Wikipedia

Template:Excerpt

Template documentation [view] [edit] [history] [purge]

This template is used for transcluding part of an article into another article.

Usage [ edit ]

  • To transclude the lead section of an article, use {{Excerpt|Title of the article}}
  • To transclude a specific section (excluding the title but including any subsections) use {{Excerpt|Title of the article|Title of the section}}
  • To transclude an arbitrary piece of content, first wrap it using <section begin=Name of the fragment /> and <section end=Name of the fragment />, then transclude it using {{Excerpt|Title of the article|fragment=Name of the fragment}}

Problems with references [ edit ]

  • Sometimes the transcluded content may contain a reference with the same name as a reference in the transcluding article. This will produce a "duplicate reference name" error. To fix it, simply rename one of the references (it doesn't matter which).
  • Sometimes the transcluded content may contain a reference whose body is somewhere else in the transcluded article. This will produce an "unknown reference" error. To fix it, simply move the body of the reference to the transcluded content.

Replacing Template:Main [ edit ]

Excerpts can often be used in place of {{Main}}, after merging the content of the section into the main article. Doing so usually improves the main article as well as the section.

An efficient way to proceed is:

  1. Open the article with {{Main}} in one tab, and the main article in another (or in two screens, if you have)
  2. Edit both
  3. Copy the text of the section with {{Main}} and paste it below the introduction of the main article
  4. Delete repeated content and adjust with common sense
  5. Save the changes in the main article with an edit summary like: Merge content from [[Some article]]
  6. Back to the section with {{Main}}, delete all content and replace it for an excerpt
  7. Save the changes in the section with an edit summary like: Merge content into [[Main article]] and leave an excerpt

Examples [ edit ]

Lead section [ edit ]

{{Excerpt|Science}}
The Universe represented as multiple disk-shaped slices across time, which passes from left to right.

Science (from the Latin word scientia, meaning "knowledge")[1] is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.[2][3][4]

The earliest roots of science can be traced to Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in around 3500 to 3000 BCE.[5][6] Their contributions to mathematics, astronomy, and medicine entered and shaped Greek natural philosophy of classical antiquity, whereby formal attempts were made to provide explanations of events in the physical world based on natural causes.[5][6] After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, knowledge of Greek conceptions of the world deteriorated in Western Europe during the early centuries (400 to 1000 CE) of the Middle Ages[7] but was preserved in the Muslim world during the Islamic Golden Age.[8] The recovery and assimilation of Greek works and Islamic inquiries into Western Europe from the 10th to 13th century revived "natural philosophy",[7][9] which was later transformed by the Scientific Revolution that began in the 16th century[10] as new ideas and discoveries departed from previous Greek conceptions and traditions.[11][12][13][14] The scientific method soon played a greater role in knowledge creation and it was not until the 19th century that many of the institutional and professional features of science began to take shape;[15][16][17] along with the changing of "natural philosophy" to "natural science."[18]

Modern science is typically divided into three major branches that consist of the natural sciences (e.g., biology, chemistry, and physics), which study nature in the broadest sense; the social sciences (e.g., economics, psychology, and sociology), which study individuals and societies; and the formal sciences (e.g., logic, mathematics, and theoretical computer science), which study abstract concepts. There is disagreement,[19][20] however, on whether the formal sciences actually constitute a science as they do not rely on empirical evidence.[21] Disciplines that use existing scientific knowledge for practical purposes, such as engineering and medicine, are described as applied sciences.[22][23][24][25]

Science is based on research, which is commonly conducted in academic and research institutions as well as in government agencies and companies. The practical impact of scientific research has led to the emergence of science policies that seek to influence the scientific enterprise by prioritizing the development of commercial products, armaments, health care, and environmental protection.
  1. ^ Harper, Douglas. "science". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
  2. ^ Wilson, E.O. (1999). "The natural sciences". Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge (Reprint ed.). New York, New York: Vintage. pp. 49–71. ISBN 978-0-679-76867-8.
  3. ^ "... modern science is a discovery as well as an invention. It was a discovery that nature generally acts regularly enough to be described by laws and even by mathematics; and required invention to devise the techniques, abstractions, apparatus, and organization for exhibiting the regularities and securing their law-like descriptions."— p.vii Heilbron, J.L. (editor-in-chief) (2003). "Preface". The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. vii–X. ISBN 978-0-19-511229-0.
  4. ^ "science". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster, Inc. Retrieved October 16, 2011. 3 a: knowledge or a system of knowledge covering general truths or the operation of general laws especially as obtained and tested through scientific method b: such knowledge or such a system of knowledge concerned with the physical world and its phenomena.
  5. ^ a b "The historian ... requires a very broad definition of "science" – one that ... will help us to understand the modern scientific enterprise. We need to be broad and inclusive, rather than narrow and exclusive ... and we should expect that the farther back we go [in time] the broader we will need to be."  p.3—Lindberg, David C. (2007). "Science before the Greeks". The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context (Second ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. pp. 1–27. ISBN 978-0-226-48205-7.
  6. ^ a b Grant, Edward (2007). "Ancient Egypt to Plato". A History of Natural Philosophy: From the Ancient World to the Nineteenth Century (First ed.). New York, New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–26. ISBN 978-052-1-68957-1.
  7. ^ a b Lindberg, David C. (2007). "The revival of learning in the West". The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context (Second ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. pp. 193–224. ISBN 978-0-226-48205-7.
  8. ^ Lindberg, David C. (2007). "Islamic science". The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context (Second ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. pp. 163–92. ISBN 978-0-226-48205-7.
  9. ^ Lindberg, David C. (2007). "The recovery and assimilation of Greek and Islamic science". The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context (2nd ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. pp. 225–53. ISBN 978-0-226-48205-7.
  10. ^ Principe, Lawrence M. (2011). "Introduction". Scientific Revolution: A Very Short Introduction (First ed.). New York, New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 1–3. ISBN 978-0-199-56741-6.
  11. ^ Lindberg, David C. (1990). "Conceptions of the Scientific Revolution from Baker to Butterfield: A preliminary sketch". In David C. Lindberg; Robert S. Westman (eds.). Reappraisals of the Scientific Revolution (First ed.). Chicago, Illinois: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–26. ISBN 978-0-521-34262-9.
  12. ^ Lindberg, David C. (2007). "The legacy of ancient and medieval science". The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context (2nd ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. pp. 357–368. ISBN 978-0-226-48205-7.
  13. ^ Del Soldato, Eva (2016). Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2016 ed.). Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.
  14. ^ Grant, Edward (2007). "Transformation of medieval natural philosophy from the early period modern period to the end of the nineteenth century". A History of Natural Philosophy: From the Ancient World to the Nineteenth Century (First ed.). New York, New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 274–322. ISBN 978-052-1-68957-1.
  15. ^ Cahan, David, ed. (2003). From Natural Philosophy to the Sciences: Writing the History of Nineteenth-Century Science. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-08928-7.
  16. ^ The Oxford English Dictionary dates the origin of the word "scientist" to 1834.
  17. ^ Cite error: The named reference Lightman 19th was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  18. ^ Harrison, Peter (2015). The Territories of Science and Religion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 164–165. ISBN 9780226184517. The changing character of those engaged in scientific endeavors was matched by a new nomenclature for their endeavors. The most conspicuous marker of this change was the replacement of "natural philosophy" by "natural science". In 1800 few had spoken of the "natural sciences" but by 1880, this expression had overtaken the traditional label "natural philosophy". The persistence of "natural philosophy" in the twentieth century is owing largely to historical references to a past practice (see figure 11). As should now be apparent, this was not simply the substitution of one term by another, but involved the jettisoning of a range of personal qualities relating to the conduct of philosophy and the living of the philosophical life.
  19. ^ Bishop, Alan (1991). "Environmental activities and mathematical culture". Mathematical Enculturation: A Cultural Perspective on Mathematics Education. Norwell, Massachusetts: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 20–59. ISBN 978-0-792-31270-3.
  20. ^ Bunge, Mario (1998). "The Scientific Approach". Philosophy of Science: Volume 1, From Problem to Theory. 1 (revised ed.). New York, New York: Routledge. pp. 3–50. ISBN 978-0-765-80413-6.
  21. ^ Fetzer, James H. (2013). "Computer reliability and public policy: Limits of knowledge of computer-based systems". Computers and Cognition: Why Minds are not Machines (1st ed.). Newcastle, United Kingdom: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 271–308. ISBN 978-1-443-81946-6.
  22. ^ Fischer, M.R.; Fabry, G (2014). "Thinking and acting scientifically: Indispensable basis of medical education". GMS Zeitschrift für Medizinische Ausbildung. 31 (2): Doc24. doi:10.3205/zma000916. PMC 4027809. PMID 24872859.
  23. ^ Abraham, Reem Rachel (2004). "Clinically oriented physiology teaching: strategy for developing critical-thinking skills in undergraduate medical students". Advances in Physiology Education. 28 (3): 102–04. doi:10.1152/advan.00001.2004. PMID 15319191.
  24. ^ Sinclair, Marius. "On the Differences between the Engineering and Scientific Methods". The International Journal of Engineering Education.
  25. ^ "Engineering Technology :: Engineering Technology :: Purdue School of Engineering and Technology, IUPUI". www.engr.iupui.edu. Retrieved 2018-09-07.

Specific section [ edit ]

{{Excerpt|List of continents by population|South America}}
Total South America
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1950 113,739,000 —    
1960 149,066,000 +2.74%
1970 193,486,000 +2.64%
1980 242,862,000 +2.30%
1990 297,869,000 +2.06%
2000 349,796,000 +1.62%
2010 397,085,000 +1.28%
2018 423,581,078 +0.81%



Specific fragment [ edit ]

{{Excerpt|2020 Republican Party presidential primaries|fragment=declared}}
Name Born Experience Home

state
Campaign

Announcement date
Bound

delegates

(hard count)[1]
Popular

vote[1]
Contests won[a]
Donald Trump official portrait (cropped).jpg

Donald Trump
June 14, 1946

(age 73)

Queens, New York
President of the United States (2017–present)

Businessman, television personality, real estate developer
Flag of Florida.svg

Florida [3]
TrumpPenceKAG.png

Campaign
Campaign (informal): February 17, 2017

Campaign (official): June 18, 2019


FEC filing[4]
19

(0.78%)
None

(0%)
1

Hawaii[5]
Rocky De La Fuente1 (2) (cropped).jpg

Rocky De La Fuente
October 10, 1954

(age 65)

San Diego, California
Businessman and real estate developer

Reform nominee for President in 2016

Perennial candidate
Flag of California.svg

California
Rocky De La Fuente 2020 presidential campaign logo.png

Campaign
Campaign: May 16, 2019

FEC filing[6]
0

(0%)
None

(0%)
0
Congressman Joe Walsh, Nationally Syndicated Radio Host on Stairs (cropped).jpg

Joe Walsh
December 27, 1961

(age 58)

North Barrington, Illinois
U.S. representative from IL-08 (2011–2013)

Conservative talk radio host
Flag of Illinois.svg

Illinois
Joe Walsh 2020 Logo-black.svg

Campaign
Campaign: August 25, 2019

FEC filing[7]
0

(0%)
None

(0%)
0
William Weld (27787013954) (cropped).jpg

Bill Weld
July 31, 1945

(age 74)

Smithtown, New York
Governor of Massachusetts (1991–1997)

Libertarian nominee for Vice President in 2016

Nominee for U.S. Senate from Massachusetts in 1996
Flag of Massachusetts.svg

Massachusetts
Bill Weld campaign 2020.png

Campaign
Exploratory committee: February 15, 2019

Campaign: April 15, 2019


FEC filing[8]
0

(0%)
None

(0%)
0
  1. ^ a b Berg-Andersson, Richard E. "Republican Convention". The Green Papers. Retrieved December 13, 2019.
  2. ^ "The rules of the Republican Party"(PDF). Republican National Convention. August 8, 2014. p. 20. Retrieved March 5, 2016.
  3. ^ "Trump, a symbol of New York, is officially a Floridian now". Politico. October 31, 2019. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
  4. ^ "Statement of Candidacy"(PDF). docquery.fec.gov. 2019.
  5. ^ "Hawaii GOP cancels caucus after Trump is only candidate". Associated Press. December 13, 2019. Retrieved December 13, 2019.
  6. ^ "Statement of Candidacy"(PDF). docquery.fec.gov. 2019.
  7. ^ "Statement of Candidacy"(PDF). docquery.fec.gov. 2019.
  8. ^ "Statement of Candidacy"(PDF). docquery.fec.gov. 2019.

Notes [ edit ]

  1. ^ In bolded states and territories, the leading candidate won the support of an absolute majority of that state's delegation for the first ballot; according to Rule 40(b), eight such states are needed to be eligible.[2] In states and territories that are not bolded, the leading candidate won the support of a simple plurality of delegates.

References [ edit ]



See also [ edit ]

Template data [ edit ]

This template is used for transcluding part of an article into another article.

Template parameters

Parameter Description Type Status
Article 1 article

Title of the article to transclude

Example
Science
Page required
Section 2 section

Title of the section to transclude

Example
History
String optional
Fragment fragment

Name of the fragment to transclude

Example
definition
String optional
What is this?