Palermo

aged 35
Son of Roger II
Agnatic primogeniture
William II the Good

1166–1189
William II 1155

son of William I and Margaret of Navarre
Joan of England

February 1177

1 child
11 November 1189

Palermo

aged 34
Son of William I
Agnatic primogeniture
Tancred I

1189–1194

(joint rule)
Tancred 1138

illegitimate son of Roger III, Duke of Apulia
Sibylla of Acerra

6 children
20 February 1194

Palermo

aged 56
Illegitimate grandson of

Roger II
Seizure
Roger III

1193

(joint rule)
Hauteville 1175

son of Tancred of Sicily and Sibylla of Acerra
Irene Angelina

no children
24 December 1193

aged 18
Son of Tancred I
Agnatic primogeniture
William III

1194
William III 1190

son of Tancred and Sibylla of Acerra
never married 1198

aged 8
Son of Tancred I
Agnatic primogeniture
Constance I

1194–1198
Constance 2 November 1154

daughter of Roger II and Beatrix of Rethel
Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor

1184

1 child
27 November 1198

Palermo

aged 44
Posthumous daughter of

Roger II
Cognatic primogeniture

Constance was married to the Emperor Henry VI and he pressed his claim to the kingdom from William II's death, but only succeeded in displacing his wife's family in 1194.

There is evidence that, during the baronial revolt of 1197, there was an attempt to make Count Jordan Lupin of Bovino king in opposition to Henry VI. He may even have been crowned and seems to have had the support of Constance, who had turned against her husband. In the end he was captured and executed. He is accepted as a pretender to the throne by modern historians Evelyn Jamison and Thomas Curtis Van Cleve.

House of Hohenstaufen, 1194–1266 [ edit ]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Henry I

1194–1197
Henry (I) November 1165

Nijmegen

son of Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor and Beatrix of Burgundy
Constance of Sicily

1184

1 child
28 September 1197

Messina

aged 32
Frederick II

1198–1250

(joint rule)
Frederick I 26 December 1194

Jesi

son of Henry I and Constance I
Constance of Aragon

15 August 1209

1 child



Yolande of Jerusalem

9 November 1225

2 children



Isabella of England

15 July 1235

4 children
13 December 1250

Torremaggiore

aged 55
Henry II

1212–1217

(joint rule)
Henry (II) 1211

Sicily

son of Frederick II and Constance of Aragon
Margaret of Austria

29 November 1225

2 children
12 February 1242

Martirano

aged 30
Conrad I

1250–1254
Conrad I 25 April 1228

Andria

son of Frederick II and Yolande of Jerusalem
Elisabeth of Bavaria

1 September 1246

1 child
21 May 1254

Lavello

aged 26
Conrad II the Younger

1254–1268
Conrad II 25 March 1252

Wolfstein

son of Conrad I and Elisabeth of Bavaria
never married 29 October 1268

Naples

aged 16

(executed)
Manfred

1258–1266
Manfred of Sicily 1232

Illegitimate son of Frederick I
Beatrice of Savoy

21 April 1247

1 child



Helena Angelina Doukaina

9 November 1255

5 children
26 February 1266

Battle of Benevento

aged 34

(killed in action)

Manfred was regent of Sicily for his nephew, the child Conrad II ("Conradin"), but took the crown in 1258, and continued to fight to keep the kingdom under the Hohenstaufen. In 1254 the pope, having declared the kingdom a papal possession, offered the crown to the King of England's son, Edmund Crouchback, but the English never succeeded in taking the kingdom. In 1262 the pope reversed his previous decision and granted the kingdom to the King of France's brother, Charles of Anjou, who succeeded in dispossessing Manfred in 1266. Conradin continued his claim to the throne until his death by decapitation perpetrated by Charles of Anjou in 1268.

Plantagenet Dynasty [ edit ]

Edmund Crouchback, son of King Henry III of England, claimed the Crown of Sicily between 1254 and 1263; the claim was taken very seriously by both him and his father, but was completely ineffectual.

Capetian House of Anjou, 1266–1282 [ edit ]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Charles I

1266–1282
Charles I 21 March 1226

son of Louis VIII of France and Blanche of Castile
Beatrice of Provence

31 January 1246

7 children



Margaret of Burgundy

18 November 1268

1 child
7 January 1285

Foggia

aged 58

Peter III of Aragon, Manfred's son in law, of the House of Barcelona, conquered the island of Sicily from Charles I in 1282 and had himself crowned King of Sicily. Thereafter the old Kingdom of Sicily was centred on the mainland, with capital at Naples, and although informally called Kingdom of Naples it was still known formally as "Kingdom of Sicily". Thus, there were two "Sicilies" — the island kingdom, however, was often called "Sicily beyond the Lighthouse" or "Trinacria", by terms of a treaty between the two states.

House of Barcelona, 1282–1410 [ edit ]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim
Constance II (joint rule)

1276–1285
Constance II 1249

Sicily

daughter of Manfred of Sicily and Beatrice of Savoy
Peter I the Great

13 June 1262

6 children
9 April 1302

Barcelona , Spain

aged 52 or 53
Daughter of Manfred of Sicily
Cognatic Primogeniture
Peter I the Great (joint rule)

1282–1285
Peter I 1240

Valencia

son of James I of Aragon and Yolanda of Hungary
Constance of Sicily

13 June 1262

6 children
2 November 1285

Vilafranca del Penedès

aged 45
Husband of Constance II
Jure uxoris
James the Just

1285–1295
James 10 August 1267

Valencia

son of Peter I and Constance of Sicily
Isabella of Castile

1 December 1291

No children



Blanche of Anjou

29 October 1295

10 children



Marie de Lusignan

15 June 1315

No children



Elisenda de Montcada

25 December 1322

No children
5 November 1327

Barcelona

aged 60
Son of Peter I and Constance II
Salic patrimony
Frederick III

1295–1337
Aragon 13 December 1272

Barcelona

son of Peter I and Constance of Sicily
Eleanor of Anjou

17 May 1302

9 children
25 June 1337

Palermo

aged 65
Regent brother of James
Election
Peter II

1337–1342
Aragon July 1305

son of Frederick III and Eleanor of Anjou
Elisabeth of Carinthia

23 April 1322

9 children
15 August 1342

Calascibetta

aged 37
Son of Frederick II
Agnatic primogeniture
Louis

1342–1355
Aragon 1337

Catania

son of Peter II and Elisabeth of Carinthia
Never married 16 October 1355

Aci Castello

aged 18
Son of Peter II
Agnatic primogeniture
Frederick III the Simple

1355–1377
Aragon 1 September 1341

Catania

son of Peter II and Elisabeth of Carinthia
Constance of Aragon

11 April 1361

1 child



Antonia of Balzo

17 January 1372

No children
27 January 1377

Messina

aged 36
Son of Peter II

Brother of Louis
Agnatic primogeniture
Maria

1377–1401

(joint rule)
Aragon 1363

Catania

daughter of Frederick III and Constance of Aragon
Martin I of Sicily

1390

1 child
25 May 1401

Lentini

aged 38
Daughter of Frederick III
Cognatic primogeniture
Martin I the Younger

1390–1409

(joint rule)
Aragon 1374

son of Martin I of Aragon and Maria of Luna
Maria of Sicily

1390

1 child
25 July 1409

Cagliari

aged 35
Husband of Maria
Jure uxoris
Martin II the Elder

1409–1410
Martin II 1356

Girona

son of Peter IV of Aragon and Eleanor of Sicily
Maria de Luna

13 June 1372

4 children



Margarita of Aragon-Prades

1409

No children
31 May 1410

Barcelona

aged 54
Maternal grandson of Peter II
Cognatic primogeniture

Martin I died heirless in 1409 and the kingdom was inherited by his father who united it to the Crown of Aragon.

House of Trastámara, 1412–1516 [ edit ]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Ferdinand I the Honest

1412–1416
Ferdinand I 27 November 1380

Medina del Campo

son of John I of Castile and Eleanor of Aragon
Eleanor of Alburquerque

1394

8 children
2 April 1416

Igualada

aged 36
Alfonso the Magnanimous

1416–1458
Alfonso 1396

Medina del Campo

son of Ferdinand I and Eleanor of Alburquerque
Maria of Castile

1415

No children
27 June 1458

Naples

aged 52
John the Great

1458–1479
Ferdinand II 29 June 1397

Medina del Campo

son of Ferdinand I and Eleanor of Alburquerque
Blanche I of Navarre

6 November 1419

4 children



Juana Enríquez

2 children
20 January 1479

Barcelona

aged 81
Ferdinand II the Catholic

1479–1516
Ferdinand II 10 March 1452

son of John II of Aragon and Juana Enriquez
Isabella I of Castile

19 October 1469

5 children



Germaine of Foix

1505

No children
23 January 1516

Madrigalejo

aged 63
Joanna the Mad

1516–1555
Joanna 6 November 1479

daughter of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile
Philip IV of Burgundy

1496

6 children
12 April 1555

Madrigalejo

aged 75

House of Habsburg, 1516-1700 [ edit ]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Charles II

1516–1554
Charles II 24 February 1500

Ghent

son of Philip I of Castile and Joanna of Castile
Isabella of Portugal

10 March 1526

3 children
21 September 1558

Yuste

aged 58
Philip II of Spain

1554–1598
Philip I 21 May 1527

Valladolid

son of Charles II and Isabella of Portugal
Maria of Portugal

1543

1 child



Mary I of England

1554

No children



Elisabeth of Valois

1559

2 children



Anna of Austria

4 May 1570

5 children
13 September 1598

Madrid

aged 71
Philip II

1598–1621
Philip II 14 April 1578

Madrid

son of Philip I and Anna of Austria
Margaret of Austria

18 April 1599

5 children
31 March 1621

Madrid

aged 42
Philip III

1621–1665
Philip III 8 April 1605

Valladolid

son of Philip II and Margaret of Austria
Elisabeth of Bourbon

1615

7 children



Mariana of Austria

1649

5 children



17 September 1665

Madrid

aged 60
Charles III

1665–1700
Charles III 6 November 1661

Madrid

son of Philip III and Mariana of Austria
Maria Luisa of Orléans

19 November 1679

No children



Maria Anna of Neuburg

14 May 1690

No children



1 November 1700

Madrid

aged 38

House of Bourbon, 1700-1713, during War of the Spanish Succession [ edit ]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Philip IV

1700–1713
Charles V 19 December 1683

Versailles

son of Louis, Dauphin of France and Maria Anna of Bavaria
Maria Luisa of Savoy

2 November 1701

4 children



Elisabeth of Parma

24 December 1714

7 children



9 July 1746

Madrid

aged 62

At the end of the War of the Spanish Succession, by the Treaty of Utrecht, Sicily was ceded to the Duke of Savoy.

House of Savoy, 1713–1720 [ edit ]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Victor Amadeus

1713–1720
Victor Amadeus 14 May 1666

Turin

son of Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy and Marie Jeanne Baptiste de Savoie-Nemours
Anne Marie of Orléans

10 April 1684

6 children
31 October 1732

Moncalieri

aged 66

The Spanish invaded the kingdom in 1718 during the War of the Quadruple Alliance. The Duke of Savoy ceded it to Austria in 1720 by the Treaty of The Hague.

House of Habsburg, 1720–1735 [ edit ]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Charles IV

1720–1735
Charles IV 1 October 1685

Vienna

son of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor and Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg
Elisabeth Christine

1 August 1708

4 children
20 October 1740

Vienna

aged 55

Charles I, Duke of Parma conquered the kingdom during the War of the Polish Succession. At the end of the war Sicily was ceded to the new Charles V of Sicily.

House of Bourbon 1735–1816 [ edit ]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Charles V

1735–1759
Charles V 20 January 1716

Madrid

son of Philip IV and Elizabeth of Parma
Maria Amalia of Saxony

1738

13 children
14 December 1788

Madrid

aged 72
Ferdinand III

1759–1816
Ferdinand IV 12 January 1751

Naples

son of Charles V and Maria Amalia of Saxony
Marie Caroline of Austria

12 May 1768

17 children



Lucia Migliaccio of Floridia

27 November 1814

No children
4 January 1825

Naples

aged 73

In 1816 the Kingdom of Naples and the Kingdom of Sicily were merged as the new Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

Family tree [ edit ]

See also [ edit ]

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