Renfe Operadora

Renfe Operadora
State-owned enterprise
Industry Rail transport
Founded 24 January 1941
Headquarters ,
Key people
Julio Gómez-Pomar Rodríguez (CEO),

Enrique Peña Pérez,

Manuel Fresno Castro,

José Luis Marroquín
Products Rail transport, Freight
Revenue Increase €3.979 billion (2018)[1]
Increase €111 million (2018)
Owner Government of Spain (100%)
Number of employees
Decrease 13,720 (2018)[2]
Subsidiaries Renfe Cercancías
RENFE logo used from 1972 until 1989.
RENFE logo used from 2000 until 2005.
AVE Class 100 train at Córdoba station.
Trains at Santa Justa station Seville.

Renfe Operadora (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈreɱfe opeɾaˈðoɾa]) is the state-owned company which operates freight and passenger trains on the 1,668 mm (5 ft 5 2132 in) Iberian gauge, the 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge and the 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) metre gauge networks of the Spanish national railway infrastructure company Adif (Administrador de Infraestructuras Ferroviarias—Railway Infrastructure Administration).

History [ edit ]

The name "Renfe" is derived from that of the former Spanish National Railway Network, RENFE (acronym of Red Nacional de los Ferrocarriles Españoles—National Network of Spanish Railways) created on 24 January 1941 with the nationalisation of Spain's railways. As per EU Directive 91/440, RENFE was divided into Renfe-Operadora (operations) and ADIF (infrastructure) on 1 January 2005. At the same time, the existing RENFE double-arrowed logo (nicknamed the "galleta", Spanish for biscuit), first introduced in 1971 and given a facelift in 1983, with a sans-serif font, and again in 2000, with a mixed-case italic font, has been replaced by a dark purple lower-case wordmark designed by Interbrand, and also replaces some of the separate logos used by the other sectors, although the old RENFE logo remains in use in some stations in Spain and on maps to indicate an ADIF station.

The Railway Sector Act, 2003 separated the management, maintenance and construction of rail infrastructure from train operation. The first activity is now the responsibility of Administrador de Infraestructuras Ferroviarias (ADIF), the legal successor of RENFE, while the newly created Renfe-Operadora (commercial name "Renfe Operadora" or simply "Renfe") owns the rolling stock and remains responsible for the planning, marketing and operation of passenger and freight services (though no longer with a legal monopoly).[3]

Renfe Operadora inherited the management model of the business units of the old RENFE, which made Renfe Operadora responsible for the operation of the following passenger and freight services. In January 2006, Renfe Operadora restructured the main business units into four:

  • Dirección General de Servicios Públicos de Cercanías y Media Distancia (General Public Utilities Directorate for Suburban and Medium Distance): responsible for commuter services (Cercanías), medium-distance high-speed rail AVE services and medium-range regional services (es:Regionales and es:Media Distancia). However, control of some Cercanías services were transferred to Spain's Autonomous communities.
  • Dirección General de Servicios de Larga Distancia (General Directorate of Long Distance Services): responsible for long-distance intercity and high-speed rail services (except medium-distance AVE services and Media Distancia, which is managed by the above business unit).
  • Dirección General de Servicios de Mercancías y Logística (General Directorate for Freight and Logistics Services): responsible for freight services.
  • Dirección General de Fabricación y Mantenimiento (General Directorate of Manufacturing and Maintenance): responsible for rolling stock maintenance and manufacture (also known as Integria)

The Spanish state railways are currently engaged in a transformation and modernisation project.[citation needed] Key to this effort is a major overhaul of their out-dated ICT (information and communication technology) systems through an ICT renewal project scheduled for completion at the end of 2010 under the responsibility of Corporate Director of Information Systems Óscar Gómez Barbero. So far, the company has introduced improvements to their internet ticket sales and adopted new ICT management practices within a "more industrial" organisational model, though Mr. Gomez has publicly acknowledged the difficulties in transforming what still remains a very hierarchical organisation.

Structure [ edit ]

In June 2013, Renfe's board agreed to restructure the organisation into four separate companies, responsible for:

  • Operating passenger trains;
  • Freight;
  • Rolling stock maintenance;
  • Train leasing

These four would be underneath a single holding company.[4][5]

Figures [ edit ]

Figures[6] 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Passengers (Mio.)[7] 527.975 517.583 510.176 476.334 463.012 476.917 472.145 466.057 464.961 465.201 471.359 487.881 507.088 510.453
Passenger-kilometer (Mio.) 20.480 20.167 22.281 21.895 21.166 21.585 21.319 22.563 23.754 24.825 25.291 26.060 26.931 27.263
AVE Passengers (Tsd.) 4.878 5.559 11.461 11.250 10.851 12.563 12.101 14.697 17.967 19.428 20.352 21.108 21.332 22.370
AVE Passenger-kilometer (Tsd.) 1.884 2.161 4.888 5.260 5.171 5.846 5.793 7.095 8.038 9.230 9.632 10.267 10.289 10.760

Operations [ edit ]

Map of the Spanish rail network in 2019, with colour-coded track types. Renfe Operadora operates on broad (red) and standard (black) gauge lines.
A Renfe train ticket

The company operates some 12,000 km (7,500 mi) of railways, 7,000 km (4,300 mi) of them electrified. Most of the tracks are constructed to the broad "Iberian gauge" of 1,668 mm (5 ft 5 2132 in), the same as that used in Portugal but wider than the international gauge of 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) which is standard in neighbouring France, most of western and central Europe, and most of the rest of the world. The newer high-speed (AVE) network has been built to the international standard gauge of 1,435 mm for the connection to the rest of the European railway system. For this reason, the 1,435 mm gauge is generally termed "European gauge" in Spain.

The Spanish high-speed system is called AVE (Alta Velocidad Española, meaning "Spanish High Speed"). The logo incorporates a feature which resembles a bird (ave in Spanish). The high-speed lines are built to the standard European gauge (1,435 mm or 4 ft 8 12 in).

Construction of the high-speed rail line between Madrid and Seville began in 1988 and operation commenced in 1991. Train speed on the Seville line is 300 km/h (190 mph). The second high-speed rail line (Madrid to Barcelona) was completed in 2007 with the inaugural service commencing at 06:00 on 20 February 2008. The operational speed on this route is 350 km/h (220 mph). The greater part of the line (Madrid to Lleida) was placed into service on 11 October 2003, with connection to Huesca from Zaragoza. The third high-speed line (Madrid to Toledo) was opened in November 2005, followed by the spur from Córdoba to Málaga as far as Antequera in 2007. Another high-speed route from Madrid to Valladolid was opened in 2007, the line from Madrid to Valencia was opened in 2010 and the first stage of the high-speed line in Galicia opened in 2011. A line to Lisbon is being designed.

Other lines operated by Renfe include Euromed, a moderate-speed line between Barcelona and Alicante.

In addition to intercity transport, Renfe operates commuter train systems, known as Cercanías (or Rodalies in Catalonia and Cercanías-Aldirikoak in the Basque Country), in eleven metropolitan areas, including Madrid and Barcelona. In some cities, Renfe shares the market with other commuter railway operators, such as FGC in Barcelona.

Passenger rolling stock [ edit ]

Renfe Operadora utilises the following rolling stock and commercial products inside of its two divisions:

Suburban and Medium Distance (DGSPCMD) [ edit ]

Renfe 447 EMU with the orange Rodalies livery.

Cercanías (commuter rail) [ edit ]

Rolling stock Metropolitan area Image
RENFE Class 442 EMU Madrid Cercanias-madrid-c9-line-train-cotos.jpg
RENFE Class 446 EMU Bilbao


San Sebastián

Hugh llewelyn 180 (5553135644).jpg
RENFE Class 447 EMU Barcelona





447 en Vilajuiga.jpg
RENFE Class 450/451 EMU Barcelona

S3318 Bf Barcelona Francia, 450 040.jpg
Civia EMU Asturias







Mollet - 2011-07-13 4 - JTCurses.jpg
RENFE Class 592 DMU Valencia


RENFE 592 - Valencia-Sant Isidre - 2014-08-13.jpg
Zamora train station
Toledo station
Atocha station, Madrid
Estació del Nord, Valencia

Medium Distance [ edit ]

Rolling stock Route(s) Image
RENFE Class 440/470 EMU (to be phased out) Córdoba – Rabanales

León – Ponferrada – Vigo

León – Gijón

Valladolid – Santander

Valladolid – Ávila

Valladolid – León

Valencia − Barcelona

Valencia − Alicante
RENFE 470 - Valencia Nord - 2014-07-29.jpg
RENFE Class 447 EMU Barcelona 447 en Vilajuiga.jpg
RENFE Class 448 EMU Catalunya

Barcelona-EF - 2014-01-31 2 - JTCurses.jpg
RENFE Class 449 EMU Madrid – Jaén

León – Ponferrada – Orense – Vigo

Sevilla – Cádiz

Barcelona – Girona – Figueres – Portbou

Huelva – Sevilla

Jaén – Córdoba – Sevilla – Cadiz

Madrid − Alcázar de San Juan − Albacete

Madrid − Alcázar de San Juan − Ciudad Real

Alicante – Albacete – Ciudad Real

Madrid − León

Madrid – Vitoria

Vitoria – Irun

Córdoba – Bobadilla

Barcelona – Reus

Barcelona – Tortosa
449 Madrid-Vitoria.jpg
RENFE Class 592 DMU (to be phased out) Madrid – Cuenca – Valencia

Madrid – Talavera

Murcia – Cartagena

Valencia − Alcoi


Oporto - Vigo (Service CP)
J23 435 Bf Lorca Sutullena, 592 xxx.jpg
RENFE Class 594 DMU Valladolid – Zamora – Puebla de Sanabria

A Coruña – Ferrol

A Coruña – Lugo – Monforte de Lemos - Ourense

Madrid – Soria

Murcia – Cartagena
Renfe Class 594 reformado.JPG
RENFE Class 596 DMU Murcia – Cartagena

Orense – Monforte de Lemos

Zaragoza – Canfranc

Vigo - Valença
J21 032 Bf Sabiñánigo, 596 019.jpg
RENFE Class 598 DMU Madrid – Badajoz

Huelva – Zafra

Sevilla – Mérida
RENFE Class 599 DMU A Coruña – Vigo Guixar

Salamanca – Ávila – Madrid

Zaragoza – Salamanca

Salamanca – Palencia

Valencia – Cartagena

Zaragoza – Valencia

Zaragoza – Cartagena

Sevilla – Málaga

Sevilla – Almería

Granada – Algeciras

Málaga – Ronda

Granada – Linares

Madrid − Águilas
599 aparcado en apartadero de Valladolid.jpg
RENFE Class 104 EMU (High-speed) Madrid – Toledo

Madrid – Ciudad Real

Sevilla – Córdoba

Barcelona – Camp De Tarragona

Zaragoza – Calatayud
S1860a Bf Córdoba, 9 104 905.jpg
RENFE Class 114 EMU (High-speed) Madrid – Valladolid

Barcelona – Lleida
Serie 114 de Renfe en Valladolid-Campo Grande.jpg
RENFE Class 121 EMU (High-speed) Cádiz – Jaén

A Coruña – Ourense

A Coruña – Vigo Urzaiz

Madrid – Ponferrada


Madrid – Gandia

RN 120-6051.JPG

Long Distance (DGSLD) [ edit ]

Main Line and long-distance services
Service Rolling stock Route(s) Image
Altaria RENFE Class 334 locomotive

+ Talgo IV cars
Madrid – Algeciras

Madrid – Granada

Madrid – Murcia – Cartagena
Altaria a Cartagena.jpg
Talgo RENFE Class 252/334 locomotive

+ Talgo VI cars
Madrid – Almería

Barcelona – Murcia – Cartagena/Lorca

Torre del Oro:

Barcelona – Valencia – Sevilla
252061 Renfe Talgo - Ulldecona - 2013-01-03 Andres Gomez.jpg
Intercity (Talgo) Renfe Class 252 locomotive

+ Talgo VI cars
Madrid – Valencia Talgo Mar Nostrum por Figueras.jpg
Intercity (Arco) Renfe Class 334/252 locomotive

and Series 2000 cars (Arco)
A Coruña - Hendaye

Vigo - Bilbao
Trenhotel (sleeper service) RENFE Class 252/334 locomotive

+ Talgo sleeper cars

Barcelona – A Coruña

Barcelona – Vigo

Rías Gallegas:

Madrid – Pontevedra


Madrid – A Coruña - Ferrol


Madrid – Lisbon[1]


Hendaye – Lisbon[2]
Trenhotel entrando na estación de Guillarei 03-2016.jpg
High-speed long-distance services
Service Rolling stock Route(s) Image
AVE RENFE Class 100 EMU Madrid – Sevilla

Madrid – Alicante

Madrid – Marseille[3]

Barcelona – Toulouse[4]

Barcelona – Lyon[5]
AVE en Sevilla, en la estación de Santa Justa, tren Serie 100 de Renfe.JPG
RENFE Class 102 EMU Madrid – Huesca

Madrid – Zaragoza

Madrid – Valladolid

Madrid – Málaga

Valencia – Sevilla
RENFE Class 103 EMU Madrid – Barcelona

Madrid – Málaga
RENFE Class 112 EMU Madrid – Cuenca – Valencia

Madrid – Cuenca – Albacete

Madrid – León

Barcelona – Málaga

Barcelona – Zaragoza

Barcelona – Sevilla
Tren AVE, en la estación de Valencia, España, Serie 112 de Renfe.JPG

(mixed high-speed &

conventional service)
RENFE Class 120/121 EMU Madrid – Pamplona

Madrid – Logroño

Madrid – Irún/Hendaya

Madrid – Bilbao

Barcelona – Irún

Barcelona – Bilbao

Barcelona – Pamplona

Barcelona – Valladolid
RN 120-6051.JPG
RENFE Class 130 EMU Madrid – Gijón

Madrid – Santander

Alicante – Gijón

Alicante – Santander

Madrid – Cádiz

Madrid – Huelva

Madrid – Valencia – Castellón

Madrid – Valencia – Gandía

Barcelona – A Coruña

Barcelona – Vigo

Barcelona – Gijón
Renfe clase 130.JPG
RENFE Class 730 HMU Alicante – Madrid – Pontevedra

Alicante – Madrid – A Coruña

Madrid – Ferrol

Madrid – Pontevedra

Madrid – Ponferrada

Serie 730 de Renfe - 1.jpg
AVE City RENFE Class 104 EMU

RENFE Class 121 EMU
Valencia – Málaga

Madrid – Sevilla

Madrid – León
Zaragoza - Delicias 6 - Alvia.JPG

(medium-high-speed service)
RENFE Class 130 EMU Barcelona – Valencia – Alicante 130-07 en el Cambiador de Valdestillas.jpg

Class numbers [ edit ]

All classes are designated by three numbers. The first digit has a special meaning:

See also [ edit ]

Notes [ edit ]

1.^ Operated by CP in Portugal.
2.^ Managed by Elipsos under the brand Renfe-SNCF en Cooperación/en Coopération.

References [ edit ]

  1. ^ "Renfe cerró 2018 con un beneficio de 111 millones de euros" [Renfe closed 2018 with a profit of 111 million euros]. Rail Press News (in Spanish). 7 April 2019. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  2. ^ "Renfe presenta otro plan de bajas voluntarias para 2018 de hasta 805 trabajadores" [Renfe presents another voluntary leave plan for 2018 of up to 805 workers]. ABC (in Spanish). Madrid. 20 January 2018. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  3. ^ "La Nueva Renfe" [The New Renfe]. Federación Castellano Manchega de Amigos del Ferrocarril (in Spanish). 11 January 2005.
  4. ^ "RENFE restructuring approved". Railway Gazette International. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  5. ^ Puente, Fernando. "Renfe confirms four subsidiary split". International Railway Journal. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
  6. ^ "Railway Gazette". Retrieved 11 June 2020.
  7. ^ Railway Gazette. "Railway Gazette".

External links [ edit ]

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