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This template is used for reusing parts of pages in other pages. This practice has several advantages:

  • Reduces maintenance by avoiding duplicate content that must be updated multiple times
  • Improves content quality by encouraging editors to merge related content, rather than having multiple versions in various stages of development
  • Fosters collaboration by channeling contributors into one place, rather than working in parallel

This template extends the capabilities of the built-in normal transclusion and labeled section transclusion.


Basic usage

  • {{Excerpt|Page title}} — Transclude the lead section (example)
  • {{Excerpt|Page title|Section title}} — Transclude a specific section, excluding any subsections (example)


  • 1 or article — Title of the page to transclude. Only required parameter. By default the lead section is transcluded (example).
  • 2 or section — Title of the section to transclude (example).
  • fragment — Name of the fragment to transclude. Must be marked with <section begin=Name of the fragment/> and <section end=Name of the fragment/> in the transcluded page (example). Notice that this template provides other ways of targeting specific fragments of a page without having to resort to section tags.
  • only — Elements to transclude (example). By default all elements are transcluded.
    • only=file or only=files — Transclude only files (example)
    • only=list or only=lists — Transclude only lists (example)
    • only=table or only=tables — Transclude only tables (example)
    • only=template or only=templates — Transclude only templates
    • only=paragraph or only=paragraphs — Transclude only paragraphs
  • paragraphs — Paragraphs to transclude. By default all paragraphs are transcluded.
    • paragraphs=0 — Transclude no paragraphs
    • paragraphs=1 — Transclude the first paragraph
    • paragraphs=2 — Transclude the second paragraph
    • paragraphs=1,3 — Transclude the first and third paragraphs
    • paragraphs=1-3 — Transclude the first, second and third paragraphs
    • paragraphs=1-3,5 — Transclude the first, second, third and fifth paragraphs
    • paragraphs=-1 — Transclude all paragraphs except the first
    • paragraphs=-2 — Transclude all paragraphs except the second
    • paragraphs=-1,3 — Transclude all paragraphs except the first and third
    • paragraphs=-1-3 — Transclude all paragraphs except the first, second and third
    • paragraphs=-1-3,5 — Transclude all paragraphs except the first, second, third and fifth
  • lists — Lists to transclude. By default all lists are transcluded. Same syntax as when transcluding paragraphs.
  • files — Files to transclude. By default all files are transcluded. Same syntax as when transcluding paragraphs, but also:
    • files=A.jpg — Transclude the file named 'A.jpg'
    • files=A.jpg, B.png, C.gif — Transclude the files named 'A.jpg', 'B.png' and 'C.gif'
    • files=.+%.png — Transclude all PNG files
    • files=-A.jpg — Transclude all files except the one named 'A.jpg'
    • files=-A.jpg, B.png, C.gif — Transclude all files except the ones named 'A.jpg', 'B.png' and 'C.gif'
    • files=-.+%.png — Transclude all non-PNG files
  • tables — Tables to transclude. By default all tables are transcluded. Same syntax as when transcluding paragraphs, but also:
    • tables=Stats2020 — Transclude the table with id 'Stats2020'
    • tables=Stats2020, Stats2019, Stats2018 — Transclude the tables with ids 'Stats2020', 'Stats2019' and 'Stats2018'
    • tables=-Stats2020 — Transclude all tables except the one with id 'Stats2020'
    • tables=-Stats2020, Stats2019, Stats2018 — Transclude all tables except the ones with ids 'Stats2020', 'Stats2019' and 'Stats2018'
  • templates — Templates to transclude. By default all templates are transcluded. Same syntax as when transcluding paragraphs, but also:
    • templates=Infobox — Transclude the template 'Infobox'
    • templates=Infobox, Navbox, Chart — Transclude the template 'Infobox', 'Navbox' and 'Chart'
    • templates=-Infobox — Transclude all templates except 'Infobox'
    • templates=-Infobox, Navbox, Chart — Transclude all templates except 'Infobox', 'Navbox' and 'Chart'
  • this — Change the initial text of the hatnote. For example, if the transcluded content is a gallery, you can set this=This gallery is so that the hatnote reads "This gallery is an excerpt from..." (example).
  • hat=no — Hide the hatnote "This section is an excerpt from..."
  • quote=yes — Wrap the excerpt with <blockquote> tags.
  • inline=yes — Wrap the excerpt with <span> tags to use it inside other text.
  • indicator=yes — Show a vertical bar along the excerpt to indicate where it starts and where it ends.
  • references=no — Remove all references.
  • subsections=yes — Include subsections of the transcluded section. Notice that if the transclusion is done from a section level 3, and the transcluded subsections are level 3 too, then the transcluded subsections will show with the same hierarchy as the transcluding section, which is probably not desirable, so use with caution.

Replacing Template:Main

How to replace a section for an excerpt.

Sections are often summaries of more precise subpages (generally linked with Template:Main). Sometimes it's convenient to replace the content of such sections for excerpts of the subpages, after merging the original content of the section (if any) into the subpage. This improves both the subpage and the section, reduces maintenance, drives contributors to collaborate, etc.

An efficient way to proceed is:

  1. Open the section in one tab and the subpage in another.
  2. Edit both.
  3. Copy the text of the section and paste it below the lead section of the subpage.
  4. Delete repeated content and adjust using common sense.
  5. Save the changes in the subpage with an edit summary like: Bring content from [[Page]].
  6. Back to the section, delete all content and replace it for an excerpt of the subpage.
  7. Save the changes in the section with an edit summary like: Move content to [[Subpage]] and leave an excerpt.

Compared to #section

For simple cases of transcluding sections of articles, the {{#section}}, {{#section-x}}, and {{#section-h}} (abbreviated {{#lst}}, {{#lstx}}, and {{#lsth}})) parser functions can be used instead of this template. {{#lsth:article|section}} will transclude the section of "article" with the header "section", and {{#lsth:article}} will transclude the lead section of "article". Excerpting only specific paragraphs can be done by marking up the source article with <section>...</section> tags and using {{#lst:fragmentname}} to transclude those fragments, which is equivalent to using the |fragment= parameter with this template. <lsth>...</lsth> can also be used to transclude everything but those fragments.

The text will not be trimmed of excess whitespace, there will not be a header (equivalent to |nohat=yes, and all files, templates, tables, references, and subsections will be included unless the source article is marked up with <section>...</section>, <noinclude>...</noinclude>, or <onlyinclude>...</onlyinclude> tags. Self links will appear in bold.


Lead section

The Universe represented as multiple disk-shaped slices across time, which passes from left to right

Science (from the Latin word scientia, meaning "knowledge")[1] is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.[2][3][4]

The earliest roots of science can be traced to Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in around 3500 to 3000 BCE.[5][6] Their contributions to mathematics, astronomy, and medicine entered and shaped Greek natural philosophy of classical antiquity, whereby formal attempts were made to provide explanations of events in the physical world based on natural causes.[5][6] After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, knowledge of Greek conceptions of the world deteriorated in Western Europe during the early centuries (400 to 1000 CE) of the Middle Ages[7] but was preserved in the Muslim world during the Islamic Golden Age.[8] The recovery and assimilation of Greek works and Islamic inquiries into Western Europe from the 10th to 13th century revived "natural philosophy",[7][9] which was later transformed by the Scientific Revolution that began in the 16th century[10] as new ideas and discoveries departed from previous Greek conceptions and traditions.[11][12][13][14] The scientific method soon played a greater role in knowledge creation and it was not until the 19th century that many of the institutional and professional features of science began to take shape;[15][16][17] along with the changing of "natural philosophy" to "natural science."[18]

Modern science is typically divided into three major branches that consist of the natural sciences (e.g., biology, chemistry, and physics), which study nature in the broadest sense; the social sciences (e.g., economics, psychology, and sociology), which study individuals and societies; and the formal sciences (e.g., logic, mathematics, and theoretical computer science), which study abstract concepts. There is disagreement,[19][20][21] however, on whether the formal sciences actually constitute a science as they do not rely on empirical evidence.[22][20] Disciplines that use existing scientific knowledge for practical purposes, such as engineering and medicine, are described as applied sciences.[23][24][25][26]

Science is based on research, which is commonly conducted in academic and research institutions as well as in government agencies and companies. The practical impact of scientific research has led to the emergence of science policies that seek to influence the scientific enterprise by prioritizing the development of commercial products, armaments, health care, and environmental protection.

  1. ^ Harper, Douglas. "science". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
  2. ^ Wilson, E.O. (1999). "The natural sciences". Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge (Reprint ed.). New York, New York: Vintage. pp. 49–71. ISBN 978-0-679-76867-8.
  3. ^ "... modern science is a discovery as well as an invention. It was a discovery that nature generally acts regularly enough to be described by laws and even by mathematics; and required invention to devise the techniques, abstractions, apparatus, and organization for exhibiting the regularities and securing their law-like descriptions."— p.vii Heilbron, J.L. (editor-in-chief) (2003). "Preface". The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. vii–X. ISBN 978-0-19-511229-0.
  4. ^ "science". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster, Inc. Retrieved October 16, 2011. 3 a: knowledge or a system of knowledge covering general truths or the operation of general laws especially as obtained and tested through scientific method b: such knowledge or such a system of knowledge concerned with the physical world and its phenomena.
  5. ^ a b "The historian ... requires a very broad definition of "science" – one that ... will help us to understand the modern scientific enterprise. We need to be broad and inclusive, rather than narrow and exclusive ... and we should expect that the farther back we go [in time] the broader we will need to be."  p.3—Lindberg, David C. (2007). "Science before the Greeks". The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context (Second ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. pp. 1–27. ISBN 978-0-226-48205-7.
  6. ^ a b Grant, Edward (2007). "Ancient Egypt to Plato". A History of Natural Philosophy: From the Ancient World to the Nineteenth Century (First ed.). New York, New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–26. ISBN 978-052-1-68957-1.
  7. ^ a b Lindberg, David C. (2007). "The revival of learning in the West". The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context (Second ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. pp. 193–224. ISBN 978-0-226-48205-7.
  8. ^ Lindberg, David C. (2007). "Islamic science". The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context (Second ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. pp. 163–92. ISBN 978-0-226-48205-7.
  9. ^ Lindberg, David C. (2007). "The recovery and assimilation of Greek and Islamic science". The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context (2nd ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. pp. 225–53. ISBN 978-0-226-48205-7.
  10. ^ Principe, Lawrence M. (2011). "Introduction". Scientific Revolution: A Very Short Introduction (First ed.). New York, New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 1–3. ISBN 978-0-199-56741-6.
  11. ^ Lindberg, David C. (1990). "Conceptions of the Scientific Revolution from Baker to Butterfield: A preliminary sketch". In David C. Lindberg; Robert S. Westman (eds.). Reappraisals of the Scientific Revolution (First ed.). Chicago, Illinois: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–26. ISBN 978-0-521-34262-9.
  12. ^ Lindberg, David C. (2007). "The legacy of ancient and medieval science". The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context (2nd ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. pp. 357–368. ISBN 978-0-226-48205-7.
  13. ^ Del Soldato, Eva (2016). Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2016 ed.). Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.
  14. ^ Grant, Edward (2007). "Transformation of medieval natural philosophy from the early period modern period to the end of the nineteenth century". A History of Natural Philosophy: From the Ancient World to the Nineteenth Century (First ed.). New York, New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 274–322. ISBN 978-052-1-68957-1.
  15. ^ Cahan, David, ed. (2003). From Natural Philosophy to the Sciences: Writing the History of Nineteenth-Century Science. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-08928-7.
  16. ^ The Oxford English Dictionary dates the origin of the word "scientist" to 1834.
  17. ^ Lightman, Bernard (2011). "13. Science and the Public". In Shank, Michael; Numbers, Ronald; Harrison, Peter (eds.). Wrestling with Nature : From Omens to Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 367. ISBN 978-0226317830.
  18. ^ Harrison, Peter (2015). The Territories of Science and Religion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 164–165. ISBN 9780226184517. The changing character of those engaged in scientific endeavors was matched by a new nomenclature for their endeavors. The most conspicuous marker of this change was the replacement of "natural philosophy" by "natural science". In 1800 few had spoken of the "natural sciences" but by 1880, this expression had overtaken the traditional label "natural philosophy". The persistence of "natural philosophy" in the twentieth century is owing largely to historical references to a past practice (see figure 11). As should now be apparent, this was not simply the substitution of one term by another, but involved the jettisoning of a range of personal qualities relating to the conduct of philosophy and the living of the philosophical life.
  19. ^ Bishop, Alan (1991). "Environmental activities and mathematical culture". Mathematical Enculturation: A Cultural Perspective on Mathematics Education. Norwell, Massachusetts: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 20–59. ISBN 978-0-792-31270-3.
  20. ^ a b Nickles, Thomas (2013). "The Problem of Demarcation". Philosophy of Pseudoscience: Reconsidering the Demarcation Problem. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. p. 104.
  21. ^ Bunge, Mario (1998). "The Scientific Approach". Philosophy of Science: Volume 1, From Problem to Theory. 1 (revised ed.). New York, New York: Routledge. pp. 3–50. ISBN 978-0-765-80413-6.
  22. ^ Fetzer, James H. (2013). "Computer reliability and public policy: Limits of knowledge of computer-based systems". Computers and Cognition: Why Minds are not Machines (1st ed.). Newcastle, United Kingdom: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 271–308. ISBN 978-1-443-81946-6.
  23. ^ Fischer, M.R.; Fabry, G (2014). "Thinking and acting scientifically: Indispensable basis of medical education". GMS Zeitschrift für Medizinische Ausbildung. 31 (2): Doc24. doi:10.3205/zma000916. PMC 4027809. PMID 24872859.
  24. ^ Abraham, Reem Rachel (2004). "Clinically oriented physiology teaching: strategy for developing critical-thinking skills in undergraduate medical students". Advances in Physiology Education. 28 (3): 102–04. doi:10.1152/advan.00001.2004. PMID 15319191. S2CID 21610124.
  25. ^ Sinclair, Marius. "On the Differences between the Engineering and Scientific Methods". The International Journal of Engineering Education.
  26. ^ "Engineering Technology :: Engineering Technology :: Purdue School of Engineering and Technology, IUPUI". Retrieved 2018-09-07.

Specific section

{{Excerpt|Science|Branches of science}}

Modern science is commonly divided into three major branches: natural science, social science, and formal science. Each of these branches comprises various specialized yet overlapping scientific disciplines that often possess their own nomenclature and expertise.[1] Both natural and social sciences are empirical sciences,[2] as their knowledge is based on empirical observations and is capable of being tested for its validity by other researchers working under the same conditions.[3]

There are also closely related disciplines that use science, such as engineering and medicine, which are sometimes described as applied sciences. The relationships between the branches of science are summarized by the following table.

Empirical sciences Formal science
Natural science Social science
Basic Physics, chemistry, biology,

earth science, and space science
Anthropology, economics, political science,

sociology, human geography, and psychology
Logic, mathematics, and statistics
Applied Engineering, agricultural science,

medicine, and materials science
Business administration, public policy, marketing,

law, pedagogy, and international development
Computer science

  1. ^ "Scientific Method: Relationships Among Scientific Paradigms". Seed Magazine. March 7, 2007. Archived from the original on November 1, 2016. Retrieved November 4, 2016.
  2. ^ Bunge, Mario Augusto (1998). Philosophy of Science: From Problem to Theory. Transaction Publishers. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-7658-0413-6.
  3. ^ Popper, Karl R. (2002a) [1959]. "A survey of some fundamental problems". The Logic of Scientific Discovery. New York, New York: Routledge Classics. pp. 3–26. ISBN 978-0-415-27844-7. OCLC 59377149.

Table only

{{Excerpt|Science|Branches of science|only=table}}

File only

{{Excerpt|Science|19th century|only=file|files=2}}
Session of a National Irrigation Congress in Los Angeles, California, in 1893, with a banner reading "Science, Not Chance"

List only

{{Excerpt|Indian philosophy|Orthodox schools|only=list}}
  • Samkhya, the rationalism school with dualism and atheistic themes[1][2]
  • Yoga, a school similar to Samkhya but accepts personally defined theistic themes[3]
  • Nyaya, the realism school emphasizing analytics and logic[4][5]
  • Vaisheshika, the naturalism school with atomistic themes and related to the Nyaya school[6][7]
  • Purva Mimamsa (or simply Mimamsa), the ritualism school with Vedic exegesis and philology emphasis,[8][9] and
  • Vedanta (also called Uttara Mimamsa), the Upanishadic tradition, with many sub-schools ranging from dualism to nondualism.[10][11]

  1. ^ Mike Burley (2012), Classical Samkhya and Yoga - An Indian Metaphysics of Experience, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415648875, pages 43-46
  2. ^ Tom Flynn and Richard Dawkins (2007), The New Encyclopedia of Unbelief, Prometheus, ISBN 978-1591023913, pages 420-421
  3. ^ Edwin Bryant (2011, Rutgers University), The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali IEP
  4. ^ Nyaya Realism, in Perceptual Experience and Concepts in Classical Indian Philosophy, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2015)
  5. ^ Nyaya: Indian Philosophy Encyclopædia Britannica (2014)
  6. ^ Dale Riepe (1996), Naturalistic Tradition in Indian Thought, ISBN 978-8120812932, pages 227-246
  7. ^ Analytical philosophy in early modern India J Ganeri, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  8. ^ Oliver Leaman (2006), Shruti, in Encyclopaedia of Asian Philosophy, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415862530, page 503
  9. ^ Mimamsa Encyclopædia Britannica (2014)
  10. ^ JN Mohanty (2001), Explorations in Philosophy, Vol 1 (Editor: Bina Gupta), Oxford University Press, page 107-108
  11. ^ Oliver Leaman (2000), Eastern Philosophy: Key Readings, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415173582, page 251;

    R Prasad (2009), A Historical-developmental Study of Classical Indian Philosophy of Morals, Concept Publishing, ISBN 978-8180695957, pages 345-347

Specific fragment

{{Excerpt|2020 Republican Party presidential primaries|fragment=declared|this=These tables are}}
Name Born Experience Home state Announcement date Campaign

Withdrawal date

Popular vote[1] Contests won[a] Ref.
Soft count [b] Hard count [c]

Donald Trump
June 14, 1946

(age 74)

Queens, New York
President of the United States (2017–present)

Chairman of The Trump Organization (1971–2017)
Flag of Florida.svg

Florida [4]
June 18, 2019[5] TrumpPenceKAG.png

Secured nomination:

March 17, 2020



(96.08% )

(AK, AL, AR, AS, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, GU, HI,[6] IA,[7] ID, IL, IN, KS,[8] KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MP, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH,[9] NJ, NM, NV,[10] NY,[11] OH, OK, OR, PA, PR, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VI, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY)

  1. ^ a b Berg-Andersson, Richard E. "Republican Convention". The Green Papers. Retrieved March 17, 2020.
  2. ^ Coleman, Kevin J. (2015-12-30). "Report No. R42533, The Presidential Nominating Process and the National Party Conventions, 2016: Frequently Asked Questions" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 2020-02-12. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  3. ^ a b Berg-Andersson, Richard E. "Primary/Caucus/Convention Glossary". The Green Papers. Retrieved February 8, 2020.
  4. ^ "Trump, a symbol of New York, is officially a Floridian now". Politico. October 31, 2019. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
  5. ^ "Statement of Candidacy"(PDF). 2019.
  6. ^ "Hawaii GOP cancels caucus after Trump is only candidate". Associated Press. December 13, 2019. Retrieved December 13, 2019.
  7. ^ Shabad, Rebecca (February 3, 2020). "Trump the projected winner in Iowa's GOP caucuses". NBC News. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
  8. ^ Kansas GOP account [@KansasGOP] (September 6, 2019). "Information on the Kansas Republican Party's national convention delegate selection plan. #ksleg" (Tweet). Retrieved February 2, 2020 – via Twitter.
  9. ^ Oprysko, Caitlin (11 February 2020). "Trump wins New Hampshire GOP primary". Politico. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  10. ^ "Nevada GOP binds delegates to Trump". February 22, 2020.
  11. ^ "Statement from NYGOP Chairman Langworthy on BOE Ruling Regarding the 2020 Republican Presidential Primary – New York Republican State Committee".
  12. ^ "Outside of Washington, Trump slips back into campaign mode". Fox News. 23 February 2017.

  1. ^ In bolded states and territories, the leading candidate won the support of an absolute majority of that state's delegation for the first ballot; according to Rule 40(b), five such states are needed to be eligible.[2]In states and territories that are not bolded, the leading candidate won the support of a simple plurality of delegates.
  2. ^ The soft count is the estimated number of presumed delegates, subject to change if candidates drop out of the race, leaving those delegates that were previously allocated to them "uncommitted".[3]
  3. ^ The hard count is the number of the official allocated delegates.[3]

Excerpt trees

Visual representation of an excerpt tree.

When a very general article (like Philosophy) uses excerpts from more specific articles (like Ethics, Metaphysics, Logic, etc), which in turn use excerpts from even more specific articles (like Ontology, Causality, etc), then a tree structure emerges, called an "Excerpt tree".


In this section you can navigate the main excerpt trees on the English Wikipedia. It's useful for editors interested in expanding or improving them. To navigate the trees, click the following button and then use the ► arrows to open the branches.

See the excerpt trees

See also

Template data

This template is used for transcluding part of an article into another article.

Template parameters

Parameter Description Type Status
Article 1 article

Title of the article to transclude

Page required
Section 2 section

Title of the section to transclude

String optional
Only only

Reduce the transcluded content to this element only

String optional
Fragment fragment

Name of the fragment to transclude

String optional
This this

Change the initial text of the hatnote

This gallery is
String optional
No hatnote nohat

Whether to remove the hatnote

Boolean optional
Indicator indicator

Whether to indicate the start and finish of the excerpt

Boolean optional
Paragraphs paragraphs

What paragraphs to transclude

String optional
Files files

What files to transclude

String optional
Tables tables

Determines whether to transclude tables or not

Boolean optional
References references

Determines whether to transclude references or not

Boolean optional
Subsections subsections

Whether to transclude the subsections of the requested section

Boolean optional
Tag tag

Allows use of "span" rather than "div" for when you don't want a line break before or after the excerpt

String optional
What is this?