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Saint Nikolaj Velimirović
|Born||4 January 1881
Lelić, Valjevo, Serbia
|Died||18 March 1956
South Canaan Township, Wayne County, Pennsylvania, U.S.
|Venerated in||Eastern Orthodoxy|
|Canonized||24 May 2003 by Serbian Orthodox Church|
|Major shrine||Lelić monastery, Serbia|
|Feast||18 March, 8 April|
|Attributes||Vested as a bishop|
Saint Nikolai Velimirovich of Ohrid and Žiča or Nikolaj Velimirović (Serbian Cyrillic: Николај Велимировић; 4 January 1881 [O.S. 23 December 1880] – 18 March [O.S. 5 March] 1956) was bishop of the eparchies of Ohrid and Žiča (1920-1956) in the Serbian Orthodox Church, an influential theological writer and a highly gifted orator, known as The New Chrysostom.
His birth name was Nikola. As a young man, he came close to dying of dysentery, and decided that he would dedicate his life to God if he survived. Survive he did, and was tonsured as a monk under the name Nikolaj. He was ordained into the clergy, and quickly became an important leader and spokesperson for the Serbian Orthodox Church, especially in its relations with the West. When Nazi Germany occupied Yugoslavia in World War II, Velimirović was imprisoned and eventually taken to Dachau concentration camp.
After being liberated by the Allies at the end of the war, he chose not to return to Yugoslavia (which had a Communist government by that time). He moved to the United States in 1946, where he remained until his death in 1956. He strongly supported the unity of all Orthodox churches and established particularly good relationships with the Anglican and Episcopal Church.
- 1 Biography
- 2 Posthumous
- 3 Controversies
- 4 Literary criticism
- 5 Legacy
- 6 Partial bibliography
- 7 References
- 8 Sources
- 9 External links
Biography [ edit ]
Childhood [ edit ]
Nikola Velimirović was born in the small village of Lelić, Valjevo, Serbia, on the day of the feast of Saint Naum of Ohrid, whose monastery would later be his episcopal see. He was the first of nine children born to Dragomir and Katarina Filippović Velimirović, pious farmers. Being very weak, he was baptised soon after his birth in the Ćelije monastery, where his relics are now resting. He was given the name Nikola because Saint Nicholas was the family's patron saint. The first lessons about God, Jesus Christ, the lives of the saints and the holy days of the Church year were provided to him by his mother, who also regularly took him to the Ćelije monastery for prayer and Holy Communion.
Education [ edit ]
His formal education also began in the Ćelije monastery and continued in Valjevo. He applied for admission into the Military Academy, but was refused because he didn't pass the physical exam. He was admitted to the Seminary of Saint Sava in Belgrade, where, apart from the standard subjects, he explored a significant number of writings of both Eastern and Western authors, such as Shakespeare, Voltaire, Nietzsche, Marx, Pushkin, Tolstoy, Dostoevsky, and others. He graduated in 1905.
Nikola had been chosen to become a professor in the Seminary of Saint Sava, but it was decided that he needed to pursue further Orthodox studies before becoming a teacher. As an outstanding student, he was chosen to continue his studies in Russia and Western Europe. He had a gift for languages and soon possessed a good knowledge of Russian, French and German. He attended the Theological Academy in St. Petersburg and then he went to Switzerland and obtained his doctorate of divinity from the Old Catholic Theological Faculty at the University of Berne. He received his doctorate in Theology in 1908, with the dissertation entitled Faith in the Resurrection of Christ as the Foundation of the Dogmas of the Apostolic Church. This original work was written in German and published in Switzerland in 1910, and later translated into Serbian. The dissertation for his doctor's degree in philosophy was prepared at Oxford and defended in Geneva, in French. The title was Berkeley's Philosophy.
Monastic life [ edit ]
In the autumn of 1909, Nikola returned home and became seriously ill with dysentery. He decided that if he recovered he would become a monk and devote his life to God. At the end of 1909 his health got better and he was tonsured a monk, receiving the name Nikolaj. He was soon ordained a hieromonk and then elevated to the rank of Archimandrite. In 1910 he was entrusted with a mission to Great Britain in order to gain the co-operation of the Church of England in educating the young students who had been evacuated when the Austrian, German and Bulgarian forces threatened to overwhelm the country.
Studies in Russia [ edit ]
It was decided that he needed to accomplish Orthodox studies before becoming a teacher. As was the custom in those days, he was sent to Imperial Russia to continue his studies. After his return to Belgrade in 1911, when he was thirty-one years old, he was appointed to the University of Belgrade's Academy of Theology, teaching philosophy, logic, history and foreign languages. His talks and sermons were read avidly throughout Serbia. This was partly because his exposition of the Christian faith was inspired by the life of St. Sava, the national patron saint of Serbia. In the Church itself he had only the authority of his words and personality: he was just a monk, but even so he seemed destined to exert great influence. One of his students in Belgrade was Justin Popović.
Missions during World War I [ edit ]
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In his lifetime, Father Nikolaj visited the USA four times. He visited Britain in 1910. He studied English and was capable of addressing an audience and making a strong impression on the listeners. Shortly after the outbreak of World War I this contributed to his appointment by the Serbian government to a mission in the United States. In 1915, as an unknown Serbian monk, he toured most of the major U.S. cities, where he held numerous lectures, fighting for the union of the Serbs and South Slavic peoples. This mission gained ground: America sent over 20,000 volunteers to Europe, most of whom later fought on the Salonika Front. During Velimirović's US-campaign occurred the great retreat of the Serbian Army through the mountains of Albania. He embarked home in 1916; as his country was now in enemy hands, he went to Britain instead. His eloquence and character made him an unofficial spokesman of his people. His success was such that not only did he fulfill his mission, but he was also awarded a Doctorate of Divinity honoris causa from the University of Cambridge.
He gave a series of notable lectures at St. Margaret's, Westminster, and preached in St. Paul's Cathedral as well as in other cathedrals and churches throughout the land. He also preached in the Episcopal chapel, where his practical discourse attracted many hearers. Velimirović became celebrated. At the same time he was active in the promotion of the Serbian Relief Fund and was successful in obtaining a university education for Serb students, several of whom, including Bishop Irinej of Dalmatia, took their degrees before they returned to their own country after the war. In 1918, Velimirović returned to the United States for a second visit, but as a celebrity who was to address the American people as a whole on behalf of Serbian relief.
In 1919 he received another Honorary Doctorate of Divinity from the University of Glasgow. From Glasgow his repute as a theological scholar and preacher spread throughout the United Kingdom. After the war, he returned to Belgrade in April 1919.
Bishop [ edit ]
In 1919, Archimandrite Nikolaj was consecrated Bishop of Žiča but did not remain long in that diocese, being asked to take over the office of Bishop in the Eparchy of Ohrid (1920-1931) and Eparchy of Ohrid and Bitola (1931-1936) in southern parts of Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Whether that was his own wish is not clear. It was in a way a mission post for the people of the lately recovered Serbian territory were backward and there were still vestiges of the Ottoman days still prevailing in habit, pagan superstition and even black magic.
The percentage of illiteracy was very high and the population was for the most part very poor. He had many difficulties there but a great number of humble folk became attached to him and felt that even to touch his hand was to receive a blessing. For many years his seat was the ancient monastery of Sveti Naum at the south end of the Lake Ohrid. It was there that he wrote Ohridski Prologue. In 1920, for the third time, he journeyed again to the United States, this time on a mission to organize the Serbian Orthodox Diocese of North America. The Outlook Magazine carried a story about Bishop Nikolaj after visiting the United States in their 23 February 1921 issue (pp. 285–86):
He is Bishop of Ohrid, near the Albanian border, and is a popular and beloved leader of the Serbian Orthodox Church. Last summer an American accompanied him on a journey into the mountains, where he was to preach in a remote village church. They found the roads lined for twenty-five miles with men, women and children, who had journeyed far on foot to greet him, and in the mountain church the densely packed people had been standing all through the night...
Finally, in 1927, he came to the U.S. once more, to speak before the Institute of Politics in Williamstown, Massachusetts. A reporter covering the event, wrote:
His black monk's robe, his long black beard, and his dark, living eyes, set in an oval Slavic face, gave him an appearance which contrasted as strongly with that of conventionally dressed professors and diplomats as did his views of the common problems of world peace contrast with theirs. His charm and urbanity of manner, the completeness of his grasp upon international problems only emphasized the difference in his thought....Bishop Nikolaj, speaking from the point of view of a civilization in which men still are more important than institutions, points out that peace or war is a matter of the way men think and feel toward each other, and that all other things are only outgrowths of this. The greatest force for affecting men's attitudes toward each other he believes would be a reunited Christian Church (Living Age, Vol. 335-36, 1928-29).
In 1935, he reconstructed the cemetery of the fallen German soldiers from World War I in Bitola. During the Milan Stojadinović administration when the Patriarchate became vacant (after the poisoning of Patriarch Varnava and the failed attempt at ratifying a Concordat with the Vatican) he was reportedly an obvious choice but allegedly too greatly identified with the democratic idealism of England and the United States of America (places he frequently visited) while Stojadinović leaned towards Germany and Italy.
Still, except for his unwavering opposition to Communism, there was very little that could be labelled "political" in Velimirović's ministrations and writings. The most that could be said was that he strove to keep Serbia alive after it had been merged into the larger state of Yugoslavia. He started a movement for the renewal and care of the old churches, shrines and cemeteries in Macedonia. It had been at his suggestion that the large illustrated volume South Slav Monuments was compiled and then published in London, and when he was made Bishop of Ohrid he began that work of restoration which still continues to this day.
The 1930s [ edit ]
In 1936, he finally resumed his original office of Bishop in the Eparchy of Žiča, returning to the Monastery of Žiča not far distant from Valjevo and Lelić, where he was born. At Žiča he started a movement for the revival of the Serb Church, evoking the inspiration of its patron saint Saint Sava. He seldom gave a sermon without mentioning the saint's name. Eventually in exile he wrote the only substantial biography of St. Sava which we have. In the years preceding the outbreak of World War II, Velimirović, continuing his campaign for a Serb revival, instituted what may be called a Society of Prayer and renewed the ancient custom of Christians gathering together to visit a friend's house for prayer, in that way making Christianity social rather than individualistic and solitary. This social prayer extended over a large area and drew national attention. It was described in the newspapers, and pictures of the benign and now almost apostolic countenance of Bishop Nikolaj appeared in Sunday editions.
Detention and imprisonment in World War II [ edit ]
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During World War II, in 1941, as soon as the German forces occupied Yugoslavia, Bishop Nikolaj was arrested by the Nazis in the Monastery of Žiča, after which he was confined in the Monastery of Ljubostinja. Later he was transferred to the Monastery of Vojlovica (near Pančevo) in which he was confined together with the Serbian Patriarch Gavrilo V until the end of 1944. On 15 September 1944, both Serbian Patriarch Gavrilo V (Dožić) and Bishop Nikolaj were sent to Dachau concentration camp, which was at that time the main concentration camp for clerics arrested by the Nazis. Both Velimirović and Dožić were held as special prisoners (Ehrenhäftlinge) imprisoned in the so-called Ehrenbunker (or Prominentenbunker) separated from the work camp area, together with high-ranking Nazi enemy officers and other prominent prisoners whose arrests had been dictated by Hitler directly.
In August 1943 German general Hermann Neubacher became special emissary of the German Foreign Office for Southeastern Europe. From 11 September 1943, he was also made responsible for Albania. In December 1944, Velimirović and Dožić were transferred from Dachau to Slovenia, together with Milan Nedić, the Serbian collaborationist PM, as the Nazis attempted to make use of Patriarch Gavrilo's and Nikolaj's authority among the Serbs in order to gain allies in the anti-Communist movements. Contrary to claims of torture and abuse at the camp, Patriarch Dožić testified himself that both he and Velimirović were treated normally.
Later, Velimirović and Patriarch Gavrilo (Dožić) were moved to Austria, and were finally liberated by the US 36th Infantry Division in Tyrol in 1945. He was physically weakened by these vicissitudes. He was brought to England. Velimirović and Dožić were at Westminster Abbey at the baptism of King Peter II of Yugoslavia's son and heir, Crown Prince Alexander of Yugoslavia. Velimirović preached a very moving sermon at the Serb chapel in the house in Egerton Gardens. But there was no place for him in England such as there had been during the First World War. Patriarch Gavrilo, being old and ill, returned to what then came to be known as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, where he died soon after his arrival. Velimirović opted to emigrate to the United States.
He was allowed to spend the last years of his life in the United States, only returning once to England when he came to consecrate the Church of St Sava in 1952, an occasion when Serbs in the thousands rallied from the mines and factories of England to the walls of the great church in Ladbroke Grove. The sacred edifice was packed and the overflow crowd streamed all the way to the London Underground, with Velimirović's voice sounding through the air on loudspeakers.
Immigration and Last Years [ edit ]
After the war he never returned to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, but after spending some time in Europe, he finally immigrated as a refugee to the United States in 1946. There, in spite of his health problems, he continued his missionary work, for which he is considered An Apostle and Missionary of the New Continent (quote by Fr. Alexander Schmemann), and has also been enlisted as an American Saint and included on the icons and frescoes All American Saints.
He taught at several Orthodox Christian seminaries such as St. Sava's Seminary (Libertyville, Illinois), Saint Tikhon's Orthodox Theological Seminary and Monastery (South Canaan, Pennsylvania), and St. Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary (now in Crestwood, New York).
Posthumous [ edit ]
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Velimirović died on 18 March 1956, while in prayer at the foot of his bed before the Liturgy, at the Russian Orthodox Monastery of St. Tikhon in South Canaan Township, Wayne County, Pennsylvania in the United States. He was buried near the tomb of poet Jovan Dučić at the Monastery of St. Sava at Libertyville, Illinois. After the fall of communism, his remains were ultimately re-buried in his home town of Lelić on 12 May 1991, next to his parents and his nephew, Bishop Jovan Velimirović. On 19 May 2003, the Holy Assembly of Bishops of the Serbian Orthodox Church recognized Bishop Nikolaj (Velimirović) of Ohrid and Žiča as a saint and decided to include him into the calendar of saints of Holy Orthodox Church (5 and 18 March).
Controversies [ edit ]
Allegations of antisemitism [ edit ]
Several of Nikolaj Velimirović's writings and public speeches have been identified by historians as containing antisemitic rhetoric and/or hate speech directed at Jews.
Notably, the first written record of Velimirović's antisemitic beliefs comes over a decade before the start of World War II and his stay at the Dachau concentration camp. In fact, the first chronicled case of Velimirović expressing antisemitic beliefs dates back to a 1927 sermon delivered in the United States.
From the 1927 sermon titled "A Story about the Wolf and the Lamb," Velimirović's proclamations are summarized by social psychologist Jovan Byford:
In his take on the well known Christian parable about the wolf and the lamb, Velimirović referred to "Jewish leaders in Jerusalem" at the time of the crucifixion as "wolves," whose thirst for blood of the Lamb of God was motivated by their "god-hating nationalism."
Byford's summary of Velimirović's "A Story about the Wolf and the Lamb" is significant for it serves as evidence that Velimirović may have utilized biblical undertones and Christian parable as a means of 'validating' his antisemitic statements to his followers. An interview that Jovan Byford conducted with Mladen Obradović (leader of Serbian far-right political organization Obraz) may suggest that this explanation still persists among some members of Serbian Orthodox society. A contemporary defender of Velimirović's reputation and saint status, Obradović defends the antisemitic writings of Velimimirović by stating that Velimirović's words only echo what had been written in early Christian texts:
You have the very words of the Lord Jesus Christ when he says to the Pharisees that they are a "brood of vipers" or that their father is the Devil; Bishop Nikolaj merely quotes the Gospels.
In a speech delivered in 1936 at the Žica Monastery in Serbia, Velimirović spoke out against what he perceived to be a Jewish threat to Christianity in front of a distinguished audience that included Yugoslavian Prime Minister Milan Stojadinović. Velimirović used specific lines of this speech to accuse Jews of leading a secretive, coordinated effort against Christianity and "faith in real God".
Velimirović's writing in Words to the Serbian People Through the Prison Window is generally seen as the strongest evidence of the canonized Bishop holding antisemitic beliefs. Notably, many proponents of Velimirović's ideology suggest that the work is not definitive evidence of the Bishop's true ideology and beliefs about Jews and Judaism because they claim that it was written under duress during his time at Dachau. The excerpts from Velimirović's Words to the Serbian People Through the Prison Window that attract the most attention from scholars studying antisemitism are quoted in Jovan Byford's Denial and Repression of Antisemitism: Post-Communist Remembrance of the Serbian Bishop Nikolaj Velimirović as follows:
The Devil teaches them [Jews]; the Devil taught them how to stand against the son of God, Jesus Christ. The Devil taught them through the centuries how to fight against the sons of Christ, against the children of light, against the followers of the Gospel and eternal life [Christians]. [...]
Europe knows nothing other than what Jews serve up as knowledge. It believes nothing other than what Jews order it to believe. It knows the value of nothing until Jews impose their own measure of values […] all modern ideas including democracy, and strikes, and socialism, and atheism, and religious tolerance, and pacifism, and global revolution, and capitalism, and communism are the inventions of Jews, or rather their father, the Devil.
Additionally, Jovan Byford identifies the antisemitic ideology of Velimirović in the work, Indian Letters in which the figure of a Jewish woman portrays Satan. Notably, this example of Velimirović's antisemitic portrayal is again linked to conspiracy as Velimirović describes the woman as standing for, "all destructive and secret associations plotting against Christianity, religion, and the state."
Despite accusations of antisemitism, it is recorded that Velimirović protected a Jewish family by facilitating their escape from Nazi-occupied Serbia. Ela Trifunović (Ela Nayhaus), wrote to the Serbian Orthodox Church in 2001, claiming that she had spent 18 months hiding in the Ljubostinja monastery to which she was smuggled by Velimirović, guarded and later helped move on with false papers. Historians inclined to side with the view that Velimirović's writings prove that he held antisemitic beliefs note that this one incidence of the Bishop saving a Jewish family is commonly exaggerated by pro-Velimirović groups as evidence of his universal kindness and selflessness against the several confirmed antisemitic writings tied to Velimirović.
Velimirović and Hitler [ edit ]
Adolf Hitler decorated Nikolaj Velimirović in 1935 for his contributions to the restoration of a German military cemetery in Bitola in 1926. Some claim that the order was returned in protest at German aggression in 1941.
In a treatise on St. Sava in 1935, he supported Hitler's treatment of the German national church and is quoted as saying:
However, a due respect is to be to the current German Leader, who being a simple craftsman and a man from the people, realized that nationalism without faith is an anomaly, a cold and insecure mechanism. And so, in the XX century, he came to the idea of Saint Sava, and as a layman undertook among his people that most important work, befitting a saint, a genius and a hero. And for us that work has been accomplished by Saint Sava, the first among the saints, the first among the geniuses and the first among the heroes in our history. He accomplished it perfectly, he accomplished it without fight and without blood, and he accomplished it not yesterday or the day before, but 700 years ago.
Velimirović and Ljotić [ edit ]
In an interview given in the United States in 1953, Velimirović claimed that he was the spiritual gray eminence behind the nationalist and collaborating extreme-right ZBOR organization. The military arm of that organization (SDK - Srpski Dobrovoljački Korpus - Serbian Volunteer Corps) was fighting against both Partisans and Chetniks in World War II and was responsible for numerous civilian executions in Serbia of both Serbs and other nationals (Jews, Roma, etc.) When the leader of ZBOR, Dimitrije Ljotić, was arrested in 1940 by the Yugoslav government, Velimirović protested in a letter to the PM, Dragiša Cvetković. Velimirović attended Ljotić's funeral in 1945 and spoke very positively of him even though it was already known that Ljotić was collaborating with the Germans. He spoke of Ljotić as an "ideologue of Serbian nationalism".
Velimirović and Germans [ edit ]
In spite of accusations of collaboration leveled during Communist times, some of Velimirović's actions and writings were directed against the Germans who got suspicious of him when he supported the coup in April 1941. They suspected him of collaborating with the Chetniks and formally arrested him and kept him first in Ljubostinja Monastery in 1941 and then in 1944 in Dachau concentration camp.
In Dachau, he was imprisoned in Ehrenbunker, together with other clergy and high-ranking Nazi enemy officers, and was allowed to wear his own religious clothes, having access to the officer's canteen. It is claimed that he was never tortured and had access to officers' medical services. Contrary to the reports that Velimirović was liberated when the Americans' 36th Division reached Dachau, both he and Patriarch Dožić were actually released in December 1944, having spent three months in the camp. They travelled to Slovenia, from where Velimirovic continued first to Austria then to United States. However, there is documented evidence, including photographs of Bishop Nikolaj (Velimirović) and Patriarch Gavrilo (Dožić) present at the baptismal of Prince Alexander (Karađorđević) in London, England, in 1945 before Nikolaj emigrated in 1946 to the U.S. and Patriarch Gavrilo returned home.
Literary criticism [ edit ]
Velimirović is viewed as less original[clarification needed] by non-theologians. Literary critic Milan Bogdanović claims that everything Velimirović wrote after his Ohrid years did nothing more than paraphrase Orthodox canon and dogma. Bogdanović views him as a conservative who glorified the Church and its ceremonies as an institution. Others claim he brought little novelty into Orthodox thought. This, however, is explained by true Orthodox thought, because, as Saint John of Damascus writes, "It is for that reason that I say (teach) nothing of what is mine. I briefly express the thoughts and words passed down by Godly and wise men." This is the consensus of Orthodox thought, which is to preserve what has always been taught by Christ, the Apostles, and the Church. Even the Scriptures say, "But though we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel unto you than that which we have preached unto you, let him be accursed" (Galatians 1:8). The goal in Orthodoxy is not to create "new" thought, but to preserve Holy Tradition handed down by divine revelation.
Legacy [ edit ]
A monastery is named after him in China, Michigan.
Partial bibliography [ edit ]
- Моје успомене из Боке (1904) (My memories from Boka)
- Französisch-slavische Kämpfe in der Bocca di Cattaro (1910)
- Beyond Sin and Death (1914)
- The New Ideal in Education (1916)
- The Religious Spirit of the Slavs (1916)
- The Spiritual Rebirth of Europe (1917)
- Orations on the Universal Man (1920)
- Молитве на језеру (1922)
- Thoughts on Good and Evil (1923)
- Homilias, volumes I and II (1925)
- Читанка о Светоме краљу Јовану Владимиру ()
- The Prologue from Ohrid (1926)
- The Faith of Educated People (1928)
- The War and the Bible (1931)
- The Symbols and Signs (1932)
- The Chinese Martyrs by Saint Nikolai Velimirovich (Little Missionary, 1934 — 1938)
- "Immanuel" (1937)
- Теодул (1942)
- The Faith of the Saints (1949) (an Orthodox Catechism in English)
- The Life of Saint Sava (Zivot Sv. Save, 1951 original Serbian language version)
- Cassiana - the Science on Love (1952)
- The Only Love of Mankind (1958) (posthumously)
- The First Gods Law and the Pyramid of Paradise (1959) (posthumously)
- The Religion of Njegos (?)
- Speeches under the Mount (?)
- Emaniul (?) (Emmanuel)
- Vera svetih (?) (Faith of the holy)
- Indijska pisma (?) (Letters from India)
- Iznad istoka i zapada (?) (Above east and west)
- izabrana dela svetog Nikolaja Velimirovića (?) (Selected works of saint Nikolaj Velimirović)
References [ edit ]
- The Autonomous Orthodox Metropolia of Western Europe and the Americas (ROCOR). St. Hilarion Calendar of Saints for the year of our Lord 2004. St. Hilarion Press (Austin, TX). p.22.
- "03 May 2017". Eternal Orthodox Church Calendar. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
- Commemorated March 5/18 (+1956). "Life of St. Nikolai Velimirovich". Orthodoxinfo.com. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
- Milorad Tomanić, Srpska crkva u ratu i ratovi u njoj, p44
- "Saint Nikolaj (Velimirovic)", Canadian Orthodox History Project
- Milorad Tomanić, Srpska crkva u ratu i ratovi u njoj, p45
- Repose of St Nicholas of Zhicha. OCA - Lives of the Saints.
- Bank, Jan and Gevers, Lieve. Churches and Religion in the Second World War, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2016, ISBN 9781472504807, p. 267
- Leisner, Karl. Priesterweihe und Primiz im KZ Dachau, pg. 183, LIT Verlag Berlin-Hamburg-Münster, 2004; ISBN 3825872777, 9783825872779
- Glasnik Pravoslavne Crkve, July 1946, pp 66-67. Also in Dožić G., Memoari patrijarha srpskog Gavrila (Beograd: Sfairos 1990), entries for December 1944.
- "List of American Orthodox saints". OrthodoxWiki.org. 2015-06-05. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2009. CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "All Saints of North America | Flickr - Photo Sharing!". Flickr. 27 April 2009. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
"Report on Antisemitism". Belgrade: Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Serbia. 2001.
Missing or empty
- Sekelj, L. (1997). "Antisemitism and Jewish Identity in Serbia". Analysis of Current Trends in Antisemitism. Hebrew University of Jerusalem., acta no. 12
- Byford, J. (2004). "From traitor to saint in public memory: the case of Serbian Bishop Nikolaj Velimirović´". Analysis of Current Trends in Antisemitism. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem., acta no. 22
- Kostic, S. (29 May 2003). "Sporno slovo u crkvenom kalendaru". Vreme No. 647.
- David, F. (24 March 2005). "Puzeci i otvoreni antisemitizam". B92.
- Lebl, A. (2007). "Antisemitizam u Srbiji". Hereticus. 2.
- Sejdinovic, N. (26 March 2005). "Antisemitizam u Srbiji: od Vozda, preko Nikolaja, do Grafita".
- "Antisemitizam, posledica velikodrzavnog projekta"(PDF). Helsinski odbor za ljudska prava. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
- "Kanonizacija "proroka" antisemitizma". Danas. 13 April 2005.
- Samardzic, P. (2004). Episkop Nikolaj i Novi zavet o Jevrejima. Belgrade: Hriscanska misao.
- Lazovic, K. "Antisemitism as a Contest of the Other".
- Tomanic, M. (2001). Srpska crkva u ratu i ratovi u njoj. Belgrade. p. 51.
- Byford, Jovan (2008). Denial and Repression of Antisemitism: Post-Communist Remembrance of the Serbian Bishop Nikolaj Velimirović. Budapest: Central European University Press. p. 43.
- Byford, Jovan (2008). Denial and Repression of Antisemitism: Post-Communist Remembrance of the Serbian Bishop Nikolaj Velimirović. Central European University Press. p. 175.
- Byford, Jovan (2008). Denial and Repression of Antisemitism: Post-Communist Remembrance of the Serbian Bishop Nikolaj Velimirović. Budapest: Central European University Press. pp. 43–44.
- Byford, Jovan (2008). Denial and Repression of Antisemitism: Post-Communist Remembrance of the Serbian Bishop Nikolaj Velimirović. Central European University Press. p. 77.
- Byford, Jovan (2008). Denial and Repression of Antisemitism: Post-Communist Remembrance of the Serbian Bishop Nikolaj Velimirović. Budapest: Central European University Press. p. 45.
- Свети Владика Николај Охридски и Жички, (Holy Bishop Nikolaj of Ohrid and Žiča)(Žiča Monastery, Kraljevo 2003), p. 179
- Byford, Jovan (2008). Denial and Repression of Antisemitism: Post-Communist Remembrance of the Serbian Bishop Nikolaj Velimirović. Budapest: Central European University Press. pp. 162–163.
- Byford, J., "Denial and Repression of Antisemitism: Post-communist Remembrance of the Serbian Bishop Nikolaj Velimirović" (CEU Press, 2008), p. 47.
- See letter "Poveli ste se za mišljenjem Filipa Koena" in Danas, 27 July 2002.
- Radić, R. Država i verske zajednice 1945-1970 (Institut za noviju istoriju Srbije; Beegrad 1970), p. 80
- See "Nationalism of Saint Sava", in Collected Works of Nikolaj Velimirović (Vladimir Maksimović: Belgrade 1996), page 36.
- Subotic, D., Episkop Nikolaj i Pravoslavni Bogomoljacki Pokret (Nova Iskra, beograd 1996), p. 195 et al. Also Byford, J, "Potiskivanje i poricanje antisemtizma", Helsinški odbor za ljudska prava, Beograd, Ogledi, Br. 6, p. 33 and Martić, M., 1980, "Dimitrije Ljotić and the Yugoslav National Movement Zbor, 1935-1945" in "East European Quarterly," Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 219-39.
- Popov, N. (1993) Srpski populizam od marginalne do dominantne pojave. (Serbian populism from a marginal to a dominant phenomenon). Vreme 133:1–35. More on Velimirović and Ljotić also in Cohen, P., Riesman, D, Serbia's Secret War: Propaganda and the Deceit of History (Texas A&M University Press 1997), Chapter I, page 21 (also note 95), page 26, page 59
- Janković, M., Vladika Nikolaj: život, misao i delo, (Bishop Nikolaj: his life, thought and work). 3 vols. (Valjevo: Eparhija Šabačko–Valjevska 2002)
- Kostić, B. (1991). Za Istoriju Naših Dana: Odlomci iz zapisa za vreme okupacije (For the history of our days: extracts from a diary at the time of the occupation). Beograd: Nova Iskra and Subotić, D. (1993). Pravoslavlje između Istoka i Zapada u bogoslovnoj misli Nikolaja Velimirovića i Justina Popovića [Orthodoxy between East and West in the religious thought of Nikolaj Velimirović and Justin Popović]. In Čovek i Crkva u Vrtlogu Krize: Šta nam nudi pravoslavlje danas? [Man and Church in the vortex of crisis: What can Orthodoxy offer us today?], ed. G. Živković. Valjevo: Glas Crkve.
- Jevtić, A., "Kosovska misao i opredeljenje Episkopa Nikolaja", Glas crkve, 1988, No. 3, p. 24
- "Sveštenici u koncentracionom logoru Dahau", Glasnik Srpske pravoslavne crkve - Serbian Orthodox Church Official Gazette, volume XXXVII, July 1946, p. 66-67. See also Serbia's Secret War: Propaganda and the Deceit of History (Texas A&M University Press 1997), pp. 58-60, 105-107.<ISSN/ISBN needed-->
- Radović, A. "Bogočovječanski etos Valdike Nikolaja" in Jevtić, A., Sveti Vladika Nikolaj Ohridski i Žicki (Kraljevo, Žiča 2003)
- Bogdanovic, M, Knjizevene Kritike I (Beograd 1931), p. 78.
- Djordjevic, M, "Povratak propovednika", Republika No. 143-144, July 1996.
- "Saint Nicodemos Publications". Saintnicodemos.org. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
- "Galatians 1 KJV". Biblehub.com. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
- Cleopa, Elder. "On Holy Tradition: Ch. 3 from The Truth of Our Faith". Orthodoxinfo.com. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
Sources [ edit ]
- Vuković, Sava (1998). History of the Serbian Orthodox Church in America and Canada 1891–1941. Kragujevac: Kalenić.
- Byford, J.T. (2004). Canonisation of Bishop Nikolaj Velimirović and the legitimisation of religious anti-Semitism in contemporary Serbian society. East European Perspectives, 6 (3)
- Byford, J.T. (2004). From ‘Traitor’ to ‘Saint’ in Public Memory: The Case of Serbian Bishop Nikolaj Velimirović. Analysis of Current Trends in Antisemitism series (ACTA), No.22.
- Byford, J.T. "Canonizing the 'Prophet' of antisemitism: the apotheosis of bishop Nikolaj Velimirović and the legitimation of religious anti-semitism in contemporary Serbian society", RFE/RL Report, 18 February 2004, Volume 6, Number 4
- Byford, Jovan (2011). "Bishop Nikolaj Velimirović: "lackey of the Germans" or a "Victim of Fascism"?". In Ramet, Sabrina P.; Listhaug, Ola (eds.). Serbia and the Serbs in World War Two. London: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 128–152. ISBN 978-0-230-27830-1.
- Cohen, Philip J. (1996). Serbia's Secret War: Propaganda and the Deceit of History. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 978-0-89096-760-7.
[ edit ]
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| Bishop of Žiča
Chrysostom (Kavourides), Metropolitan of Pelagonia
| Bishop of Ohrid
Eparchy of Ohrid merged with Bitola
Eparchies of Ohrid and Bitola merged in 1931
| Bishop of Ohrid and Bitola
| Bishop of Žiča