Velar lateral ejective affricate
|Velar lateral ejective affricate|
It is found in two forms in Archi, a Northeast Caucasian language of Dagestan, plain [k͡ʟ̝̊ʼ] and labialized [k͡ʟ̝̊ʷʼ]. It is further forward than velars in most languages, and might better be called prevelar. Archi also has voiceless (pulmonic) variants of its lateral affricates, several voiceless lateral fricatives, and a voiced lateral fricative at the same place of articulation, but no alveolar lateral fricatives or affricates.
[kʟ̝̊ʼ] is also found as an allophone of /kx/ (ejective after a nasal) in Zulu and Xhosa, and of the velar ejective affricate /kxʼ/ in Hadza. In the latter, it contrasts with palatal [cʎ̝̊], as in [cʼakʼa] 'to cradle'. In fact, the velar ejective is reported to be lateral, or to have a lateral allophone, in various languages of Africa which have clicks, including Taa, various varieties of !Kung, Gǁana (including Gǀui dialect), Khwe (ǁAni dialect), and Khoekhoe.
Features [ edit ]
Features of the velar lateral ejective affricate:
- Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
- Its place of articulation is velar, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum) at the soft palate.
- Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a lateral consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue, rather than down the middle.
- The airstream mechanism is ejective (glottalic egressive), which means the air is forced out by pumping the glottis upward.
Occurrence [ edit ]
|Archi ||кьан||[kʟ̝̊ʼan]||'to love'||Pre-velar. Archi contrasts between plain and labialized versions.|
|Sandawe||tl’ungu||[kʟ̝̊ʼùŋɡȕ]||'sky'||Allophone of /tɬʼ/ before /u, w/|
References [ edit ]
- "The Archi language tutorial"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 2011-09-04. Retrieved 2009-12-23.
- Hirosi Nakagawa, 1996. An Outline of Gǀui Phonology.
- Archi dictionary entry for /k͡ʟ̝̊ʼan/, including sound file
See also [ edit ]
[ edit ]
- List of languages with [kʟ̥ʼ] on PHOIBLE