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The Seven Grievances (Manchu: ᠨᠠᡩᠠᠨ
ᡴᠣᡵᠣ nadan koro; Chinese: 七大恨; pinyin: Qī Dà Hèn) was a manifesto announced by Nurhaci, khan of the Later Jin, on the thirteenth day of the fourth lunar month in the third year of Tianming era (Chinese: 天命; 7 May 1618). It effectively declared war against the Ming dynasty.
The seven grievances are:
- The Ming killed Nurhaci's father and grandfather without reason;
- The Ming suppressed Jianzhou and favored Yehe and Hada clans;
- The Ming violated agreement of territories with Nurhaci;
- The Ming sent troops to protect Yehe against Jianzhou;
- The Ming supported Yehe to break its promise to Nurhaci;
- The Ming forced Nurhaci to give up the lands in Chaihe, Sancha and Fuan;
- The Ming's official Shang Bozhi abused his power and rode roughshod over the people.
After the announcement of the Seven Grievances, the attack on Fushun started. Han defectors played a very important role in the Qing conquest of China. Han Chinese Generals who defected to the Manchu were often given women from the Imperial Aisin Gioro family in marriage while the ordinary soldiers who defected were often given non-royal Manchu women as wives. The Manchu leader Nurhaci married one of his granddaughters to the Ming General Li Yongfang 李永芳 after he surrendered Fushun in Liaoning to the Manchu in 1618. The offspring of Li received the "Third Class Viscount" (三等子爵; sān děng zǐjué) title. In retaliation, a year later, a Ming punitive force of about 100,000 men, which included Korean and Yehe troops, approached Nurhaci's Manchus along four different routes. The Manchus scored successive victories, the most decisive being the battle of Sarhu in which Nurhaci defeated Ming dynasty and Korean troops that were far superior in numbers and armaments.
The Ming dynasty was wearied by a combination of internal strife and constant harassment by the Manchu. On May 26, 1644, Beijing fell to a peasant rebel army led by Li Zicheng. During the turmoil, the last Ming emperor hung himself on a tree in the imperial garden outside the Forbidden City. The Manchus then allied with Ming general Wu Sangui and seized control of Beijing and overthrew Li Zicheng's short-lived Shun dynasty, establishing the Qing dynasty rule in China.
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See also [ edit ]
Notes [ edit ]
- "中央研究院 兩千年中西曆轉換".
- "Seven Grievances". culture-china.com. Retrieved 2008-12-14.
- Anne Walthall (2008). Servants of the Dynasty: Palace Women in World History. University of California Press. pp. 148–. ISBN 978-0-520-25444-2. Frederic Wakeman (1 January 1977). Fall of Imperial China. Simon and Schuster. pp. 79–. ISBN 978-0-02-933680-9. Kenneth M. Swope (23 January 2014). The Military Collapse of China's Ming Dynasty, 1618-44. Routledge. pp. 13–. ISBN 978-1-134-46209-4. Frederic E. Wakeman (1985). The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth-century China. University of California Press. pp. 61–. ISBN 978-0-520-04804-1. Mark C. Elliott (2001). The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China. Stanford University Press. pp. 76–. ISBN 978-0-8047-4684-7.
- http://www.lishiquwen.com/news/7356.html "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-10-07. Retrieved 2016-06-30. CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) http://www.75800.com.cn/lx2/pAjRqK/9N6KahmKbgWLa1mRb1iyc_.html https://read01.com/aP055D.html
- Evelyn S. Rawski (15 November 1998). The Last Emperors: A Social History of Qing Imperial Institutions. University of California Press. pp. 72–. ISBN 978-0-520-92679-0.
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