Longlin Various Nationalities Autonomous County
隆林县 · Lungzlinz Yen
|隆林各族自治县 · Lungzlinz Gakcuz Swciyen
Longlin Pan-Ethnicities Autonomous County
Longlin County government
|Coordinates (Longlin County government): Coordinates:|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|• Total||3,452 km2 (1,333 sq mi)|
|• Density||130/km2 (330/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard)|
Longlin Pan-Ethnicities Autonomous County (Chinese: 隆林各族自治县; pinyin: Lónglín Gèzú Zìzhìxiàn) is an autonomous county, under the jurisdiction of the prefecture-level city of Baise, in the west of Guangxi, China, bordering Guizhou Province to the north. As of 2019, the county's population was 437,907 people.
History [ edit ]
Present-day Longling was incorporated first incorporated into the Song Dynasty in 1253, when it fell under the jurisdiction of Anlongdong as part of the Sicheng Prefecture. In 1402, the area was reorganized as Anlong Prefecture, until 1666, when it was again reorganized as Xilong Prefecture. Xilong Prefecture underwent administrative changes in 1729, but otherwise went unchanged until 1912, when the Republic of China was established and the area was reorganized as Xilong County.
The area became part of the People's Republic of China in March 1950, and a communist-led local government was set up on March 18, 1950. On January 1, 1953 the area was renamed from Xilong County to Longlin County.
Geography [ edit ]
Longlin is bordered by Tianlin County to the east, Xilin County to the south, and by Anlong County and Ceheng County in Guizhou Province to the north. The county is home to the Tianshengqiao I and Tianshengqiao II dams, which sit along the Nanpan River.
Climate [ edit ]
|Climate data for Longlin (1981−2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||33.2
|Average high °C (°F)||15.2
|Daily mean °C (°F)||10.4
|Average low °C (°F)||7.4
|Record low °C (°F)||−2.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||21.9
|Average relative humidity (%)||81||78||73||72||76||83||84||84||82||84||83||81||80|
|Source: China Meteorological Data Service Center|
Administrative divisions [ edit ]
The county's 10 townships are Shali Township, Zhebao Township, Zhelang Township, Gebu Township, Jinzhongshan Township, Zhuchang Township, Shechang Township, Kechang Township, Yancha Township, and Jieting Township.
Demographics [ edit ]
Vital Statistics [ edit ]
Ethnic groups [ edit ]
|Ethnic Group||1995 Population||2019 Population|
|Zhuang||182,654 (53.74%)||217,140 (49.59%)|
|Miao||80,855 (23.79%)||126,044 (28.78%)|
|Han||70,720 (20.81%)||85,435 (19.50%)|
|Yi||3,152 (0.93%)||5,281 (1.20%)|
|Gelao||2,380 (0.7%)||3,796 (0.87%)|
Zhuang People [ edit ]
The Zhuang People of Longlin have various cultural similarities to the Yue people who historically inhabited the area, including the use of bronze drums, as well as various autonyms. The towns of Xinzhou, Tianshengqiao, and Pingban, as well as Zhebao Township and Gebu Township all have significant Zhuang populations.
Miao People [ edit ]
- Lopsided Miao (Chinese: 偏苗; pinyin: Piān Miáo), whose autonyms are Meng Sha (孟沙) and Meng Xia (孟夏)
- Red Head Miao (红头苗; Hóngtóu Miáo), whose autonyms are Meng Lin (孟林), Meng Lun (孟论), Meng Ling (孟令), or Shou Lun (受论)
- Clear Water Miao (清水苗; Qīngshuǐ Miáo), whose autonym is Meng Pu (蒙瀑)
- White Miao (白苗; Bái Miáo), whose autonym is Meng Lou (孟漏)
- Flower Miao (花苗; Huā Miáo), whose autonym is Meng Zou (孟邹)
- Vegetable Miao (素苗; Sù Miáo), also known in Chinese as the Ginger Planing Miao (栽姜苗; Zāi Jiāng Miáo), the Zai River Miao (哉江苗; Zāi Jiāng Miáo), and the Zai Village Miao (哉庄苗; Zāi Zhuāng Miáo), and whose autonyms are Meng Jia Ka (孟加卡) and Meng Bai (孟拜)
Despite these different groups within the Miao populations of Longling, all groups share similar ethnic origins. The Miao People of Longlin County are believed to be native to Hubei and Hunan who migrated southwest towards Guizhou and Yunnan, and later arrived in the region during the late Ming Dynasty and early Qing Dynasty. The probably reason for this migration appears connected to the Qing suppression of Miao uprisings in Guizhou and Xiangxi. The Miao People of Longlin County have many cultural similarities to Miao populations found in Guizhou, including shared folklore, linguistic dialects, naming conventions, toponymy, rituals, and celebrations.
The towns of Xinzhou and De'e, as well as the townships of Zhuchang Township, Shechang Township, and Kechang Township all have significant Miao populations. The former townships of Kechang, Changfa, and Changme also have considerable Miao populations.
Yi People [ edit ]
Longlin is home to a considerable amount of Yi (autonym: ŋo˧ pʰu˨˩), who historically lived in western Yunnan. Historical documents from the Nanzhao State suggest that certain Yi populations left Yunnan to avoid inter-tribal violence. Considerable Yi populations live in Xinzhou)|WD=}}, De'e, and Zhuchang Township)|WD=}}. Within De'e, Yi people are concentrated in Agao (阿稿), Nadi (那地), Nongbao (弄保), Tangshi (塘石), and 10 other villages. Yi are also found scattered across various villages in Yancha Township, Zhelang Township, and the former townships of Changfa and Kechang.
Gelao People [ edit ]
In May 1990, a group of people known as the Lai (徕), who moved to the area from Guizhou during the early Ming Dynasty, were determined to be part of the Gelao people by the county government after a five day hearing on the matter. When the change was made in 1990, 978 people who were formerly classified as Lai in ethnicity were re-designated Gelao in ethnicity.
The county's Gelao people are largely found in De'e, Kechang Township, Zhelang Township, Yancha Township, and Shechang Township. The villages of Sanchong (三冲) and Moji (么基) have particularly large Gelao populations.
Han Chinese [ edit ]
The first migration of Han Chinese to the area took place shortly after the Song Dynasty, and a document from 1673 suggests more than 10 Han families lived in area at the time. Areas with large Han populations are Xinzhou, Yacha, Longhuo, Tianshengqiao, Yancha Township, Jieting Township, Shechang Township, Kechang Township, Zhebao Township, and Jinzhongshan Township.
Economy [ edit ]
Culture [ edit ]
Each year, at the beginning of the lunar new year, a festival in the village of De'e is held, featuring the music and dance of the various ethnic groups who live in the area. Each ethnic group also has its own traditions to celebrate the lunar new year, some of which are shared across multiple different groups.
The county's different peoples also have festivals unique to their own ethnicity, as well as festivals shared across multiple different ethnicities, such as the Dragon Boat Festival and the Double Third Festival.
Transportation [ edit ]
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
- 隆林概况 [Longlin Overview]. Guangxi Baise Longlin Pan-Ethnicities Autonomous County People's Government Web Portal (in Chinese). 2019-12-30. Archived from the original on 2020-06-26. Retrieved 2020-06-26.
- 人文景观 [Cultural Landscape]. Guangxi Baise Longlin Pan-Ethnicities Autonomous County People's Government Web Portal (in Chinese). 2019-12-30. Archived from the original on 2020-06-26. Retrieved 2020-06-26.
- 行政区划 [Administrative Divisions]. Guangxi Baise Longlin Pan-Ethnicities Autonomous County People's Government Web Portal (in Chinese). 2019-12-03. Archived from the original on 2020-06-26. Retrieved 2020-06-25.
- 2019年统计用区划代码. stats.gov.cn (in Chinese). 2019. Archived from the original on 2020-06-26. Retrieved 2020-06-25.
- 隆林各族自治县志 (2002)。
- Guangxi Minority Languages Orthography Committee, ed. (2008). 广西民族语言方音词汇 [Vocabularies of Guangxi ethnic languages]. Beijing: Publishing House of Minority Nationalities.
- Li Shengfu [李生福]. 2011. "A sketch of Epo Yi" [彝语峨颇话概况]. Minzu Yuwen.
- 隆林经济 [Economy of Longlin]. Guangxi Baise Longlin Pan-Ethnicities Autonomous County People's Government Web Portal (in Chinese). 2020-06-19. Archived from the original on 2020-06-26. Retrieved 2020-06-26.
- "Minorities Celebrate Festival Together". People's Daily Online. 2000-02-16. Archived from the original on 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2020-06-26.