The relationship between power and knowledge has been always a central theme in the social sciences. From a political economy perspective, Harold Innis extensively wrote on the "monopoly of knowledge", in which empires over the history exploited information and communication resources to produce exclusive knowledge and power. In sociology, the French philosopher Michel Foucault has contributed to the popularity of the term 'Power-knowledge' (French: le savoir-pouvoir).
Definition [ edit ]
According to Foucault's understanding of power, power is based on knowledge and makes use of knowledge; on the other hand, power reproduces knowledge by shaping it in accordance with its anonymous intentions. Power (re-) creates its own fields of exercise through knowledge.
Foucault incorporates this inevitable mutuality into his neologism power-knowledge, the most important part of which is the hyphen that links the two aspects of the integrated concept together (and alludes to their inherent inextricability).
It is helpful noting that Foucault has a textual understanding of both power and knowledge. Both power and knowledge are to be seen as de-centralised, relativistic, ubiquitous, and unstable (dynamic) systemic phenomena. Thus Foucault's concept of power draws on micro-relations without falling into reductionism because it does not neglect, but emphasizes, the systemic (or structural) aspect of the phenomenon. However, he does not actually define knowledge.
History of the term [ edit ]
In his 1934 play ‘The Rock’ T. S. Eliot wrote: ‘Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge? Where is the knowledge we have lost in information?’. This division between information, knowledge and wisdom inspired many generation of information scientists later on.
Modern developments [ edit ]
While in most of the 20th century the term ‘knowledge’ has been closely associated with power, in the last decades ‘information’ has become a central term as well. With the growing use of big-data, information is increasingly seen as the means to generate useful knowledge and power.
One of the recently developed model, known as the Volume and Control Model, describes how information is capitalized by global corporations and transforms into economic power. Volume is defined as the informational resources—the amount and diversity of information and the people producing it. Control is the ability to channel the interaction between information and people through two competing mechanisms: popularization (information relevant to most people), and personalization (information relevant to each individual person).
According to this understanding, knowledge is never neutral, as it determines force relations. The notion of power-knowledge is therefore likely to be employed in critical, normative contexts. One example of the implications of power-knowledge is Google’s monopoly of knowledge, its PageRank algorithm, and its inevitable commercial and cultural biases around the world, which are based on the volume and control principles. A recent study shows, for example, the commercial implications of Google Images algorithm, as all search results for the term 'beauty' in different languages predominantly yield images of white young females.
References [ edit ]
- Segev, Elad (2019-09-05). "Volume and control: the transition from information to power". Journal of Multicultural Discourses. 14 (3): 240–257. doi:10.1080/17447143.2019.1662028. ISSN 1744-7143.
- Innis, Harold A., 1894-1952. (2007). Empire and communications. Watson, A. John (Alexander John), 1948-. Toronto [Ont.]: Dundurn Press. ISBN 9781550026627. OCLC 605708272. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Foucault, Michel, 1926-1984. (2008). The history of sexuality. Penguin. ISBN 9780141037646. OCLC 709809777. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Bates, Marcia (2005). "Information and knowledge: an evolutionary framework for information science". Information Research. 10.
- Eliot, Thomas Stearns (1952). Choruses from 'The Rock'. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Company. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-57-121385-6.
- Rowley, Jennifer (April 2007). "The wisdom hierarchy: representations of the DIKW hierarchy". Journal of Information Science. 33 (2): 163–180. doi:10.1177/0165551506070706. ISSN 0165-5515.
- Lash, Scott. (2002). Critique of information. London: SAGE. ISBN 9781847876522. OCLC 654641948.