Wikipedia

List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Africa

This is a list of sovereign states and dependent territories in Africa. It includes both fully recognised states, states with limited or zero recognition, and dependent territories of both African and non-African states. It lists 54 sovereign states and 10 non-sovereign territories.

Malta and parts of France, Italy, Portugal, and Spain are located on the African continental plate, some considerably closer to the African than European mainland, but politically are generally considered European by convention. Similarly, the island of Socotra is also on the African plate and much closer to Africa, but is politically part of the Asian state of Yemen. Egypt, although extending into Asia through the Sinai Peninsula, is considered an African state.

Sovereign states [ edit ]

Recognised states [ edit ]

The following 54 fully recognised states are all members of the United Nations[1] and the African Union.[2][3][4][5]

* = Membership in African Union suspended[n 1]
Flag Map English short and formal names

[6][7][8]
Domestic short and formal names[6][7] Capital

[8][9][10]
Population[a][b]

[11][12]
Area[a][b]

[13]
Location Algeria AU Africa.svg Algeria



People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
Arabic: الجزائر — الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية (al-Jazāʼir—al-Jumhūriyya al-Jazāʾiriyya d-Dimuqrāṭiyya al-Šaʾbiyya) Algiers



Arabic: الجزائر (al-Jazā’er)
42,734,474 2,381,740 km2 (919,595 sq mi)
Location Angola AU Africa.svg Angola



Republic of Angola
Portuguese: Angola—República de Angola Luanda



Portuguese: Luanda
31,850,503 1,246,700 km2 (481,354 sq mi)
Location Benin AU Africa.svg Benin



Republic of Benin
French: Bénin—République du Bénin Porto-Novo



French: Porto-Novo
11,822,102 112,622 km2 (43,484 sq mi)
Location Botswana AU Africa.svg Botswana



Republic of Botswana
English: Botswana—Republic of Botswana



Tswana: Botswana—Lefatshe la Botswana
Gaborone



English: Gaborone



Tswana: Gaborone
2,378,064 581,726 km2 (224,606 sq mi)
Location Burkina Faso AU Africa.svg Burkina Faso French: Burkina Faso Ouagadougou



French: Ouagadougou
20,368,357 274,000 km2 (105,792 sq mi)
Location Burundi AU Africa.svg Burundi



Republic of Burundi
Kirundi: Burundi—Republika y'u Burundi



French: Burundi—République du Burundi
Gitega



Kirundi: Gitega



French: Gitega
11,605,933 27,830 km2 (10,745 sq mi)
Location Cameroon AU Africa.svg Cameroon



Republic of Cameroon
English: Cameroon—Republic of Cameroon



French: Cameroun—République du Cameroun
Yaoundé



English: Yaoundé



French: Yaoundé
25,312,993 475,442 km2 (183,569 sq mi) includes the Cameroonian-administered parts of Southern Cameroons (claimed as the Republic of Ambazonia by the Southern Cameroons Peoples Organisation).
Location Cape Verde AU Africa.svg Cape Verde



Republic of Cabo Verde
Portuguese: Cabo Verde—República de Cabo Verde Praia



Portuguese: Praia
560,928 4,033 km2 (1,557 sq mi)
Location Central African Republic AU Africa.svg Central African Republic Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka



French: République centrafricaine
Bangui



French: Bangui
4,825,711 622,984 km2 (240,535 sq mi)
Location Chad AU Africa.svg Chad



Republic of Chad
Arabic: تشاد — جمهورية تشاد (Tšād—Jumhūriyyat Tšād)



French: Tchad—République du Tchad
N'Djamena



Arabic: نجامينا (Nijāmīnā)



French: Ndjamena
15,814,345 1,284,000 km2 (495,755 sq mi)
Location Comoros AU Africa.svg Comoros



Union of the Comoros
Arabic: جزر القمر — جمهورية القمر المتحدة (Juzur al-Qamar—Jumhūriyyat al-Qamar al-Muttaḥida)



Comorian: Komori—Udzima wa Komori



French: Comores—Union des Comores
Moroni



Arabic: موروني (Mūrūnī)



French: Moroni
850,910 2,235 km2 (863 sq mi)
Location DR Congo AU Africa.svg Democratic Republic of the Congo [n 2] French: République démocratique du Congo Kinshasa



French: Kinshasa
86,727,573 2,344,858 km2 (905,355 sq mi)
Location Republic of the Congo AU Africa.svg Republic of the Congo [n 3] French: République du Congo Brazzaville



French: Brazzaville
5,542,197 342,000 km2 (132,047 sq mi)
Location Côte d'Ivoire AU Africa.svg Côte d'Ivoire



Republic of Côte d'Ivoire
French: Côte d'Ivoire—République de Côte d'Ivoire Yamoussoukro



French: Yamoussoukro
25,531,083 322,460 km2 (124,503 sq mi)
Location Djibouti AU Africa.svg Djibouti



Republic of Djibouti
Arabic: جيبوتي — جمهورية جيبوتي (Jibūti—Jumhūrīyat Jibūti)



French: Djibouti—République de Djibouti
Djibouti City



Arabic: مدينة جيبوتي (Jibūti Madīna)



French: Ville de Djibouti
971,408 23,200 km2 (8,958 sq mi)
Location Egypt AU Africa.svg Egypt



Arab Republic of Egypt[n 4]
Arabic: مصر — جمهورية مصر العربية (Miṣr—Jumhūrīyat Miṣr al-ʿArabiyya) Cairo



Arabic: القاهرة (al-Qāhirah)
101,168,745 1,001,449 km2 (386,662 sq mi)
Location Equatorial Guinea AU Africa.svg Equatorial Guinea



Republic of Equatorial Guinea
French: Guinée équatoriale—République de Guinée équatoriale



Portuguese: Guiné Equatorial—República da Guiné Equatorial



Spanish: Guinea Ecuatorial—República de Guinea Ecuatorial
Malabo[n 5]



French: Malabo



Portuguese: Malabo



Spanish: Malabo
1,360,104 28,051 km2 (10,831 sq mi)
Location Eritrea AU Africa.svg Eritrea



State of Eritrea
Arabic: إرتريا — دولة إرتريا (ʾIritriyā—Dawlat ʾIritriyā)



English: Eritrea—State of Eritrea



Tigrinya: ኤርትራ — ሃገረ ኤርትራ (ʾErtra—Hagere ʾErtra)
Asmara



Arabic: أسمرة (ʾAsmara)



Tigrinya: ኣስመራ(Asmera)
5,309,659 117,600 km2 (45,406 sq mi)
Location Eswatini AU Africa.svg Eswatini



Kingdom of Eswatini
English: Eswatini—Kingdom of Eswatini



Swazi: eSwatini—Umbuso weSwatini
Lobamba(royal and legislative)

Mbabane(administrative)



English: Lobamba, Mbabane



Swazi: Lobamba, ÉMbábáne
1,415,414 17,364 km2 (6,704 sq mi)
Location Ethiopia AU Africa.svg Ethiopia



Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Amharic: Iትዮጵያ — የIትዮጵያ ፈደራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ (Ītyōṗṗyā—Ītyōṗṗyā Fēdēralāwī Dēmōkrāsīyāwī Rīpeblīk) Addis Ababa



Amharic: አዲስ አበባ(Addis Abäba)
110,135,635 1,104,300 km2 (426,373 sq mi)
Location Gabon AU Africa.svg Gabon



Gabonese Republic
French: Gabon—République gabonaise Libreville



French: Libreville
2,109,099 267,668 km2 (103,347 sq mi)
Location Gambia AU Africa.svg Gambia



Republic of the Gambia
English: Gambia—Republic of the Gambia Banjul



English: Banjul
2,228,075 10,380 km2 (4,008 sq mi)
Location Ghana AU Africa.svg Ghana



Republic of Ghana
English: Ghana—Republic of Ghana Accra



English: Accra
30,096,970 238,534 km2 (92,098 sq mi)
Location Guinea AU Africa.svg Guinea[n 6]



Republic of Guinea
French: Guinée—République de Guinée Conakry



French: Conakry
13,398,180 245,857 km2 (94,926 sq mi)
Location Guinea Bissau AU Africa.svg Guinea-Bissau



Republic of Guinea-Bissau
Portuguese: Guiné-Bissau—República da Guiné-Bissau Bissau



Portuguese: Bissau
1,953,723 36,125 km2 (13,948 sq mi)
Location Kenya AU Africa.svg Kenya



Republic of Kenya
English: Kenya—Republic of Kenya



Swahili: Kenya—Jamhuri ya Kenya
Nairobi



English: Nairobi



Swahili: Nairobi
52,214,791 580,367 km2 (224,081 sq mi)
Location Lesotho AU Africa.svg Lesotho



Kingdom of Lesotho
English: Lesotho—Kingdom of Lesotho



Sotho: Lesotho—Muso oa Lesotho
Maseru



English: Maseru



Sotho: Maseru
2,292,682 30,355 km2 (11,720 sq mi)
Location Liberia AU Africa.svg Liberia



Republic of Liberia
English: Liberia—Republic of Liberia Monrovia



English: Monrovia
4,977,720 111,369 km2 (43,000 sq mi)
Location Libya AU Africa.svg Libya



State of Libya
Arabic: ليبيا (Lībiyā)



Berber: ⵍⵉⴱⵢⴰ (Libya)
Tripoli



Arabic: طرابلس (Ṭarābulus)



Berber: ⵟⵔⴰⴱⵍⴻⵙ (Ṭrables)
6,569,864 1,759,540 km2 (679,362 sq mi)
Location Madagascar AU Africa.svg Madagascar



Republic of Madagascar
French: Madagascar—République de Madagascar



Malagasy:
Repoblikan'i Madagasikara
Antananarivo



French: Antananarivo



Malagasy: Antananarivo
26,969,642 587,041 km2 (226,658 sq mi)
Location Malawi AU Africa.svg Malawi



Republic of Malawi
Chichewa: Malaŵi—Dziko la Malaŵi



English: Malawi—Republic of Malawi
Lilongwe



Chichewa: Lilongwe



English: Lilongwe
19,718,743 118,484 km2 (45,747 sq mi)
Location Mali AU Africa.svg Mali



Republic of Mali
French: Mali—République du Mali Bamako



French: Bamako
19,689,140 1,240,192 km2 (478,841 sq mi)
Location Mauritania AU Africa.svg Mauritania



Islamic Republic of Mauritania
Arabic: موريتانيا — الجمهورية الإسلامية الموريتانية (Mūrītānīyya—al-Jumhūriyya al-ʾIslāmiyya al-Mūrītānīyya) Nouakchott



Arabic: نواكشوط (Nuwākshūṭ)
4,661,149 1,030,700 km2 (397,955 sq mi)
Location Mauritius AU Africa.svg Mauritius



Republic of Mauritius
English: Mauritius—Republic of Mauritius



French: Maurice—République de Maurice



Mauritian Creole Moris—Repiblik Moris
Port Louis



English: Port Louis



French: Port-Louis



Mauritian Creole: Porlwi
1,271,368 2,040 km2 (788 sq mi)
Location Morocco AU Africa.svg Morocco



Kingdom of Morocco
Arabic : المغرب — المملكة المغربية (al-Maḡrib—al-Mamlaka al-Maḡribiyya)



Berber: ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵍⵎⴰⵖⵔⵉⴱ (Tageldit n-Elmaġrib)
Rabat



Arabic: الرباط (ar-Ribaaṭ)



Berber: ⴰⵕⴱⴰⵟ (Aṛbaṭ)
36,635,156 446,550 km2 (172,414 sq mi) excludes all disputed territories; 710,850 km2 (274,461 sq mi) includes the Moroccan-administered parts of Western Sahara (claimed as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic by the Polisario Front).
Location Mozambique AU Africa.svg Mozambique



Republic of Mozambique
Portuguese: Moçambique—República de Moçambique Maputo



Portuguese: Maputo
31,408,823 801,590 km2 (309,496 sq mi)
Location Namibia AU Africa.svg Namibia



Republic of Namibia
English: Namibia—Republic of Namibia Windhoek



English: Windhoek
2,641,996 825,418 km2 (318,696 sq mi)
Location Niger AU Africa.svg Niger



Republic of the Niger
French: Niger—République du Niger Niamey



French: Niamey
23,176,691 1,267,000 km2 (489,191 sq mi)
Location Nigeria AU Africa.svg Nigeria



Federal Republic of Nigeria
English: Nigeria—Federal Republic of Nigeria Abuja



English: Abuja
200,962,417 923,768 km2 (356,669 sq mi)
Location Rwanda AU Africa.svg Rwanda



Republic of Rwanda
English: Rwanda—Republic of Rwanda



French: Rwanda—République du Rwanda



Kinyarwanda Rwanda—Repubulika y'u Rwanda
Kigali



English: Kigali



French: Kigali



KinyarwandaKigali
12,794,412 26,798 km2 (10,347 sq mi)
Location São Tomé and Príncipe AU Africa.svg São Tomé and Príncipe



Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe
Portuguese: São Tomé e Príncipe—República Democrática de São Tomé e Príncipe São Tomé



Portuguese: São Tomé
213,379 964 km2 (372 sq mi)
Location Senegal AU Africa.svg Senegal



Republic of Senegal
French: Sénégal—République du Sénégal Dakar



French: Dakar
16,743,859 196,723 km2 (75,955 sq mi)
Location Seychelles AU Africa.svg Seychelles



Republic of Seychelles
English: Seychelles—Republic of Seychelles



French: Seychelles—République des Seychelles



Seychellois Creole: Sesel— Repiblik Sesel
Victoria



English: Victoria



French: Victoria



Seychellois Creole: Victoria
95,702 451 km2 (174 sq mi)
Location Sierra Leone AU Africa.svg Sierra Leone



Republic of Sierra Leone
English: Sierra Leone—Republic of Sierra Leone Freetown



English: Freetown
7,883,123 71,740 km2 (27,699 sq mi)
Location Somalia AU Africa.svg Somalia



Federal Republic of Somalia
Arabic: الصومال — جمهورية الصومال الديموقراطية (Aṣ-Ṣomāl—Jumhūriyya aṣ-Ṣomāl al-Fidrāliyya)



Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya
Mogadishu



Somali: Muqdisho



Arabic: مقديشو (Maqadīshū)
15,636,171 637,657 km2 (246,201 sq mi)
Location South Africa AU Africa.svg South Africa



Republic of South Africa
Afrikaans: Suid-Afrika—Republiek van Suid-Afrika

Bloemfontein(judicial),

Cape Town(legislative),

and Pretoria (executive)
58,065,097 1,221,037 km2 (471,445 sq mi)
Location South Sudan AU Africa.svg South Sudan



Republic of South Sudan
English: South Sudan—Republic of South Sudan Juba



English: Juba
13,263,184 644,329 km2 (248,777 sq mi)
Location Sudan before 2011 AU Africa.svg Sudan



Republic of Sudan*
Arabic: السودان — جمهورية السودان (As-Sūdān—Jumhūriyya as-Sūdān)



English: Republic of the Sudan
Khartoum



Arabic: الخرطوم(al-Kharṭūm)

42,514,094 1,861,484 km2 (718,723 sq mi)
Location Tanzania AU Africa.svg Tanzania



United Republic of Tanzania
English: Tanzania—United Republic of Tanzania



Swahili: Tanzania—Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania
Dodoma (official)

Dar es Salaam (seat of government)



English: Dodoma



Swahili: Dodoma
60,913,557 945,203 km2 (364,945 sq mi)
Location Togo AU Africa.svg Togo



Togolese Republic
French: Togo—République Togolaise Lomé



French: Lomé
8,186,384 56,785 km2 (21,925 sq mi)
Location Tunisia AU Africa.svg Tunisia



Tunisian Republic
Arabic: تونس — الجمهورية التونسية (Tūnis—al-Jumhūriyya at-Tūnisīyya) Tunis



Arabic: تونس (Tūnis)
11,783,168 163,610 km2 (63,170 sq mi)
Location Uganda AU Africa.svg Uganda



Republic of Uganda
English: Uganda—Republic of Uganda



Swahili: Uganda—Jamhuri ya Uganda
Kampala



English: Kampala



Swahili: Kampala
45,711,874 236,040 km2 (91,136 sq mi)
Location Zambia AU Africa.svg Zambia



Republic of Zambia
English: Zambia—Republic of Zambia Lusaka



English: Lusaka
18,137,369 752,614 km2 (290,586 sq mi)
Location Zimbabwe AU Africa.svg Zimbabwe



Republic of Zimbabwe
English: Zimbabwe—Republic of Zimbabwe Harare



English: Harare
17,297,495 390,757 km2 (150,872 sq mi)

Partially recognised state [ edit ]

The following state has established itself in Africa as a sovereign state, but has official recognition from roughly a quarter of states worldwide and its participation in international organizations is limited. It is not a member of the United Nations, but it is a member of the African Union. Furthermore, it only controls a sliver of Western Sahara and its seat of government is in Tifariti and government in exile in Tindouf, Algeria.

Flag Map English short and formal names Status Domestic short and formal names Capital Population Area
Location Western Sahara AU Africa.svg Sahrawi Republic



Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic[n 7]
Claimed as the southernmost provinces of Morocco. Recognized by the African Union and 47 UN members as the representative government of Western Sahara. Arabic: الجمهورية العربية الصحراوية الديمقراطية (al-Jumhūrīyah al-‘Arabīyah aṣ-Ṣaḥrāwīyah ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah)



Spanish: República Árabe Saharaui Democrática
El Aaiún(proclaimed)[n 8]



Arabic: العيون (al-ʿuyūn)



Spanish: El Aaiún
582,478 267,405 km2 (103,246 sq mi)

De facto state with no international recognition [ edit ]

The following de facto state has declared itself to be independent and has de facto control over the territory over which it claims sovereignty, thus satisfying the declarative theory and the Montevideo Conventions, but has not been recognized as a sovereign country by any other country and is neither a member of the United Nations nor a member of the African Union.

Flag Map English short and formal names Status Domestic short and formal names Capital Population Area
Location Somaliland AU Africa.svg Somaliland



Republic of Somaliland[14][15]
State within the Federal regions of Somalia.[16] Recognized by no UN member.[17][18] Arabic: جمهورية أرض الصومال — أرض الصومال (Jumhūrīyat Arḍ aṣ-Ṣūmāl)



Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Somaliland
Hargeisa



Arabic: هرجيسا



Somali: Hargeysa
4,000,000 137,600 km2 (53,128 sq mi)

Non-sovereign territories [ edit ]

There are currently ten non-sovereign territories in Africa. All of them are either islands, or are on the continent's coast.

Dependent territories [ edit ]

This list contains territories that are politically administered as external dependencies of other nations.

Flag Map English short and formal names Status[19] Domestic short and formal names Capital Population Area[13]
French Southern and Antarctic Lands in its region (Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean only) (small islands magnified).svg French Southern and Antarctic Lands [n 9] French overseas territory Saint-Pierre [n 10] No permanent population[20] 38.60 km2 (15 sq mi)
LocationStHelena.png Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha British overseas territory Jamestown 5,633 420 km2 (162 sq mi)

Other areas [ edit ]

This list contains territories that are administered as incorporated parts of a primarily non-African state.

Flag Map English short and formal names Status[19] Domestic short and formal names Capital Population Area[13]
Location Canary Islands Africa.svg Canary Islands Spanish autonomous community Spanish: Islas Canarias Santa Cruz and Las Palmas[21]



Spanish: Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
2,207,225 7,447 km2 (2,875 sq mi)
Ceuta-melilla.png Ceuta



Autonomous City of Ceuta
Spanish autonomous city Spanish: Ceuta—Ciudad autónoma de Ceuta Ceuta



Spanish: Ceuta
84,843 28 km2 (11 sq mi)
Location Madeira Africa.svg Madeira



Autonomous Region of Madeira
Portuguese autonomous region Portuguese: Madeira—Região Autónoma da Madeira Funchal



Portuguese: Funchal
267,785 828 km2 (320 sq mi)
Location Mayotte Africa.svg Mayotte



Department of Mayotte
French overseas department French: Mayotte—Département de Mayotte Dzaoudzi (official)

Mamoudzou (seat of prefect and departmental council)



French: Mamoudzou
266,380 374 km2 (144 sq mi)
Ceuta-melilla.png Melilla



Autonomous City of Melilla
Spanish autonomous city Spanish: Melilla—Ciudad autónoma de Melilla Melilla



Spanish: Melilla
84,714 20 km2 (8 sq mi)
Mapa del sur de España neutral.png Plazas de soberanía Spanish overseas territory Spanish: Plazas de soberanía N/A 74
Flag of France.svg Location Réunion Africa.svg Réunion



Réunion Island
French overseas region French: Réunion—Îles Réunion Saint-Denis



French: Saint-Denis
889,918 2,512 km2 (970 sq mi)
Pelagie Islands map.png Pelagie Islands Italian territory Italian: Isole Pelagie



Sicilian: Ìsuli Pilaggî
Lampedusa e Linosa[n 11]



Italian: Lampedusa e Linosa



Sicilian: Lampidusa e Linusa
6,304 21.4 km2 (8 sq mi)

See also [ edit ]

Notes [ edit ]

  1. ^ Sudan was recently suspended due to ongoing political issues.
  2. ^ Also known as Congo-Kinshasa and formerly as Zaire.
  3. ^ Also known as Congo-Brazzaville.
  4. ^ Some territory could be argued to be a part of Asia or Africa.
  5. ^ Oyala is to be the future capital of Equatorial Guinea; currently under construction.
  6. ^ Also known as Guinea-Conakry to distinguish it from neighboring Guinea-Bissau.
  7. ^ Occupies part of the territory of Western Sahara, disputed with Morocco.
  8. ^ Currently under Moroccan administration. Tifariti is the factual temporary capital, but Tindouf located in Algeria is the place of some government and military facilities.
  9. ^ Only the Îles Éparses are considered part of the African continent. The remaining four districts lie outside the continental shelf in the Indian Ocean or Antarctica.
  10. ^ The main station on the Îles Éparses is on Tromelin. The headquarters of the district chief, however, is Saint-Pierre, in Réunion.
  11. ^ Geographically part of the archipelago (Lampedusa and Lampione) belongs to the African continent; politically and administratively, the islands fall within the Province of Agrigento in Sicily

References [ edit ]

  1. ^ "Member States". United Nations. Archived from the original on 2011-02-07. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  2. ^ "Member States". African Union. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  3. ^ "African Union Welcomes South Sudan as the 54th Member State of the Union". StarAfrica.com. 27 July 2011. Archived from the original on 23 December 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  4. ^ "African Union suspends Central African Republic after coup". Los Angeles Times. 25 March 2013. Archived from the original on 2014-12-31. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  5. ^ "Africa Population (LIVE)". www.worldometers.info. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  6. ^ a b "Field Listing :: Names". CIA. Archived from the original on 2017-07-01. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
  7. ^ a b "UNGEGN List of Country Names"(PDF). United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names. 2007. Archived(PDF) from the original on 2011-07-28. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  8. ^ a b "List of countries, territories and currencies". Europa. 9 August 2011. Archived from the original on 2013-07-16. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
  9. ^ "Field Listing :: Capital". CIA. Archived from the original on 2011-06-29. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  10. ^ "UNGEGN World Geographical Names". United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names. 29 July 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-08-01. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  11. ^ "Country Comparison :: Population". CIA. July 2012. Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 2 September 2012.
  12. ^ "Africa Population (LIVE)". www.worldometers.info. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  13. ^ a b c "Field Listing :: Area". CIA. Archived from the original on 2012-07-28. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
  14. ^ Name used in The Constitution of the Republic of Somaliland Archived 2015-09-24 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ Susan M. Hassig, Zawiah Abdul Latif, Somalia, (Marshall Cavendish: 2007), p.10.
  16. ^ "The Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic"(PDF). University of Pretoria. 1 February 2004. Archived from the original on December 18, 2008. Retrieved 2 February 2010.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) "The Somali Republic shall have the following boundaries. (a) North; Gulf of Aden. (b) North West; Djibouti. (c) West; Ethiopia. (d) South south-west; Kenya. (e) East; Indian Ocean."
  17. ^ Lacey, Marc (5 June 2006). The Signs Say Somaliland, but the World Says Somalia Archived 2011-05-30 at WebCite. The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
  18. ^ "UN in Action: Reforming Somaliland's Judiciary"(PDF). Archived(PDF) from the original on 2012-01-21. Retrieved 2012-05-29.
  19. ^ a b "Field Listing :: Dependency Status". CIA. Archived from the original on 2011-06-29. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
  20. ^ "French Southern and Antarctic Lands". Archived from the original on 2007-08-14. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  21. ^ "Estatuto de Autonomía de Canarias en la Página Web Oficial del Gobierno de Canarias". .gobiernodecanarias.org. Archived from the original on 2011-01-20. Retrieved 2010-09-20.
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