Nussbaum in 2008
May 6, 1947
|Other names||Martha Craven Nussbaum|
|Education||New York University (BA)
Harvard University (MA, PhD)
(m. 1969; div. 1987)
|Doctoral advisor||G. E. L. Owen|
Martha Craven Nussbaum (//, born 1947) is an American philosopher and the current Ernst Freund Distinguished Service Professor of Law and Ethics at the University of Chicago, where she is jointly appointed in the law school and the philosophy department. She has a particular interest in ancient Greek and Roman philosophy, political philosophy, existentialism, feminism, and ethics, including animal rights. She also holds associate appointments in classics, divinity, and political science, is a member of the Committee on Southern Asian Studies, and a board member of the Human Rights Program. She previously taught at Harvard and Brown.
Nussbaum is the author of a number of books, including The Fragility of Goodness (1986), Cultivating Humanity: A Classical Defense of Reform in Liberal Education (1997), Sex and Social Justice (1998), Hiding from Humanity: Disgust, Shame, and the Law (2004), Frontiers of Justice: Disability, Nationality, Species Membership (2006), and From Disgust to Humanity: Sexual Orientation and Constitutional Law (2010). She received the 2016 Kyoto Prize in Arts and Philosophy and the 2018 Berggruen Prize.
Early life and education [ edit ]
Nussbaum was born on May 6, 1947, in New York City, the daughter of George Craven, a Philadelphia lawyer, and Betty Warren, an interior designer and homemaker. During her teenage years, Nussbaum attended The Baldwin School in Bryn Mawr. She described her upbringing as "East Coast WASP elite ... very sterile, very preoccupied with money and status". She would later credit her impatience with "mandarin philosophers" and dedication to public service as the "repudiation of my own aristocratic upbringing. I don't like anything that sets itself up as an in-group or an elite, whether it is the Bloomsbury group or Derrida".
After studying at Wellesley College for two years, dropping out to pursue theatre in New York, she studied theatre and classics at New York University, getting a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1969, and gradually moved to philosophy while at Harvard University, where she received a Master of Arts degree in 1972 and a Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1975, studying under G. E. L. Owen.
Career [ edit ]
When she became the first woman to hold the Junior Fellowship at Harvard, Nussbaum received a congratulatory note from a "prestigious classicist" who suggested that since "female fellowess" was an awkward name, she should be called hetaira, for in Greece these educated courtesans were the only women who participated in philosophical symposia.
In the 1970s and early 1980 she taught philosophy and classics at Harvard, where she was denied tenure by the Classics Department in 1982. Nussbaum then moved to Brown University, where she taught until 1994 when she joined the University of Chicago Law School faculty. Her 1986 book The Fragility of Goodness, on ancient Greek ethics and Greek tragedy, made her a well-known figure throughout the humanities. At Brown, Nussbaum's students included philosopher Linda Martín Alcoff and actor and playwright Tim Blake Nelson. In 1987, she gained public attention due to her critique of fellow philosopher Allan Bloom's The Closing of the American Mind. More recent work (Frontiers of Justice) establishes Nussbaum as a theorist of global justice.
Nussbaum's work on capabilities has often focused on the unequal freedoms and opportunities of women, and she has developed a distinctive type of feminism, drawing inspiration from the liberal tradition, but emphasizing that liberalism, at its best, entails radical rethinking of gender relations and relations within the family.
Nussbaum's other major area of philosophical work is the emotions. She has defended a neo-Stoic account of emotions that holds that they are appraisals that ascribe to things and persons, outside the agent's own control, great significance for the person's own flourishing. On this basis she has proposed analyses of grief, compassion, and love, and, in a later book, of disgust and shame.
Nussbaum has engaged in many spirited debates with other intellectuals, in her academic writings as well as in the pages of semi-popular magazines and book reviews and, in one instance, when testifying as an expert witness in court. She testified in the Colorado bench trial for Romer v. Evans, arguing against the claim that the history of philosophy provides the state with a "compelling interest" in favor of a law denying gays and lesbians the right to seek passage of local non-discrimination laws. A portion of this testimony, dealing with the potential meanings of the term tolmêma in Plato's work, was the subject of controversy, and was called misleading and even perjurious by critics.
She responded to these charges in a lengthy article called "Platonic Love and Colorado Law". Nussbaum used multiple references from Plato's Symposium and his interactions with Socrates as evidence for her argument. The debate continued with a reply by one of her sternest critics, Robert P. George. Nussbaum has criticized Noam Chomsky as being among the leftist intellectuals who hold the belief that "one should not criticize one's friends, that solidarity is more important than ethical correctness". She suggests that one can "trace this line to an old Marxist contempt for bourgeois ethics, but it is loathsome whatever its provenance". Among her academic colleagues whose books she has reviewed critically are Allan Bloom, Harvey Mansfield, and Judith Butler. Other academic debates have been with figures such as John Rawls, Richard Posner, and Susan Moller Okin. In January 2019, Nussbaum announced that she would be using a portion of her Berggruen Prize winnings to fund a series of roundtable discussions on controversial issues at the University of Chicago Law School. These discussions will be known as the Martha C. Nussbaum Student Roundtables.
Personal life [ edit ]
She was married to Alan Nussbaum from 1969 until they divorced in 1987, a period which also led to her conversion to Judaism, and the birth of her daughter Rachel. Nussbaum's interest in Judaism has continued and deepened: on August 16, 2008, she became a bat mitzvah in a service at Temple K. A. M. Isaiah Israel in Chicago's Hyde Park, chanting from the Parashah Va-etchanan and the Haftarah Nahamu, and delivering a D'var Torah about the connection between genuine, non-narcissistic consolation and the pursuit of global justice. Nussbaum's daughter Rachel predeceased her mother in 2019 due to a drug-resistant infection following successful transplant surgery. At the time of her death she was a government affairs attorney in the Wildlife Division of Friends of Animals, a nonprofit organization working for animal welfare. She and her mother co-authored three articles about wild animals that have already appeared; a fourth will appear in 2021.
Major works [ edit ]
The Fragility of Goodness [ edit ]
The Fragility of Goodness: Luck and Ethics in Greek Tragedy and Philosophy confronts the ethical dilemma that individuals strongly committed to justice are nevertheless vulnerable to external factors that may deeply compromise or even negate their human flourishing. Discussing literary as well as philosophical texts, Nussbaum seeks to determine the extent to which reason may enable self-sufficiency. She eventually rejects the Platonic notion that human goodness can fully protect against peril, siding with the tragic playwrights and Aristotle in treating the acknowledgment of vulnerability as a key to realizing the human good.
Her interpretation of Plato's Symposium in particular drew considerable attention. Under Nussbaum's consciousness of vulnerability, the re-entrance of Alcibiades at the end of the dialogue undermines Diotima's account of the ladder of love in its ascent to the non-physical realm of the forms. Alcibiades's presence deflects attention back to physical beauty, sexual passions, and bodily limitations, hence highlighting human fragility.
Fragility brought attention to Nussbaum throughout the humanities. It garnered wide praise in academic reviews, and even drew acclaim in the popular media. Camille Paglia credited Fragility with matching "the highest academic standards" of the twentieth century, and The Times Higher Education called it "a supremely scholarly work". Nussbaum's reputation extended her influence beyond print and into television programs like PBS's Bill Moyers.
Cultivating Humanity [ edit ]
Cultivating Humanity: A Classical Defense of Reform in Liberal Education appeals to classical Greek texts as a basis for defense and reform of the liberal education. Noting the Greek cynic philosopher Diogenes' aspiration to transcend "local origins and group memberships" in favor of becoming "a citizen of the world", Nussbaum traces the development of this idea through the Stoics, Cicero, and eventually the classical liberalism of Adam Smith and Immanuel Kant. Nussbaum champions multiculturalism in the context of ethical universalism, defends scholarly inquiry into race, gender, and human sexuality, and further develops the role of literature as narrative imagination into ethical questions.
At the same time, Nussbaum also censured certain scholarly trends. She excoriated deconstructionist Jacques Derrida saying "on truth [he is] simply not worth studying for someone who has been studying Quine and Putnam and Davidson". She cites Zhang Longxi, who labels Derrida's analysis of Chinese culture "pernicious" and without "evidence of serious study". More broadly, Nussbaum criticized Michel Foucault for his "historical incompleteness [and] lack of conceptual clarity", but nevertheless singled him out for providing "the only truly important work to have entered philosophy under the banner of 'postmodernism.'" Nussbaum is even more critical of figures like Allan Bloom, Roger Kimball, and George Will for what she considers their "shaky" knowledge of non-Western cultures and inaccurate caricatures of today's humanities departments.
The New York Times praised Cultivating Humanity as "a passionate, closely argued defense of multiculturalism" and hailed it as "a formidable, perhaps definitive defense of diversity on American campuses". Nussbaum was the 2002 recipient of the University of Louisville Grawmeyer Award in Education.
Sex and Social Justice [ edit ]
Sex and Social Justice sets out to demonstrate that sex and sexuality are morally irrelevant distinctions that have been artificially enforced as sources of social hierarchy; thus, feminism and social justice have common concerns. Rebutting anti-universalist objections, Nussbaum proposes functional freedoms, or central human capabilities, as a rubric of social justice.
Nussbaum discusses at length the feminist critiques of liberalism itself, including the charge advanced by Alison Jaggar that liberalism demands ethical egoism. Nussbaum notes that liberalism emphasizes respect for others as individuals, and further argues that Jaggar has elided the distinction between individualism and self-sufficiency. Nussbaum accepts Catharine MacKinnon's critique of abstract liberalism, assimilating the salience of history and context of group hierarchy and subordination, but concludes that this appeal is rooted in liberalism rather than a critique of it.
Nussbaum condemns the practice of female genital mutilation, citing deprivation of normative human functioning in its risks to health, impact on sexual functioning, violations of dignity, and conditions of non-autonomy. Emphasizing that female genital mutilation is carried out by brute force, its irreversibility, its non-consensual nature, and its links to customs of male domination, Nussbaum urges feminists to confront female genital mutilation as an issue of injustice.
Nussbaum also refines the concept of "objectification", as originally advanced by Catharine MacKinnon and Andrea Dworkin. Nussbaum defines the idea of treating as an object with seven qualities: instrumentality, denial of autonomy, inertness, fungibility, violability, ownership, and denial of subjectivity. Her characterization of pornography as a tool of objectification puts Nussbaum at odds with sex-positive feminism. At the same time, Nussbaum argues in support of the legalization of prostitution, a position she reiterated in a 2008 essay following the Spitzer scandal, writing: "The idea that we ought to penalize women with few choices by removing one of the ones they do have is grotesque."
Sex and Social Justice was highly praised by critics in the press. Salon declared: "She shows brilliantly how sex is used to deny some people—i.e., women and gay men—social justice." The New York Times praised the work as "elegantly written and carefully argued". Kathryn Trevenen praised Nussbaum's effort to shift feminist concerns toward interconnected transnational efforts, and for explicating a set of universal guidelines to structure an agenda of social justice. Patrick Hopkins singled out for praise Nussbaum's "masterful" chapter on sexual objectification. Radical feminist Andrea Dworkin faulted Nussbaum for "consistent over-intellectualisation of emotion, which has the inevitable consequence of mistaking suffering for cruelty".
Hiding from Humanity [ edit ]
Hiding from Humanity extends Nussbaum's work in moral psychology to probe the arguments for including two emotions—shame and disgust—as legitimate bases for legal judgments. Nussbaum argues that individuals tend to repudiate their bodily imperfection or animality through the projection of fears about contamination. This cognitive response is in itself irrational, because we cannot transcend the animality of our bodies. Noting how projective disgust has wrongly justified group subordination (mainly of women, Jews, and homosexuals), Nussbaum ultimately discards disgust as a reliable basis of judgment.
Turning to shame, Nussbaum argues that shame takes too broad a target, attempting to inculcate humiliation on a scope that is too intrusive and limiting on human freedom. Nussbaum sides with John Stuart Mill in narrowing legal concern to acts that cause a distinct and assignable harm.
In an interview with Reason magazine, Nussbaum elaborated:
Disgust and shame are inherently hierarchical; they set up ranks and orders of human beings. They are also inherently connected with restrictions on liberty in areas of non-harmful conduct. For both of these reasons, I believe, anyone who cherishes the key democratic values of equality and liberty should be deeply suspicious of the appeal to those emotions in the context of law and public policy.
Nussbaum's work was received with wide praise. The Boston Globe called her argument "characteristically lucid" and hailed her as "America's most prominent philosopher of public life". Her reviews in national newspapers and magazines garnered unanimous praise. In academic circles, Stefanie A. Lindquist of Vanderbilt University lauded Nussbaum's analysis as a "remarkably wide ranging and nuanced treatise on the interplay between emotions and law".
A prominent exception was Roger Kimball's review published in The New Criterion, in which he accused Nussbaum of "fabricating" the renewed prevalence of shame and disgust in public discussions and says she intends to "undermine the inherited moral wisdom of millennia". He rebukes her for "contempt for the opinions of ordinary people" and ultimately accuses Nussbaum herself of "hiding from humanity".
Nussbaum has recently drawn on and extended her work on disgust to produce a new analysis of the legal issues regarding sexual orientation and same-sex conduct. Her book From Disgust to Humanity: Sexual Orientation and the Constitution was published by Oxford University Press in 2009, as part of their "Inalienable Rights" series, edited by Geoffrey Stone.
From Disgust to Humanity [ edit ]
In her 2010 book From Disgust to Humanity: Sexual Orientation and Constitutional Law, Nussbaum analyzes the role that disgust plays in law and public debate in the United States. The book primarily analyzes constitutional legal issues facing gay and lesbian Americans but also analyzes issues such as anti-miscegenation statutes, segregation, antisemitism and the caste system in India as part of its broader thesis regarding the "politics of disgust".
Nussbaum posits that the fundamental motivations of those advocating legal restrictions against gay and lesbian Americans is a "politics of disgust". These legal restrictions include blocking sexual orientation being protected under anti-discrimination laws (see Romer v. Evans), sodomy laws against consenting adults (See: Lawrence v. Texas), constitutional bans against same-sex marriage (See: California Proposition 8 (2008)), over-strict regulation of gay bathhouses, and bans on sex in public parks and public restrooms. Nussbaum also argues that legal bans on polygamy and certain forms of incestuous (e.g. brother–sister) marriage partake of the politics of disgust and should be overturned.
She identifies the "politics of disgust" closely with Lord Devlin and his famous opposition to the Wolfenden report, which recommended decriminalizing private consensual homosexual acts, on the basis that those things would "disgust the average man". To Devlin, the mere fact some people or act may produce popular emotional reactions of disgust provides an appropriate guide for legislating. She also identifies the 'wisdom of repugnance' as advocated by Leon Kass as another "politics of disgust" school of thought as it claims that disgust "in crucial cases ... repugnance is the emotional expression of deep wisdom, beyond reason's power fully to articulate it".
Nussbaum goes on to explicitly oppose the concept of a disgust-based morality as an appropriate guide for legislating. Nussbaum notes that popular disgust has been used throughout history as a justification for persecution. Drawing upon her earlier work on the relationship between disgust and shame, Nussbaum notes that at various times, racism, antisemitism, and sexism, have all been driven by popular revulsion.
In place of this "politics of disgust", Nussbaum argues for the harm principle from John Stuart Mill as the proper basis for limiting individual liberties. Nussbaum argues the harm principle, which supports the legal ideas of consent, the age of majority, and privacy, protects citizens while the "politics of disgust" is merely an unreliable emotional reaction with no inherent wisdom. Furthermore, Nussbaum argues this "politics of disgust" has denied and continues to deny citizens humanity and equality before the law on no rational grounds and causes palpable social harms to the groups affected.
From Disgust to Humanity earned acclaim in the United States, and prompted interviews in The New York Times and other magazines. One conservative magazine, The American Spectator, offered a dissenting view, writing: "[H]er account of the 'politics of disgust' lacks coherence, and 'the politics of humanity' betrays itself by not treating more sympathetically those opposed to the gay rights movement." The article also argues that the book is marred by factual errors and inconsistencies.
Awards and honors [ edit ]
Honorary degrees and honorary societies [ edit ]
Nussbaum is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Science (1988) and the American Philosophical Society (1996). She is an Academician in the Academy of Finland (2000) and a Corresponding Fellow of the British Academy (2008). She has 62 honorary degrees from colleges and universities in North America, Latin America, Europe, Africa and Asia, including from:
- Knox College
- Mount Holyoke College
- Wabash College
- Emory University
- Grinnell College
- Kenyon College
- Williams College
- Colgate University
- Bucknell University
- The College of William and Mary
- Lawrence University
- The University of St Andrews (Scotland)
- The University of Edinburgh (Scotland)
- The Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium)
- The University of Toronto (Canada)
- The University for Humanistic Studies (Netherlands)
- The École Normale Supérieure (Paris, France)
- The New School University (New York City)
- The University of Haifa (Israel)
- The Ohio State University
- The University of North Carolina at Asheville
- Bielefeld University (Germany)
- Georgetown University (Washington, D.C.)
- The Institute of Social Studies (ISS) awarded its honorary doctorate to her in 2006
- Queen's University Belfast (Northern Ireland)
- Simon Fraser University (Canada)
- The University of the Free State (South Africa)
- Pontifical Catholic University of Peru
- University of Antioquia
- Concordia College Moorhead
Awards [ edit ]
- 1990: Brandeis Creative Arts Award in Non-Fiction
- 1991: PEN/Diamonstein-Spielvogel Award for the Art of the Essay for Love's Knowledge
- 1998: Ness Book Award of the Association of American Colleges and Universities (Cultivating Humanity)
- 2000: Book award of the North American Society for Social Philosophy (Sex and Social Justice)
- 2002: University of Louisville Grawemeyer Award in Education (Cultivating Humanity)
- 2003: Barnard College Medal of Distinction
- 2004: Honorary membership into Phi Beta Kappa at the University of Chicago.
- 2004: Association of American University Publishers Professional and Scholarly Book Award for Law (Hiding From Humanity)
- 2005: listed among the world's Top 100 intellectuals by Foreign Policy (as well as in 2008 and 2010) and Prospect magazines.
- 2007: Radcliffe Alumnae Recognition Award
- 2009: American Philosophical Society's Henry M. Phillips Prize in Jurisprudence.
- 2009: Arts and Sciences Advocacy Award from the Council of Colleges of Arts and Sciences (CCAS). CCAS bestows this award upon an individual or organization demonstrating exemplary advocacy for the arts and sciences, flowing from a deep commitment to the intrinsic worth of liberal arts education.
- 2010: Centennial Medal of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University
- 2012: Prince of Asturias Awards for Social Sciences
- 2014: John Locke Lectures at Oxford University.
- 2015: Premio Nonino, Italy
- 2015: Inamori Ethics Prize
- 2016: Kyoto Prize in Philosophy, Japan
- 2017: Jefferson Lecture
- 2017: Don M. Randel Award for Contribution to the Humanities, American Academy of Arts and Sciences
- 2018: Berggruen Prize
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
- Wendland, Aaron James (December 7, 2018). "Martha Nussbaum: "There's no tension in supporting #MeToo and defending legal sex work"". New Statesman. Archived from the original on December 7, 2018. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
- Heller, Nathan (December 31, 2018). "The Philosopher Redefining Equality". New Yorker. Archived from the original on May 2, 2019. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- "Martha Nussbaum"Archived October 25, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, University of Chicago, accessed June 5, 2012.
- Aviv, Rachel (July 18, 2016). "The Philosopher of Feelings". The New Yorker (Serial). ISSN 0028-792X. Archived from the original on October 13, 2019. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- "Prof. Martha Nussbaum wins Kyoto Prize". June 17, 2016. Archived from the original on November 19, 2016. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- "Martha Nussbaum Wins $1 Million Berggruen Prize". Archived from the original on October 25, 2019. Retrieved October 30, 2018.
- McLemee, Scott. The Chronicle of Higher Education. "What Makes Martha Nussbaum Run?" Archived July 10, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
- Boynton, Robert S. The New York Times Magazine. Who Needs Philosophy? A Profile of Martha Nussbaum Archived May 23, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- Nussbaum, Martha C. Cultivating Humanity: A Classical Defense of Reform in Liberal Education. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1997. pp. 6–7.
- "The Philosopher of Feelings: Martha Nussbaum's far-reaching ideas illuminate the often ignored elements of human life – aging, inequality, and emotion". Archived from the original on October 13, 2019.
- Singer, Mark (April 8, 2019). "Tim Blake Nelson, Classics Nerd, Brings "Socrates" to the Stage". The New Yorker (Serial). ISSN 0028-792X. Archived from the original on September 26, 2019. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- Cooper, Marylin. "Martha Nussbaum: The Philosopher Queen". Moment Magazine. Moment Magazine. Archived from the original on May 30, 2019. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
- Nussbaum, Martha. Women and Human Development. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
- Nussbaum, Martha C. Poetic Justice: Literary Imagination and Public Life. Boston: Beacon Press, 1995.
- Nussbaum, Martha C. Hiding from Humanity: Shame, Disgust, and the Law. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004.
- The StandArchived May 23, 2019, at the Wayback Machine by Daniel Mendelsohn, from Lingua Franca September 1996.
- Who Needs Philosophy?: A profile of Martha NussbaumArchived May 23, 2011, at the Wayback Machine by Robert Boynton from The New York Times Magazine, November 21, 1999
- Martha C. Nussbaum. "Platonic Love and Colorado Law: The Relevance of Ancient Greek Norms to Modern Sexual Controversies" Archived March 9, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Virginia Law Review, Vol. 80, No. 7 (Oct. 1994), pp. 1515–1651.
- George, Robert P. '"Shameless Acts" Revisited: Some Questions for Martha Nussbaum', Academic Questions 9 (Winter 1995–96), 24–42.
- Martha C. Nussbaum (Spring 2008). "Violence on the Left". Dissent. Archived from the original on October 15, 2019. Retrieved January 12, 2014.
- Martha C. Nussbaum, Undemocratic VistasArchived August 15, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, New York Review of Books, Volume 34, Number 17; November 5, 1987.
- Martha C. Nussbaum, Man OverboardArchived May 29, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, New Republic, June 22, 2006.
- Martha Nussbaum, The Professor of Parody, The New Republic, 1999-02-22; Copy Archived August 3, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- What Makes Martha Nussbaum Run?Archived July 10, 2009, at the Wayback Machine (2001, Includes a timeline of her career, books and related controversies to that time.)
- Patriotism and CosmopolitanismArchived March 11, 2006, at the Wayback Machine a 1994 essay
- The Clash Within: Democracy, Religious Violence, and India's Future,audio and video recordingArchived October 1, 2011, at the Wayback Machine from the World Beyond the Headline Series Archived June 25, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- David Gordon, Cultivating Humanity, Martha Nussbaum and What Tower? What Babel? Archived October 20, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Mises Review, Winter 1997
- "Prof. Martha Nussbaum endows student roundtables to support free expression". University of Chicago News. Archived from the original on November 3, 2019. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- Weinberg, Justin (January 23, 2019). "Nussbaum Uses Berggruen Winnings to Fund Discussions on Challenging Issues". Daily Nous. Archived from the original on May 12, 2019. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- "The Mourner's Hope: Grief and the Foundations of Justice", The Boston Review, November/December 2008., 18–20.
- "In Memoriam – Rachel Nussbaum Wichert," Human Development and Capability Association. December 17, 2019.
- Buckley, Cara (March 16, 2008). "A Monster of a Slip". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 13, 2017. Retrieved July 31, 2018.
- Keller, Julia (September 29, 2002). "The Martha Show". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on January 26, 2019. Retrieved January 26, 2019.
- Nussbaum, Martha C. The Fragility of Goodness: Luck and Ethics in Greek Tragedy and Philosophy. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
- Barnes, Hazel E. Comparative Literature, Vol. 40, No. 1 (Winter, 1988), pp. 76–77
- Woodruff, Paul B. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Vol. 50, No. 1 (Sep. 1989), pp. 205–210
- Knox, Bernard. "The Theater of Ethics". The New York Review of BooksArchived April 28, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
- Paglia, Camille. Sex, Art, & American Culture. NY: Vintage Books, 1991. pp. 206
- Hodges, Lucy. And you may ask yourself...Archived April 3, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- "Shop PBS". September 9, 2012. Archived from the original on September 9, 2012. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- Nussbaum, Martha C. Cultivating Humanity: A Classical Defense of Reform in Liberal Education. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
- Nussbaum, Martha C. Cultivating Humanity: A Classical Defense of Reform in Liberal Education. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1997. pages 41 & 126.
- Nussbaum, Martha C. Cultivating Humanity: A Classical Defense of Reform in Liberal Education. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1997. p.40
- Shapiro, James. Beyond the Culture Wars. The New York Times
- Nussbaum, Martha C. Sex & Social Justice. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. pp. 29–47.
- Nussbaum, Martha C. Sex & Social Justice. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. pp. 55–80.
- Nussbaum, Martha C. Sex & Social Justice. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. pp. 118–130.
- Martha Nussbaum, "Trading on America's [[puritanical streak] Archived March 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine", The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, March 14, 2008
- Maria Russo. "Rescuing the Feminist Book". salon.com. Archived from the original on February 20, 2003. Retrieved May 27, 2008.
- "Cultural Perversions". www.nytimes.com. Archived from the original on November 7, 2017. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- Trevenen, Kathryn. "Global Feminism and the 'Problem' of Culture". Theory & Event 5.1 (2001).
- Hopkins, Patrick D. "Sex and Social Justice". Hypatia 17.2 (2002): 171–173.
- Dworkin, Andrea R. "Rape is not just another word for suffering". Times Higher Education. August 4, 2000.
- Nussbaum, Martha C. Hiding from Humanity: Disgust, Shame, and the Law. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004.
- "Discussing Disgust". Reason.com. July 15, 2004. Archived from the original on February 18, 2008. Retrieved February 22, 2008.
- Wilson, John. You Stink therefore I am.The Boston Globe Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
- "Philosopher warns us against using shame as punishment / Guilt can be creative, but the blame game is dangerous". SFGate. August 8, 2004.
- "Stefanie A. Lindquist's Review". Archived from the original on October 12, 2008. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- Kimball, Roger. The New Criterion.Does Shame have a Future? Archived February 3, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- "From Disgust to Humanity". oup.com. Archived from the original on June 4, 2011.
- Nussbaum, Martha. Oxford University Press. "From Disgust to Humanity: Sexual Orientation and Constitutional Law" (2010)
- For the last two, see Martha Nussbaum, From Disgust to Humanity: Sexual Orientation and Constitutional Law. Oxford University Press, 2010, 198–199.
- Nussbaum, From Disgust to Humanity, 154–155.
- Nussbaum, Martha C. (August 6, 2004). "Danger to Human Dignity: The Revival of Disgust and Shame in the Law". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Washington, DC. Archived from the original on July 10, 2009. Retrieved November 24, 2007.
- San Francisco Book ReviewArchived July 16, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- "Martha Nussbaum's From Disgust to Humanity". Slate Magazine. March 8, 2010. Archived from the original on November 26, 2010. Retrieved December 4, 2010.
- "Let's Be Rational About Sex". The American Prospect. February 28, 2010. Archived from the original on June 11, 2010. Retrieved December 4, 2010.
- "San Francisco Chronicle Book Review". Archived from the original on March 8, 2012. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- Solomon, Deborah (December 10, 2009). "Gross National Politics". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 7, 2017. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- "Back Talk: Martha C. Nussbaum". The Nation. February 25, 2010. Archived from the original on July 26, 2010. Retrieved December 4, 2010.
- "The Politics of Humanity". The American Spectator. Archived from the original on December 4, 2010.
- "Martha Nussbaum". uchicago.edu. Archived from the original on October 8, 2003. Retrieved October 15, 2003.
- "Martha Nussbaum: Liberal Education Crucial to Producing Democratic Societies". lawrence.edu. Archived from the original on September 27, 2013. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
- "Martha Nussbaum". Archived from the original on October 25, 2019. Retrieved October 15, 2003.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 7, 2020. Retrieved March 1, 2019. CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
. Foreign Policy https://foreignpolicy.com/story/cms.php?story_id=4262. Archived from the original on June 22, 2009. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
Missing or empty
- "The Prospect/FP Global public intellectuals poll – results". Prospect. Archived from the original on January 22, 2008. Retrieved February 9, 2008.
- anonymous. "Nussbaum Receives Prestigious Prize for Law and Philosophy". uchicago.edu. Archived from the original on June 10, 2010. Retrieved April 3, 2016.
- "Arts & Sciences Advocacy Award – Council of Colleges of Arts and Sciences". www.ccas.net. Archived from the original on May 31, 2016. Retrieved May 2, 2016.
- "2015 Recipient – University Events". case.edu – Case Western Reserve University. Archived from the original on July 8, 2015. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
- "Kyoto Prize, Inamori Foundation". Kyoto Prize, Inamori Foundation. Archived from the original on July 30, 2018. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- "Martha Nussbaum Named Jefferson Lecturer"Archived February 2, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Inside Higher Ed, January 19, 2017.
[ edit ]
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Martha Nussbaum|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Martha Nussbaum.|
- University of Chicago biography
- Nussbaum on Anger and Forgiveness (Audio) University of Chicago
- Nussbaum's University of Chicago faculty website
- Nussbaum bibliographies
- Works by or about Martha Nussbaum in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Martha Nussbaum on IMDb
- Q&A with Martha Nussbaum from The Guardian
- 'Creating capabilities' Nussbaum interviewed by Laurie Taylor on BBC Radio 4, July 2011
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Martha Nussbaum, Land of my Dreams: Islamic liberalism under fire in India, Boston Review, March/April 2009.Archived 27 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- Profile at the International Institute of Social Studies
- Honored as one of 50 Most Influential Living Philosophers
|Non-profit organization positions|
|President of the Human Development
and Capability Association
William G. Bowen
|Grawemeyer Award for Education
|Princess of Asturias Award
for Social Sciences
|Kyoto Prize in Arts and Philosophy
The Baroness O'Neill of Bengarve