List of sieges of Constantinople
There were many sieges of Constantinople during the history of the Byzantine Empire. Two of them resulted in the capture of Constantinople from Byzantine rule: in 1204 by the Fourth Crusade, and in 1453 by the Ottoman Empire under Mehmed II.
Ancient Greece [ edit ]
Before the fourth century, the city was known as Byzantium.
- Siege of Byzantium (478 BC) by the Greeks, successful
- 340 BC – Besieged unsuccessfully by the forces of Philip II of Macedon.
- Siege of Byzantium (193–195) by Septimius Severus against Pescennius Niger, successful
Bulgarian, Persian, Avar, Slavonic, Goths and Arab sieges [ edit ]
- Siege of Constantinopole (378) by Goths, unsuccessful
- Siege of Constantinople (626), by Avars, Slavs, and the Sassanid Persians, unsuccessful
- Siege of Constantinople (674–678), by the Umayyad Caliphate, unsuccessful
- Siege of Constantinople (717–718), by the Umayyad Caliphate, unsuccessful
- Siege of Constantinople (813), by Krum of Bulgaria, unsuccessful
Rus' sieges [ edit ]
- Siege of Constantinople (860), by the Rus'
- Siege of Constantinople (907), by the Rus' in 904/907
- Siege of Constantinople (941), by the Rus'
Sieges and attacks during Byzantine civil wars [ edit ]
- Siege of Constantinople (821–822), by rebel forces under Thomas the Slav
- Siege of Constantinople (1047), by rebel forces under Leo Tornikios
- Siege of Constantinople (1376), a 32-day siege by Andronikos IV Palaiologos with the support of the Ottoman Empire
Crusades [ edit ]
- Crusader attack on Blachernae (1101), as part of the Crusade of 1101. Walls partly breached.
- Siege of Constantinople (1203), first siege by the Fourth Crusade, in which Alexius IV was able to usurp the throne after Alexius III fled to Thrace; objectives achieved and the siege lifted
- Sack of Constantinople (1204), second siege by the Fourth Crusade, in which the Byzantines were overwhelmed and the city thoroughly sacked, successful
Nicaean sieges [ edit ]
- Siege of Constantinople (1235), by joint Bulgarian and Nicaean forces, unsuccessful
- A Nicaean attack on Constantinople is implied by George Akropolites's account for 1248, but no details are known
- Siege of Constantinople (1260), by the Empire of Nicaea, unsuccessful
Ottoman sieges [ edit ]
- An Ottoman blockade between 1390 and 1402, first interrupted by the Crusade of Nicopolis, then lifted due to the Battle of Ankara
- Siege of Constantinople (1411), a short Ottoman siege that occurred during the Ottoman Interregnum, unsuccessful
- Siege of Constantinople (1422), the first large-scale siege of the city by the Ottomans, unsuccessful
- Fall of Constantinople in 1453, after an Ottoman siege, successful
Reference [ edit ]
- Edward Gibbon The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Modern Library, 2003. p.495-496
See also [ edit ]