List of Roman civil wars and revolts
This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (November 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
3rd century BC [ edit ]
- 241 BC: Falisci revolt - revolt suppressed
2nd century BC [ edit ]
- 135–132 BC: First Servile War in Sicily - revolt suppressed
- 125 BC: Fregellae revolt - revolt suppressed
- 104–100 BC: Second Servile War in Sicily - revolt suppressed
1st century BC [ edit ]
- 91–88 BC: Social War, between Rome and many of its Italian allies - Roman victory.
- 88–87 BC: Sulla's first civil war (88–87 BC), between Lucius Cornelius Sulla's supporters and Gaius Marius' forces - Sullan victory.
- 82–81 BC: Sulla's second civil war between Sulla and Marius' supporters - Sullan victory.
- 82–72 BC: Sertorian War between Rome and the provinces of Hispania under the leadership of Quintus Sertorius, a supporter of Gaius Marius - Sullan victory.
- 77 BC: Lepidus' rebellion against the Sullan regime.
- 73–71 BC: Third Servile War in Italy - revolt suppressed
- 63–62 BC: Catiline Conspiracy between the Senate and the dissatisfied followers of Catiline - Senatorial victory.
- 49–45 BC: Caesar's Civil War between Julius Caesar and the Optimates initially led by Pompey the Great (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) - Caesarian victory.
- 46 BC: Revolt of the Bellovaci in north-eastern Gaul - revolt suppressed
- 44 BC: Revolt of the Allobroges in Gaul - revolt suppressed
- 44–43 BC: Post-Caesarian civil war between the Senate's army (led first by Cicero and then by Octavian) and the army of Antony, Lepidus, and their colleagues - Truce results in union of forces.
- 44–42 BC: Liberators' civil war between the Second Triumvirate and the Liberators (Brutus and Cassius, Caesar's assassins) - Triumvirate victory.
- 44–36 BC: Sicilian revolt between the Second Triumvirate (particularly Octavian and Agrippa) and Sextus Pompey, the son of Pompey - Triumvirate victory.
- 41–40 BC: Perusine War between the forces of Octavian against Lucius Antonius and Fulvia (the younger brother and wife of Mark Antony) - Octavian victory.
- 38 BC: Revolt of Aquitanian tribes - revolt suppressed by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
- 32–30 BC: Final War of the Roman Republic between Octavian and his friend and general Agrippa against Antony and Cleopatra - Octavian victory.
- 30–29 BC: Revolt of the Morini and Treveri in northern Gaul with Germanic support - revolt suppressed
- 30 BC: Revolt in the Nile delta and the Thebaid - revolt suppressed by Gaius Cornelius Gallus
- 28–27 BC: Revolt in Gallia Aquitania - revolt suppressed by Marcus Valerius Messalla Corvinus
- 13 BC: Revolt of Vologases, priest of Dionysus, in Thrace - revolt suppressed
- 11–9 BC: Revolt of southern mountain tribes in Thrace - revolt suppressed by Calpurnius Piso
- 4 BC: Revolt of Jews in Judea - revolt suppressed by Publius Quinctilius Varus
1st century [ edit ]
- 3–6: Revolt of the Gaetuli in Mauretania - revolt suppressed by Cossus Cornelius Lentulus Gaetulicus
- 6: Revolt of Judas of Galilee against Roman taxation - revolt suppressed
- 6–9: Bellum Batonianum, a great rebellion in Illyricum against Rome - revolt suppressed by Tiberius
- 14: Mutiny of the legions in Germania and Illyricum suppressed by Germanicus and Drusus Julius Caesar
- 17–24: Tacfarinas' revolt in north Africa - revolt suppressed by Publius Cornelius Dolabella
- 21: Revolt of the Treveri, Aedui, Andes (Andecavi) and Turoni under Julius Florus and Julius Sacrovir in Gaul - revolt suppressed by Gaius Silius and Gaius Calpurnius Aviola
- 21: Revolt of the Coelaletae, Odrysae and Dii in Thrace - revolt suppressed by P. Vellaeus
- 26: Revolt in Thrace - revolt suppressed by Gaius Poppaeus Sabinus
- 28: Revolt of the Frisii in the Battle of Baduhenna Wood - rebel victory
- 36: Revolt of the Cietae in Cappadocia - revolt suppressed by Marcus Trebellius
- 38: Alexandrian riots
- 40: Alexandrian riots
- 40–44: Revolt of Aedemon and Sabalus in Mauretania - revolt suppressed by Gaius Suetonius Paulinus and Gnaeus Hosidius Geta
- 42: Failed usurpation of Lucius Arruntius Camillus Scribonianus in Dalmatia
- 46: Revolt in Thrace - revolt suppressed
- 46–48: Jacob and Simon uprising in the Galilee - revolt suppressed
- 60–61: Boudica's uprising in Britain - revolt suppressed by Gaius Suetonius Paulinus
- 66–73: First Jewish–Roman War - revolt suppressed
- 68: Revolt in Gallia Lugdunensis under Gaius Julius Vindex - revolt suppressed by Lucius Verginius Rufus' army
- 68–69: The Year of the Four Emperors between various Romans following the death of Nero (AD 68). After Nero's suicide, the generals Galba, Otho, and Vitellius take the throne within months of each other. General Vespasian, who until that point was fighting the revolt in Judaea, is victorious. He founds the Flavian dynasty.
- 69: Revolt of Anicetus in Colchis - revolt suppressed by Virdius Geminus
- 69–70: Revolt of the Batavi, Treveri and Lingones in Gaul - revolt suppressed
- 79–80: Failed usurpation of Terentius Maximus, a Pseudo-Nero, in Asia
- 89: Revolt of Lucius Antonius Saturninus with two legions in Germania Superior - revolt suppressed
2nd century [ edit ]
- 115–117: Kitos War in Egypt, Cyrenaica and Cyprus - revolt suppressed
- 117: Revolt in Mauretania - revolt suppressed by Marcius Turbo
- 122: Apis riots in Alexandria
- 132–136: Bar Kokhba revolt in Judea - revolt suppressed
- 152: Revolt in Mauretania - revolt suppressed
- 153: Alexandrian riots
- 172: Revolt of the Boukoloi in Egypt - revolt suppressed by Avidius Cassius
- 175: Failed usurpation of Avidius Cassius in the eastern parts of the Roman Empire
- 185: Army mutiny in Britain suppressed by Pertinax
- 190: Two revolts in Africa suppressed by Pertinax
- 193–197: Year of the Five Emperors and subsequent civil war between the generals Septimius Severus, Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus following the assassination of Commodus (AD 192) and the subsequent murders of Pertinax and Didius Julianus (AD 193). Severus is victorious and founds the Severan dynasty.
3rd century [ edit ]
- 218: Battle of Antioch, fought between the Emperor Macrinus and his rival Elagabalus and resulting in Macrinus' downfall and his replacement by Elagabalus.
- 219: Failed usurpations of Verus and Gellius Maximus in Syria.
- 221: Failed usurpation of Seleucus, possibly in Moesia
- 227: Failed usurpation of Seius Sallustius in Rome
- 232: Failed usurpation of Taurinius in Syria.
- 235–284: Crisis of the Third Century - at least 26 claimants fought with each other to become emperor and emperors fought against usurpers, resulting in frequent civil war and breakaway Gallic Roman (260–274) and Palmyrene Empires (270–273).
- 238: Year of the Six Emperors between various generals against Maximinus Thrax and after his murder. After Gordian I and Gordian II are defeated by a pro-Maximinus Army following an attempt to overthrow the emperor, Maximinus is assassinated. Pupienus, Balbinus, and Gordian III replace him, but the former two are assassinated within months and only Gordian III survives.
- 240: Failed usurpation of Sabinianus in Mauretania
- 248–249: Failed usurpations of Jotapianus in Syria and Pacatianus in Moesia.
- 249: Emperor Philip the Arab killed and overthrown by rebels at the Battle of Verona and replaced by Decius.
- 250: Failed usurpation of Licinianus in Rome.
- 251: Failed usurpation of Titus Julius Priscus in Thrace.
- 252: Failed usurpation of Cyriades in Syria.
- 253: Usurpations of Aemilianus and Valerian: Emperors Trebonianus Gallus and Volusianus murdered by their soldiers and replaced by Aemilianus. Valerian raises the Rhine legions in revolt, while Aemilianus is killed by his own soldiers.
- 254: Failed usurpation of Uranius in Syria.
- 260: Failed usurpations of Ingenuus and Regalianus in Pannonia.
- 260–261: Failed usurpation of Macrianus Major, Macrianus Minor, Quietus and Balista in the East
- 260–274: The breakaway Gallic Roman Empire
- 261: Failed usurpations of Lucius Piso and Valens Thessalonicus in Achaea.
- 261–262: Failed usurpation of Mussius Aemilianus and Memor in Egypt.
- 268: Failed usurpation of Aureolus in the West. Emperor Gallienus murdered by his soldiers and Claudius Gothicus proclaimed Emperor.
- 270: Usurpation of Aurelian against Quintillus.
- 270–273: The breakaway Palmyrene Empire.
- 271: Failed usurpations of Felicissimus in Rome and Septimius in Dalmatia.
- 275: Aurelian murdered by the Praetorian Guard and replaced by Marcus Claudius Tacitus
- 276: Usurpation of Probus against Florianus.
- 280: Failed usurpation of Julius Saturninus in the East.
- 280–281: Failed usurpation of Proculus and Bonosus in the West.
- 283–285: Failed usurpation of Sabinus Julianus.
- 284–285: Usurpation of Diocletian against Carinus
- 284–286: Bagaudae uprising in Gaul under Aelianus and Amandus - revolt suppressed
- 286–296: Carausian Revolt under Carausius and Allectus in Britain and northern Gaul - revolt suppressed
- 293: Revolt of the towns of Busiris and Coptos in the Egyptian Thebaid - revolt suppressed by Galerius
- 297: Revolt in Egypt - suppressed by Galerius
- 297–298: Failed usurpation of Domitius Domitianus and Achilleus in Egypt
4th century [ edit ]
- 303: Failed usurpation of Eugenius in Roman Syria
- 306–324: Civil wars of the Tetrarchy, beginning with the usurpation of Maxentius and the defeat of Flavius Valerius Severus, and ending with the defeat of Licinius at the hands of Constantine I in 324 AD. The Tetrarchy established by Diocletian would break up because of these wars.
- 334: Failed usurpation of Calocaerus in Cyprus
- 337: Caesars Dalmatius and Hannibalianus killed by soldiers in a purge orchestrated by Constantius II.
- 340: Civil war, when Constans defeated Constantine II near Aquileia.
- 350–353: Roman civil war of 350–353, when Constantius II defeated the usurper Magnentius who had assassinated Constans.
- 351–352: Jewish revolt against Constantius Gallus in Syria Palaestina - revolt suppressed
- 355: Failed usurpation of Claudius Silvanus in Gaul
- 361: Usurpation of Julian the Apostate
- 365–366: Revolt of Procopius, when the Emperor Valens defeated the usurpers Procopius and Marcellus.
- 372: Failed usurpation of Theodorus in Antioch
- 372–375: Revolt of Firmus in Africa - revolt suppressed by Count Theodosius
- 383–384: Usurpation of Magnus Maximus in the west and the killing of Gratian by the general Andragathius
- 387: Tax riots against Emperor Theodosius I in Antioch.
- 387–388: Civil War of 387–388, when the Eastern Emperor Theodosius I defeated the Western Emperor Magnus Maximus.
- 390: Revolt in Thessalonica culminating in the Massacre of Thessalonica.
- 392–394: Civil War of 392–394, when the Eastern Emperor Theodosius I defeated the usurper Eugenius.
- 398: Gildonic revolt, when the Comes Gildo rebelled against the Western Emperor Honorius. The revolt was subdued by Flavius Stilicho, the magister militum of the Western Roman empire.
- 399–400: Revolt of Tribigild and Gainas in the Eastern Empire - revolt suppressed
5th century [ edit ]
- 406–413: Civil war as the usurpers Marcus, Gratian, Constantine III, Constans II (son of Constantine III), Maximus of Hispania, Priscus Attalus, Jovinus, Sebastianus and Heraclianus tried to usurp the throne of Emperor Honorius. All were defeated.
- 409–417: Bagaudae uprising in the Loire valley and Brittany
- 419–421: Revolt of Maximus in Hispania - revolt suppressed
- 423–425: Civil war, when the usurper Joannes was defeated by the army of Emperor Valentinian III.
- 427–429: Civil war, when the Comes Africae Bonifacius fought inconclusively against the Magister militum Felix. The civil war was terminated by negotiations brokered by Galla Placidia.
- 432: Civil war, when the Magister militum Flavius Aetius was defeated by the rival Magister militum Bonifacius, who died of wounds sustained in battle soon afterwards, giving Aetius full control over the Western Empire.
- 435–437: Bagaudae uprising under Tibatto in Gaul suppressed by Flavius Aetius.
- 455: Valentinian III assassinated and overthrown by Petronius Maximus.
- 455: Petronius Maximus stoned to death by mob and replaced by Avitus.
- 461: Majorian assassinated and overthrown by Ricimer.
- 468: Failed usurpation by Arvandus.
- 470: Failed usurpation by Romanus.
- 472: Anthemius overthrown by Ricimer.
- 474: Glycerius overthrown by Julius Nepos.
- 475: Julius Nepos overthrown by Orestes.
- 476: Orestes overthrown by Odoacer. Romulus Augustulus deposed, ending the Western Roman Empire.
References [ edit ]
- Kohn, George Childs, 'Dictionary of Wars, Revised Edition' (Checkmark Books, New York, 1999)