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Portal:Chemistry

Introduction

An oil painting of a chemist (by Henrika Šantel in 1932).

Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with elements and compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other substances.

In the scope of its subject, chemistry occupies an intermediate position between physics and biology. It is sometimes called the central science because it provides a foundation for understanding both basic and applied scientific disciplines at a fundamental level. For example, chemistry explains aspects of plant chemistry (botany), the formation of igneous rocks (geology), how atmospheric ozone is formed and how environmental pollutants are degraded (ecology), the properties of the soil on the moon (astrophysics), how medications work (pharmacology), and how to collect DNA evidence at a crime scene (forensics).

Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. There are four types of chemical bonds: covalent bonds, in which compounds share one or more electron(s); ionic bonds, in which a compound donates one or more electrons to another compound to produce ions (cations and anions); hydrogen bonds; and Van der Waals force bonds.

Selected article

A scattering of round-brilliant cut diamonds shows off the many reflecting facets.
Diamond is the hardest known natural material (third-hardest known material after aggregated diamond nanorods and ultrahard fullerite), and is an allotrope of carbon. A diamond is a transparent crystal of tetrahedrally bonded carbon atoms. Diamonds have been adapted for many uses because of the material's exceptional physical characteristics. Most notable are its extreme hardness of diamond, its high dispersion index, and high thermal conductivity.

Subcategories

History and Philosophy of Chemistry

Many chemists have an interest in the history of chemistry. Those with philosophical interests will be interested that the philosophy of chemistry has quite recently developed along a path somewhat different from the general philosophy of science.

Other articles that might interest you are:

There is a Wikipedia Project on the History of Science.

Chemistry Resources

Wikipedia:WikiProject Chemicals/Data is a collection of links and references that are useful for chemistry-related works. This includes free online chemical databases, publications, patents, computer programs, and various tools.

unit-conversion.info A good place to figure out what equals what.

General Chemistry Online Clear text and comprehensive coverage of general chemistry topics by Fred Senese, Dept. of Chemistry Frostburg State University

General Chemistry Demonstration at Purdue Video clips (and descriptions) of lecture demonstrations.

Chemistry Webercises Directory A large listing of chemistry resources maintained by Steven Murov, Emeritus Chemistry Professor Modesto Junior College.

MathMol MathMol (Mathematics and Molecules) is a good starting point for those interested in the field of molecular modeling.

ABC-Chemistry A directory of free full-text journals in chemistry, biochemistry and related subjects.

The Element Song A goofy little song about all of the elements.

Selected image

Credit: Gregory Phillips

Labradorite ((Ca,Na)(Al,Si)4O8) is a feldspar mineral of the plagioclase series. Here, a piece of labradorite displays a typical iridescence, termed labradorescence, caused by the refraction of light within the crystal. Gemstone varieties of labradorite exhibit high degrees of iridescence, and are called spectrolites, moonstones or sunstones.

Selected biography

Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff
Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff (1852-1911) was a Dutch physical and organic chemist, and recipient of the inaugural Nobel Prize for Chemistry. His first major findings accounted for the phenomenon of optical activity by assuming that the chemical bonds between carbon atoms and their neighbors were directed towards the corners of a regular tetrahedron. This three-dimensional structure perfectly accounted for the isomers found in nature (stereochemistry). He shares credit for this idea with the French chemist Joseph Le Bel, who independently came up with the same idea. He received the first Nobel Prize for his work on relating the behaviour of solutions to that displayed by gases.

Techniques used by chemists

Equipment used by chemists

Chemistry in society

Chemistry in industry

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Topics

Periodic Table

Group 1 2 3   4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Alkali metals Alkaline earth metals Pnicto­gens Chal­co­gens Halo­gens Noble gases
Period

1

Hydro­gen 1 H 1.008 He­lium 2 He 4.0026
2 Lith­ium 3 Li 6.94 Beryl­lium 4 Be 9.0122 Boron 5 B 10.81 Carbon 6 C 12.011 Nitro­gen 7 N 14.007 Oxy­gen 8 O 15.999 Fluor­ine 9 F 18.998 Neon 10 Ne 20.180
3 So­dium 11 Na 22.990 Magne­sium 12 Mg 24.305 Alumin­ium 13 Al 26.982 Sili­con 14 Si 28.085 Phos­phorus 15 P 30.974 Sulfur 16 S 32.06 Chlor­ine 17 Cl 35.45 Argon 18 Ar 39.95
4 Potas­sium 19 K 39.098 Cal­cium 20 Ca 40.078 Scan­dium 21 Sc 44.956 Tita­nium 22 Ti 47.867 Vana­dium 23 V 50.942 Chrom­ium 24 Cr 51.996 Manga­nese 25 Mn 54.938 Iron 26 Fe 55.845 Cobalt 27 Co 58.933 Nickel 28 Ni 58.693 Copper 29 Cu 63.546 Zinc 30 Zn 65.38 Gallium 31 Ga 69.723 Germa­nium 32 Ge 72.630 Arsenic 33 As 74.922 Sele­nium 34 Se 78.971 Bromine 35 Br 79.904 Kryp­ton 36 Kr 83.798
5 Rubid­ium 37 Rb 85.468 Stront­ium 38 Sr 87.62 Yttrium 39 Y 88.906 Zirco­nium 40 Zr 91.224 Nio­bium 41 Nb 92.906 Molyb­denum 42 Mo 95.95 Tech­netium 43 Tc ​[97] Ruthe­nium 44 Ru 101.07 Rho­dium 45 Rh 102.91 Pallad­ium 46 Pd 106.42 Silver 47 Ag 107.87 Cad­mium 48 Cd 112.41 Indium 49 In 114.82 Tin 50 Sn 118.71 Anti­mony 51 Sb 121.76 Tellur­ium 52 Te 127.60 Iodine 53 I 126.90 Xenon 54 Xe 131.29
6 Cae­sium 55 Cs 132.91 Ba­rium 56 Ba 137.33 Lan­thanum 57 La 138.91 1 asterisk Haf­nium 72 Hf 178.49 Tanta­lum 73 Ta 180.95 Tung­sten 74 W 183.84 Rhe­nium 75 Re 186.21 Os­mium 76 Os 190.23 Iridium 77 Ir 192.22 Plat­inum 78 Pt 195.08 Gold 79 Au 196.97 Mer­cury 80 Hg 200.59 Thallium 81 Tl 204.38 Lead 82 Pb 207.2 Bis­muth 83 Bi 208.98 Polo­nium 84 Po ​[209] Asta­tine 85 At ​[210] Radon 86 Rn ​[222]
7 Fran­cium 87 Fr ​[223] Ra­dium 88 Ra ​[226] Actin­ium 89 Ac ​[227] 1 asterisk Ruther­fordium 104 Rf ​[267] Dub­nium 105 Db ​[268] Sea­borgium 106 Sg ​[269] Bohr­ium 107 Bh ​[270] Has­sium 108 Hs ​[269] Meit­nerium 109 Mt ​[278] Darm­stadtium 110 Ds ​[281] Roent­genium 111 Rg ​[282] Coper­nicium 112 Cn ​[285] Nihon­ium 113 Nh ​[286] Flerov­ium 114 Fl ​[289] Moscov­ium 115 Mc ​[290] Liver­morium 116 Lv ​[293] Tenness­ine 117 Ts ​[294] Oga­nesson 118 Og ​[294]
1 asterisk Cerium 58 Ce 140.12 Praseo­dymium 59 Pr 140.91 Neo­dymium 60 Nd 144.24 Prome­thium 61 Pm ​[145] Sama­rium 62 Sm 150.36 Europ­ium 63 Eu 151.96 Gadolin­ium 64 Gd 157.25 Ter­bium 65 Tb 158.93 Dyspro­sium 66 Dy 162.50 Hol­mium 67 Ho 164.93 Erbium 68 Er 167.26 Thulium 69 Tm 168.93 Ytter­bium 70 Yb 173.05 Lute­tium 71 Lu 174.97  
1 asterisk Thor­ium 90 Th 232.04 Protac­tinium 91 Pa 231.04 Ura­nium 92 U 238.03 Neptu­nium 93 Np ​[237] Pluto­nium 94 Pu ​[244] Ameri­cium 95 Am ​[243] Curium 96 Cm ​[247] Berkel­ium 97 Bk ​[247] Califor­nium 98 Cf ​[251] Einstei­nium 99 Es ​[252] Fer­mium 100 Fm ​[257] Mende­levium 101 Md ​[258] Nobel­ium 102 No ​[259] Lawren­cium 103 Lr ​[266]

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Sources

  1. ^ Meija, Juris; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305.
  2. ^ IUPAC 2016, Table 2, 3 combined; uncertainty removed.

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