Shabankara (Persian: شبانکاره, meaning 'sheperd') was an Iranian tribe. They claimed descent from the mythical Iranian king Manuchehr who had been deported to eastern Fars from Isfahan by the Buyid Shahanshah 'Adud al-Dawla (r. 949–983). The dynasty's capital was Ij (Ig) and was divided in six districts: Zarkān, Iṣṭabānān, Burk-Tārum-K̲h̲ayra, Nayrīz, Kurm-Rūnīz-Lār, and Darābd̲j̲ird. The tribe had the following subdivisions: Ismāʿīlī, the Rāmānī, the Karzuwī, the Masʿūdī and the S̲h̲akānī who were all herders and warriors.
Origin [ edit ]
Several scholars consider the Shabankara as being ethnic Kurdish. However, Potts contested their Kurdish origin and argued that "Kurd" was a generic late-Antiquity non-ethnic term for Iranian nomads. Andrew Peacock also questioned whether the Shabankara were actually Kurdish. Moreover, other modern scholars point out that during the medieval era, “Kurd” was a social label and shouldn’t be construed as an ethnic designation.
History [ edit ]
The Ramanid branch of the Shabankara rose in power with their chief Fadluya. He was the son of the Shabankara chief Ali bin al-Hassan, and rose to the ranks of the Buyid Army, in the service of Sahib-i Adil, the vizier of the Buyid king of Fars. Sahib-i Adil was put on death by the last Buyid of Fars, Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun, and Fadluya rose in rebellion after this. Abu Mansur was defeated and murdered with his mother in 1062. The Shabankara chief, now ruler of Fars, soon came into collision with the Seljuk Turks. Fadluya submitted to Qawurd, brother of sultan Alp Arslan, but afterwards revolted. Fadluya was finally captured and executed in 1071 by the Seljuk vizier Nizam al-Mulk. The Shabankara were a nuisance in the provinces of Kerman and Fars. In 1099, with the help of the son of Qawurd, Iran Shah, they defeated the wali of Fars, Amir Unar. In 1116, the Shabankara chief Abu-al Hasan Khuzraw refused to pay homenage to the new governor of Fars, Fakhr al-din Cawuli. Cawuli besieged Khuzraw in his fortress, but came on terms with him later. Khuzraw accompanied the governor in his campaigns in Kerman. In the time of the Sekjuk sultan, Mahmud II (1117-1131), the Shabankara were illtreated and revolted again, bringing great damage to the area. The founder of the Hazaraspid dynasty, Abu Tahir ibn Muhammad, defeated the Shabankara and gained great prestige for this. After collapse of Seljukids, Shabankara ruled again the area with Shahre-Idaj as their capital. In Ilkhanid era they ruled Shabankareh province centered at Darabgird.
The Shabankara chief Kutb-al din Mubariz and his brother Nizam al din Mahmud conquered Kerman in 1200 from the Oghuz Turks, but lost it to a local rebellion and an oghuzz counter-offensive. Finally the atabeg of Fars, Sad ibn Zengi defeated the Shabankara.
In 1260, the Mongol invasor Hulegu destroyed Ig and killed the Shabankara chief Muzaffar al-Din Muhammad ibn al-Mubariz in 1260. In 1312, the Shabankara rebelled against the Ilkhans but were defeated. In 1355, the Muzzafarid Mubariz al din send his son Mahmud against the chief Ardashir, who refused to follow his orders. The chief was defeated and his country was taken by the Muzzafarid. It is possible that the Shabankara has local power until 1424.
List of rulers [ edit ]
- Fadluya (1030-1078)
- Abu'l-Abbas ibn Fadluya Hasanuya (1062-1069)
- Nizam al-Din Mahmud (1068-1080)
- Mubaraz ad-Din Hazarasp (ca. 1080-ca. 1110)
- Hasanwayh I (about 1110-c. 1160)
- Mubaraz I (1160-c. 1190)
- Muhammad Muzzafar (about c.1190-1260)
- Kutb al-Din Mubariz II (1260-1261)
- Nizam al-Din Hasanwayh II (1261-1264)
- Nusrat al-Din Ibrahim (1264-1266)
- Tayyibshah (1264-1282)
- Baha al-Din Ismail (1282-1290)
- Nizam al-Din (1290-c.1310)
- Ardashir (c.1310 (?)-1355)
References [ edit ]
- Potts 2014, p. 166.
- Büchner 2012.
- Ateş 2013, p. 162.
- Spuler 2012.
- Oberling 2004.
- Qazvini 1915, pp. 137–138.
- Pott, Daniel T. Nomadism in Iran: From Antiquity to the Modern Era. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014, 166; “The Shabankara (meaning “shepherd”) of easter Fars from other “Kurds.”… are thought to have been descendants of Daylamites or of some of the “Kurds” who were deported to Fars from the area of Isfahan…”
- Peacock, Andrew. C. S. Early Seljuq History: A New Interpretation. New York: Routledge, 2010, 152; “It is questionable whether the Shabankara we’re actually Kurdish.”
- Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition, New York. https://iranicaonline.org/articles/azod-al-dawla-abu-soja, 521; “It should be remembered that “Kurd” in the sources of the 4th-5th/10th-11th centuries refers to all the transhumants of the Zagros region including the Lors (Ebn Meskawayh, Tajāreb II, pp. 383, 392; Ebn al-Aṯīr, VIII, p. 521).”
- Asatrian, Garnik. "Prolegomena to the Study of the Kurds." Iran & the Caucasus 13, no. 1 (2009): 1-57. Accessed September 2, 2020. http://www.jstor.org/stable/25597392, 27-28; “It seems, the social aspect of the term Kurd was prevalent even in the times of Sharaf Khan (16th century), who used the ("race of Kurds") to imply ethnic groups of different kinds but with similar lifestyles and social and economic setups.” p. 27-28.
- Christensen 1993, p. 316.
Sources [ edit ]
- Ateş, Sabri (2013), Ottoman-Iranian Borderlands: Making a Boundary, 1843–1914, Cambridge University Press, p. 162, ISBN 9781107245082
- Büchner, V. F. (2012), "S̲h̲abānkāra", Encyclopaedia of Islam, BRILL, doi:10.1163/2214-871X_ei1_SIM_5253, ISBN 9789004082656
- Christensen, Peter (1993), The Decline of Iranshahr: Irrigation and Environments in the History of the Middle East, 500 B.C. to A.D. 1500, Museum Tusculanum Press, pp. 1–351, ISBN 9788772892597
- Gunter, Michael M. (2009). The A to Z of the Kurds. Scarecrow Press. p. 183. ISBN 9780810863347.
- Oberling, Pierre (2004), Kurdish tribes, Iranica Online
- Potts, Daniel T. (2014), Nomadism in Iran: From Antiquity to the Modern Era, London and New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 1–558, ISBN 9780199330799 Qazvini, Hamdallah Mustawfi (1915), The Geographical Part of the Nuzhat Al Qulub, translated by Le Strange, Guy, Leiden, ISBN 9781406722734
- Spuler, B. (2012), "Faḍlawayh", Encyclopaedia of Islam, BRILL, doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_2233, ISBN 9789004161214
Further reading [ edit ]
- Bosworth, C. E. (1975), "Iran under the Buyids", in Frye, R. N. (ed.), The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 250–305, ISBN 0-521-20093-8
- Hope, Michael (2021). "Faḍlawayh, Banū". In Fleet, Kate; Krämer, Gudrun; Matringe, Denis; Nawas, John; Rowson, Everett (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Brill Online. ISSN 1873-9830.
- Manz, Beatrice Forbes (1997), Military Manpower in Late Mongol and Timurid Iran, 3/4, Cahiers d'Asie centrale: L’héritage timouride : Iran – Asie centrale – Inde, XVe-XVIIIe siècles, pp. 43–55
- Nagel, Tilman (1990), "BUYIDS", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. IV, Fasc. 6, London u.a.: Routledge & Kegan Paul, pp. 578–586
- Brill (1993), E. J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, Bind 4, pp. 1–611, ISBN 9004097902