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Premier of the Soviet Union

Premier of the Soviet Union

Глава Правительства СССР
State Emblem of the Soviet Union.svg
Residence Kremlin Senate, Moscow
Formation 6 July 1923
First holder Vladimir Lenin
Final holder Ivan Silayev
Abolished 26 December 1991
Succession Prime Minister of the Russian Federation

The Premier of the Soviet Union (Russian: Глава Правительства СССР) was the head of government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The office had three different names throughout its existence: Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (1923–1946), Chairman of the Council of Ministers (1946–1991) and Prime Minister of the Soviet Union (1991). The term premier was used by outside commentators to describe the office of head of government.

The first Soviet government was established on 6 July 1923. The government was empowered to initiate decrees and legislation that were binding throughout the USSR.[1] After the ousting of Khrushchev in 1964, Kosygin was appointed head of government. However, Kosygin's prestige was weakened when he proposed the economic reform of 1965.[2] Upon Valentin Pavlov's ascension to the premiership, the Council of Ministers was abolished and replaced with the Cabinet of Ministers. After the failed August coup of 1991 and the revelation that the majority of the cabinet members endorsed the coup, the Cabinet of Ministers was dissolved and replaced by the Committee on the Operational Management of the Soviet economy in 1991. The government of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic began seizing Soviet ministries in the aftermath of the coup, and by December 1991 the Soviet government had lost control.[3]

Under the 1977 Soviet Constitution, the head of government was the leader of the highest executive and administrative organ of state. It functioned as the most influential office of government until the establishment of the Office of the President of the Soviet Union in 1990. The head of government was responsible and accountable to the Supreme Soviet (and its Presidium).[4] The head of government was tasked with resolving all state administrative duties within the jurisdiction of the USSR to the degree which were not the responsibility of the Supreme Soviet or its Presidium. The head of government managed the national economy, formulated the five-year plans and ensured socio-cultural development.[5]

Twelve individuals became head of government. Of these, two died in office of natural causes (Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin), three resigned (Alexei Kosygin, Nikolai Tikhonov and Ivan Silayev) and three held the offices of party secretary and head of government concurrently (Stalin and Nikita Khrushchev). Lenin was elected the first head of government on 6 July 1923 by a decision of the Central Executive Committee. Ivan Silayev spent the briefest time in office at 126 days. At more than 16 years, Kosygin spent the longest time in office.

Officeholders [ edit ]

[a] Portrait Name

(Born-Died)
Term Electorate Cabinets Ref.
Took office Left office Duration
1 Vladimir Lenin

(1870–1924)
6 July 1923 21 January 1924 † 199 days Lenin III [6]
2 Alexei Rykov

(1881–1938)
2 February 1924 19 December 1930 6 years, 320 days 1924

1925

1927

1929
Rykov IIIIIIIVV [7]
3 Vyacheslav Molotov

(1890–1986)
19 December 1930 6 May 1941 10 years, 138 days 1931

1935

1936

1937
Molotov IIIIIIIV [8]
4 Joseph Stalin

(1878–1953)
6 May 1941 5 March 1953 † 11 years, 303 days 1946

1950
Stalin IIIIII [9]
5 Georgy Malenkov

(1902–1988)
6 March 1953 8 February 1955 1 year, 339 days 1954 Malenkov III [10]
6 Nikolai Bulganin

(1895–1975)
8 February 1955 27 March 1958 3 years, 47 days 1958 Bulganin [11]
7 Nikita Khrushchev

(1894–1971)
27 March 1958 14 October 1964 6 years, 201 days 1962 Khrushchev III [10]
8 Alexei Kosygin

(1904–1980)
15 October 1964 23 October 1980 16 years, 8 days 1966

1970

1974

1979
Kosygin IIIIIIIVV [12]
9 Nikolai Tikhonov

(1905–1997)
23 October 1980 27 September 1985 4 years, 339 days 1984 Tikhonov III [13]
10 Nikolai Ryzhkov

(born 1929)
27 September 1985 14 January 1991 5 years, 109 days 1989 Ryzhkov III [13]
11 Valentin Pavlov

(1937–2003)
14 January 1991 22 August 1991 220 days Pavlov [14]
12 Ivan Silayev

(born 1930)
6 September 1991 26 December 1991 111 days Silayev [15]

See also [ edit ]

Notes [ edit ]

  1. ^ These numbers are not official.

References [ edit ]

Citations [ edit ]

  1. ^ Центральный Исполнительный Комитет съезда Советов. Статья №38 от Декабрь 1977 «Суверенные права союзных республик». (Central Executive Committee of the Congress of Soviets. Article #38 of December 1924 Sovereign Rights of the Member Republics. ).
  2. ^ Brown 2009, p. 403.
  3. ^ Ferdinand 1993, p. 133.
  4. ^ Верховный Совет СССР. Федеральный конституционный закон №130 от 7 октября 1977 «Совета Министров СССР». (Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. Article #130 of 7 October 1977 The Council of Ministers of the USSR. ).
  5. ^ Верховный Совет СССР. Федеральный конституционный закон №131 от 7 октября 1977 «Совета Министров СССР». (Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. Article #131 of 7 October 1977 The Council of Ministers of the USSR. ).
  6. ^ Cull, Culbert & Welch 2003, p. 182.
  7. ^ Phillips 2000, p. 82.
  8. ^ Phillips 2000, p. 89.
  9. ^ Totten & Bartrop 2008, p. 76.
  10. ^ a b Duiker & Spielvogel 2006, p. 572.
  11. ^ Trahair & Miller 2004, p. 69.
  12. ^ Trahair & Miller 2004, p. 37.
  13. ^ a b Ploss 2010, p. 219.
  14. ^ Валентин Сергеевич Павлов [Valentin Sergeyevich Pavlov] (in Russian). RU: Hrono. Retrieved 6 December 2010.
  15. ^ Иван Степанович Силаев [Ivan Stepanovich Silayev] (in Russian). RU: Hrono. Retrieved 6 December 2010.

Sources [ edit ]

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